Skip to main content

Full text of "Annual report."

See other formats









ANNUAL REPORT 


OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

•'i . 

OF THE 

PROVINCE OF SASKATCHEWAN 

1919 


PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 
MAR 24 1932 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 


REGINA 

J. W. Reid, King's Printer 
1920 



So,"? 

DEPARTMENT OE EDUCATION 


MINISTER OF EDUCATION 
Hon. Wm. Melville Martin, K.C. 

DEPUTY MINISTER OF EDUCATION 
A. H. Ball, M.A., LL.B. 

MEMBERS OF THE EDUCATIONAL COUNCIL 

Hon. T. H. McGuire, K.C., LL.D., Prince Albert; H. H. Smith, B.A., Saskatoon; 
Rev. D. Gillies, B.A., Regina; Wm. Grayson, Moose Jaw; 

Geo. H. Ling, M.A., Ph.D., Saskatoon. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION. 

D. P. McColl, B.A. 


INSPECTORS OF SCHOOLS 


R. D. Coutts, B.A., Assiniboia 

W. E. Stevenson, B.A., Balcarres 

Wm. Jas. Small, B.A., Biggar 

A. L. Merrill, B.A., Canora 

W. H. Magee, Ph.D., North Battleford 

J. Alex. McLeod, Davidson 

H. A. Everts, B.A., Elbow 

T. M. Creighton, B.A., Conquest 

J. Arch. McLeod, B.A.. LL.B., Estevan 

J. O’Brien, M.A., LL.B., Regina 

John Marshall, M A., Indian Head 

Robt. Weir, B.A., Kerrobert 

C. A. Scarrow, B.A., Assiniboia 

J. E. Cowie, B.A., Kindersley 

J. F. Hutchison, B.A., Kinistino 

J. G. McKechnie, B.A., Regina 

W. M Veazey, B.A., North Battleford 

C. E Brown, Maple Creek 

W. T. Hawkings, B A., Moose Jaw 

N L. Massey, B.A., Wadena 

A. Kennedy, M.A., Weyburn 

Jas. Little, Wolseley 

Bjorn Hjalmar 


G. D. Ralston, B.A., Moosomin 

J. W. Smith, Morse 

G. N. Griffin, Rouleau 

G. D. Robertson, B.A , Mortlach 

W. J. Stevenson, Oxbow 

J. T. Tomlinson, B A., Prince Albert 

W. J. Drimmie, B.A., Radisson 

W. S. Groomes, B.A., Weyburn 

N. MacMurchy, B.A , Regina 

S. E. M. McClelland, Rosetown 

A. W. Keith, B.A., Duck Lake 

J. E. Coombes, B.A., Saskatoon 

Jas. Robinson, Saltcoats 

J. J. Maxwell, M.A., Shaunavon 

N. Latour, B A., Swift Current 

W. S. Cram, B.A., Swift Current 

F. W. Harrison, B.A., LL.B., Tisdale 

L. Charbonneau, B.A , Edam 

F. W. Rowan, B.A., East End 

A. J McCulloch, M.A., Watrous 
J. H. Gallaway, B. A., Wilkie 

B. W. Wallace, Box 94, Yorkton 
in, B.A., Wynyard 


SPECIAL OFFICIALS 

Registrar: R. F. Blacklock 
Assistant Registrar: W. Haward, B.A. 

Inspector of High Schools: J. A. Snell, M.A., LL.D. 

Chief Inspector of Schools: J. Duff, M.A. (Resigned). 

Director of Education among New Canadians: J. T. M Anderson, M.A., D. Paed. 
Inspector in Charge of School District Organisation: A. W. Cocks, B.Sc. 

Assistants: P. R. McDonald, H. V. Meyer. 

Director of Rural Education Associations and School Fairs: F. W. Bates, B.A., M.Sc. 
Assistant in Extension Work in School Agriculture: A. M. McDermott, B.S.A. 
Director of School Hygiene: Miss Jean E. Browne, Reg. N. 

Director of Household Science: Miss F. A. Twiss. 

Acting Director of Household Science: Miss Isabel Shaw. 

Chief Attendance Officer: D. S. McCannel. 


NORMAL SCHOOL STAFFS 

Regina: 

T. E. Perrett, B.A., Principal; J. H. McKechnie, M.A.; J. S. Huff, M.A.; F. M. 
Quance, M.A.; Miss Jean M. Hay; Miss Jean Urquhart, Reg. N.; Secretary 
and Librarian, Miss M. Wingard, B.A. 

Saskatoon: 

Geo. M. Weir, M.A., D. Paed., Principal; R. W. Asselstine, B.A.; A. S. Rose; 
J. W. Hedley, M.A.; Miss E. E. Rankin; Miss C. Willoughby, Reg. N.; 
Secretary and Librarian, Miss Agnes Bell. 



CONTENTS 

/ PAGE 

Report of the Deputy Minister of Education 11 

Part I 

Statistical Tables: 

1. Public and Separate Schools: 

General Summary 23 

Comparative Summary. 23 

School Districts. 24 

Comparative Statement of Rural Schools 24 

Comparative Statement of Village, Town and City 

Schools. 24 

Attendance of Pupils (all schools) 24 

Classification 25 

Comparative Statement of the Classification of 
Pupils in the First Eight Grades in Rural, Village, 

Town and City Schools, 1918, 1919 26 

Comparative Statement of Receipts and Expendi- 
tures of all Elementary Schools 27 

Comparative Statement of Assets and Liabilities of 

all Schools 27 

Comparative Statement of Assets and Liabilities of 

Rural Schools 27 

Comparative Statement of Assets and Liabilities of 

Village, Town and City Schools 28 

Comparative Financial Statement of all School 

Districts 28 

Comparative Financial Statement of Rural Schools . 29 

Comparative Financial Statement of Village, Town 

and City Schools 29 

Debenture Loans — Comparative Statement, 1918 and 

1919 30 

Debenture Loans Authorised — $5,000 and over 30 

Separate School Districts 31 

Comparative Statement of Public and Separate School 

Districts 32 

Report on Consolidated Schools (Insert) 32, 33 

Report on Educational Institutions not directly 

under the Control of the Department 33 

Departmental Examinations 35 

Teachers Trained in Saskatchewan from 1906-1919 

inclusive ' 35 

Certificates Issued 36 


6 


Contents — Continued. 


\ 


1. Public and Separate Schools — Continued. page 

Comparative Statement of Classification of Teachers 
Employed and Average Salaries Paid, 1918 and 

1919 37 

Number of Teachers Employed, 1918 and 1919 37 

Teachers’ Conventions 38 

Summary of Inspectors’ Diaries 39 

Inspection of Schools 40 

2. High Schools and Collegiate Institutes: 

General Summary 40 

Number of Teachers Employed 41 

Classification of Students 41 

Total Enrolment by Forms 43 

Number of Students taking Sciences and Languages.. 44 

Departmental Examinations 47 

Receipts and Expenditures of High Schools and 

Collegiate Institutes 48 

3. Normal Schools: 

Normal School Sessions, 1906-1919 inclusive 50 

Miscellaneous Reports: 

School Districts erected in 1919 52 

Alterations in Names of School Districts in 1919 54 

Official Trustees Appointed in 1919 55 

School Districts Disorganised in 1919 56 

Winners of Governor General’s Medals 56 

Part II 

Special Reports: 

Report on the Summer School for Teachers at the Univer- 
sity of Saskatchewan “58 

Report of the Director of Rural Education Associations 

and School Fairs 61 

Report of the Assistant in Extension Work in School 

Agriculture • 67 

Report of the Director of Household Science 74 

Report of the Director of School Hygiene 80 

Report of the Chief Attendance Officer 83 

Report of the Director of Education among New Canadians 85 

Report of the Inspector of High Schools 89 

Report of the Principal of the Provincial Normal School, 

Regina 94 

Report of the Principal of the Provincial Normal School, 

Saskatoon 97 


Contents — Continued. 


7 


Reports of Inspectors of Schools: page 

Brown, C. E., Maple Creek 103 

Charbonneau, L. J., Turtleford 108 

Coombes, J. E., Saskatoon 110 

Coutts, R. D., Assiniboia 113 

Cowie, J. E., Kindersley 118 

Cram, W. S., Swift Current 125 

Creighton, T.M., Elrose 128 

Drimmie, W. J., Radisson 133 

Everts, H. A., Elbow ' 137 

Gallaway, J. H., Wilkie 146 

Griffin, G. N., Milestone 158 

Groomes, W. S., Radville 161 

Harrison, F. W., Tisdale 165 

, Hawkings, W. T., Moose Jaw 169 

Hjalmarson, B., Wyhyard 171 

Hutchison, J. F., Kinistino 177 

Keith, A. W. ; Rosthern 180 

Latour, N., Sceptre 186 

Little, J., Wolseley 189 

Magee, W. H., The Battlefords '193 

Marshall, J., Indian Head 199 

Massey, N. L., Wadena 204 

Maxwell, J. J.. Shaunavon 206 

Merrill, A. L., Canora 214 

MacMurchy, N., Regina 216 

McClelland, S. E. M., Rosetown 219 

McCulloch, A. J., Watrous 221 

McKechnie, J. G., Last Mountain 227 

McLeod, J. Arch., Estevan. . . . 232 

O’Brien, J., Humboldt 241 

Ralston, G. D., Moosomin 244 

Robertson, G. D., Mortlach 247 

Robinson, J., Saltcoats 251 

Rowan, F. W., Vidora 255 

Scarrow, C. A., Kincaid 260 

Small, W. J., Biggar 264 

Smith, J. W., Morse 268 

Stevenson, W. E., Balcarres 271 

Stevenson, W. J., Oxbow 280 

Tomlinson, J. T., Prince Albert 291 

Veazey, W. M., Lloydminster 295 

Wallace, B. W., Yorkton 301 

Weir, R., Kerrobert 305 





Department of Education, 

Regina, March 1, 1920. 


To His Honour, 

Sir Richard Lake, K.C'.M.G., 

Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Saskatchewan. 

May it Please Your Honour, — 

The undersigned has the honour to submit herewith the Annual 
Report of the Department of Education for the year ended Decem- 
ber 31, 1919. 

Respectfully submitted, 

William Melville Martin, 

Minister of Education. 





REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF EDUCATION 


Regina, March 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration 
the Annual Report of the Department of Education for the year 
ended December 31, 1919. 

The School Act . — A number of important changes in The School 
Act were made at the session of the Legislative Assembly which 
opened on November 27, 1919. Sections 30 and 79 were amended 
so as to provide one hqur for polling in rural districts. The period 
for polling has consequently been made uniform in the case of the 
first election of trustees, election of trustees at annual meetings 
and an election at a special meeting to fill a vacancy in the board. 
Hitherto the time had varied from thirty minutes to two hours. 
The amendments were designed to prevent confusion which had 
appeared in practice. Section 51 was redrafted so as to provide 
that in case a new school is being built in a district to replace an 
old building, which may or may not be centrally located, the board 
apply to the council of the municipality or to the Department 
as the law may require for the approval of the site upon which 
it is proposed to build the new school. Sections 54 and 55 were 
revised with a view to setting forth clearly the procedure in connec- 
tion with applications for the alteration of the boundaries of school 
districts. This phase of departmental work has increased very 
considerably in recent years due chiefly to a tendency in village 
and town districts to increase their taxable area in order to cope 
with increasing costs in school administration and in the case of 
rural districts to a desire of municipal councils to equalise taxable 
areas as far as possible within the municipality. Most of the sec- 
tions dealing with the authorisation of a debenture loan by the 
Local Government Board and the issue of debentures by a school 
district have been changed and a number of new sections added, 
so that on and after May 1, it will be necessary for boards of trustees 
in connection with the application for a debenture loan to submit 
to the Local Government Board a resolution setting forth details 
of proposed capital expenditure and for a bylaw to be passed after 
the approval of the resolution. This bylaw must in every case be 
referred to the ratepayers and a poll taken thereon. On account 
of the greatly increased cost of building and particularly in view 
of the better class of building now being erected, especially in rural 
districts, the period of a debenture for frame buildings has been 
extended to fifteen years. Section 210 has been amended so as 
to increase the fees that may be charged pupils attending high 
school classes in public schools and section 211 so as to increase 


12 


Department of Education 


the fee to ten cents per teaching day per family in the case of non- 
resident pupils. Fees in connection with high school work are 
charged in a number of cases in village and town districts where 
owing to the small taxable area difficulty is found in obtaining 
adequate funds for school purposes. 

The School Attendance Act . — Suggestions for radical amend- 
ments to The School Attendance Act, having in view chiefly the 
elimination of the mileage limit for compulsory attendance, extend- 
ing the age limit and extending the compulsory standard to be 
attained by pupils before exemption might be allowed, were received 
from several sources. The consensus of opinion, however, of those 
most qualified to judge of the operation of the Act was that a more 
stringent law was not at present desirable or indeed capable of 
application in view chiefly of the pioneer conditions still existing 
in many parts of the province. At a conference of inspectors of 
schools it was clearly shown that the law was being justly and 
fairly administered and was working satisfactorily and that its 
provisions had materially improved the attendance of pupils in 
all the elementary schools. Certain amendments were made, 
however, with a view to facilitating the administration of the law. 
Particularly, subsection (2) of section 6 was repealed and it was 
provided in the new subsection that a child over thirteen years of 
age who had passed Grade Y could be relieved from attending 
school for not more than thirty teaching days during the year 
if such child’s services were required in husbandry or in urgent 
or necessary household duties. The new subsection requires a 
certificate of exemption which may be issued subsequent to a 
resolution at a regular or special meeting of the board, setting 
forth the reasons for relief. Section 24 was amended by the addition 
of a subsection imposing a penalty upon any parent, guardian or 
other person who neglects or refuses to give a teacher or any person 
appointed by the department or any board such information as 
is required by the Act or gives false information and upon any 
person who by threat, intimidation or otherwise prevents or attempts 
to prevent the attendance of a child at school in accordance with 
the terms of the Act or in any other way interferes or attempts 
to interfere with the carrying out of its pro\isions. 

The School Grants Act . — This Act was amended so as to increase 
to two dollars the sum payable per evening session for each teacher 
employed in a night school and a new section 3a was added providing 
for a grant to a rural district for a teacher’s residence, such grant 
not to exceed one-third of the cost thereof and to be made by the 
Lieutenant Governor in Council after evidence has been furnished 
that such a residence is requisite for the proper operation of^the 
school and that without financial assistance from the province 
the district is unable to erect a teacher’s residence. 

Debentures . — Two hundred and ninety-three districts were 
authorised to issue debentures to the total amount of $1,581,770, 
as compared with 212 districts and a total of $512,770 in 1918. 
There were registered for sale the debentures of 277 districts for 


Annual Report, 1919 


13 


amounts totalling $1,461,695.26, the corresponding figures for 1918 
being 197 districts and $609,150. The largest debenture 
authorised was for the sum of $175,000 for Saskatoon. It is 
interesting to note that the debentures authorised for school 
districts during the year amount to slightly more than three times 
the amount of debentures authorised during the year 1918. This 
indicates that after the close of the war much building which had 
been delayed because of war conditions was undertaken. 

Finances . — The amount expended on school sites and buildings 
was $1,546,622.51. The amount expended for teachers’ salaries 
was $4,813,000.42, an increase of $981,058.38 over 1918. This 
increase is not altogether accounted for by the increase in the 
number of departments in operation but is very definite evidence 
of the substantial advance in teachers’ salaries. The amount 
expended for all purposes was $12,673,124.76. The total govern- 
ment grant for the fiscal year ending April 30, 1919, amounted 
to $1,292,954.52, of which sum $91,547.73 was paid for the support 
of secondary education. 

School Organisation . — During the year the School District 
Organisation Branch of the Department was organised with an 
inspector in charge. This branch is held responsible for the admini- 
stration of the law as it applies to the erection of new school districts, 
alterations of boundaries of school districts, the selection, approval 
and expropriation of school sites, the election of trustees, the 
operation of schools, the appointment of official trustees and many 
other matters closely connected with these subjects. At the 
beginning of the year there were 4,145 school districts in existence. 
During 1919, 155 new school districts were established while four- 
teen districts were disorganised, leaving at the end of the year a 
total of 4,286 school districts in existence. Of these, 4,159 operated 
schools, an even better record than that of 1918, when it was 
reported that the ratio between the number of schools in operation 
and the number of districts in existence was the best in the history 
of the Department. Naturally some time must elapse before a 
newly organised district can build a school and have it ready for 
operation and, therefore, some districts which were organised 
during the year would not be able to commence operation until 1920. 

In cases where the number of children of school age in the 
district is insufficient to warrant the operation of a school the 
trustees are required to provide for the conveyance of the children 
to a neighbouring school and to pay for their tuition at this school. 
Under this plan forty-two school districts provided educational 
facilities for the children of their districts during 1919. The 
number of departments in operation during the year was 5,132, 
an increase of 288 over 1918. This indicates a very healthy growth 
in the school population and also that the school officials in both 
the urban and rurgl districts are providing fairly satisfactorily 
for the increased number of children of school age. 

Seven school districts were established directly under the pro- 
visions of section 37 of The School Act. In almost every case 
the residents had proved unable to carry on the organisation 


14 


Department of Education 


proceedings, but the number of children in the territory concerned 
made the establishment of the district necessary. 

In the better settled portions of the province as the population 
gradually increases more school accommodation is required. This 
may be provided by the erection of more districts but as all the 
territory is usually included within the boundaries of existing 
districts the establishment of new school districts causes considerable 
alterations in boundaries and owing to the opposition aroused in 
the older established districts the provision of additional accom- 
modation by this method is often very much retarded. If new 
districts are not established then the old districts must erect more 
buildings and to do this they often require additional territory, 
which again means alterations in the boundaries of existing districts 
with consequent opposition. The third method of providing the 
additional accommodation required is gradually meeting with most 
favour and is spoken of as the consolidation of school districts. 
When all the factors are taken into consideration it is sometimes 
very difficult to state which method is the most suitable but there 
is no doubt that in certain portions of the province we have reached 
the parting of the ways. By proceeding in one direction we shall 
establish more and smaller districts, each having one school room 
in operation. Thus the schools will be brought slightly nearer to 
the homes of the children, but all the weaknesses and disadvantages 
of the one room school inadequately supported financially will 
remain. In the other direction we may proceed towards graded 
schools and the conveyance of children to school and this is undoubt- 
edly the most progressive procedure wherever the expense can be 
■easily borne. 

As an indication of the amount of work connected with the 
alterations of boundaries it may be mentioned that notice of the 
alteration of the boundaries of every district must be published 
in The Saskatchewan Gazette and during the year 1919, 479 such 
notices were published. 

In certain cases an application for an alteration in the boun- 
daries of a school district must be made to the Minister of Education 
and the Department has found it very satisfactory to refer the 
most difficult- cases to a board of arbitrators as provided by section 
57 of The School Act. Approximately thirty applications were 
dealt with by this method during the year. 

One high school district, Kamsack, was established while 
three high schools, namely, Estevan, North Battleford and Swift 
Current, were raised to the rank of collegiate institutes. Thus 
there were thirteen high schools and ten collegiate institutes at 
the close of the year. 

The names of twenty-two school districts were changed, most 
•of them acquiring by the change names more suited to public 
institutions existing in a British country than the names by which 
they were known formerly. 

Consolidation of Schools . — What is commonly known as a 
consolidated school district in this province is merely a large school 
district with an area of at least thirty-six square miles. In such a 
district the board of trustees is required by law to provide for the 


Annual Report, 1919 


15 


expense of the conveyance of children of resident ratepayers, 
residing more than one and one-half miles from the school, to and 
from school each day. A special grant is paid equivalent to one- 
third of the actual amount spent for conveyance. Six large school 
districts were established during the year, while one was disorgan- 
ised before it had been put into operation, owing to the dissatis- 
faction existing among the ratepayers of the outlying portions 
of the district. Because of the erection of these large districts 
seven other districts were disorganised. The new consolidated 
districts organised were at Viscount, Colonsay, Markinch, Bridge- 
ford, Conquest and Ardath. Owing to the different conditions 
existing in the several localities the details of operation in these 
large districts vary considerably. For example, in the rural areas 
of the large districts the rate of taxation varies from 4J4 to 20 
mills on the dollar and in the urban areas from 5 to 33 mills on the 
dollar, while the average cost of conveyance per pupil for the year 
varied from $44 to $218. The cost of transportation increased 
much during the year; in some cases as much as $7 per day 
being paid for a van route. Most officials are convinced of the 
advantages of consolidation and it is worthy of note that the average 
attendance of all these large districts was about ninety per cent. 
The greatest expenditure was made by the Cupar school district , 
which has an area of fifty-six miles and an enrolment of 284 pupils. 
The cost of conveyance was $7,730.75,. while the teachers were 
paid $5,850. The total grants received by the district during 
the year were $3,141.22. The total number of large (consolidated) 
school districts in existence on December 31, 1919, was twenty- 
eight. 

Free Readers . — The following table shows the number of readers 
of each class distributed during the past two years: 


Year 

Phonic 

Primer 

Alexandra 

Primer 

First 

Reader 

Second 

Reader 

Third 

Reader 

Fourth 

Reader 

Total 

1918 

16,751 

18,240 

20,322 

23,422 

16,727 

19,826 

15,705 

19,015 

13,421 

18,767 

10,876 

16,716 

93,802 

115,986 

1919 



The most notable increases are in the issues of Third and 
Fourth Readers, 5,346 in the former and 5,840 in the latter over 
1918. This is an indication of a substantial improvement in 
educational conditions in the province, the figures representing a 
large number of promotions to the Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth 
Grades. The total increase in the distribution of Free Readers 
over 1918 is 22,184. 

Training and Supply of Teachers .— The number of certificates 
issued in 1919 was 3,286 as compared with 2,758 in 1918, an increase 
of 528. The number of provisional certificates issued shows a 
very considerable decrease. They numbered 539, being 445 less 
than in 1918, and of these 71 were granted to returned soldiers. 
The records also show that of the 3,286 certificates issued, 1,992 
were granted to teachers trained in Saskatchewan. 


16 


Department of Education 


The following table shows the average salaries paid to teachers 
for the years 1918 and 1919 and also classifies the certificates held 
by teachers employed in the province at any time during these 
two years: 



Average Salaries 


First Class 

Second Class 

Third Class 

Provisional 

Male 

F’male 

Male 

F’male 

Male 

F’male 

Male 

F’male 

Urban — 










1918 

$1,493 

$1,003 

$1,221 

$ 912 

$1,113 

$ 879 

$1,080 

$ 950 


1919 

1,634 

1,132 

1,352 

1,020 

1,205 

962 

900 

980 


Rural — 










1918 

1,027 

994 

1,002 

951 

989 

905 

1,027 

940 


1919 

1,185 

1,125 

1,152 

1,074 

1,120 

1,027 

1,148 

1,053 


Classification—- 









Totals 

1918 

217 

481 

325 

2,014 

283 

1,830 

190 

722 

6,062 

1919 

30C 

580 

457 

2,548 

328 

1,669 

184 

320 

6,386 


Examinations . — The total number of candidates for depart- 
mental examinations of all classes in 1918 was 8,399 and in 1919, 
6,973. The decrease is due to the fact that no departmental 
examination was held for Third Class, Part I. It is expected that 
in 1920 the number of departmental examinations will be further 
reduced by omitting the examination for Third Class, Part II. 
The number of pupils recommended for promotion by principals 
of schools under the High School Regulations was 732 in 1918 and 
1,001 in 1919. The movement to dispense with the set public 
examination as a means for determining standing has in recent 
years received general approval among educationists. Saskat- 
chewan has probably gone farther than any other province in 
Canada in this direction. The system finds very general acceptance 
among the teachers of the province and up to the present time, 
from the point of view of the Department, has operated satisfactorily. 

Teachers’ Exchange . — The work of the Teachers’ Exchange 
increased to such an extent during the year 1919 that it was found 
necessary to make an addition of one stenographer to the staff 
and, for part time, an extra clerk. During the year, 739 teachers 
were placed, an increase of 475 over 1918. Of these teachers, 
427 were placed in English-speaking districts, forty-nine in German 
districts, six in French districts, thirty-three in Ruthenian districts, 
two in Indian schools and 224 in districts of mixed nationalities. 
Twenty-one teachers were placed as principals in town and village 
districts. Five hundred and sixty-six were placed in rural districts 
within fifteen miles of the railway, sixty-eight in schools between 
fifteen and twenty-five miles from the railway and thirty-four 
in rural schools over twenty-five miles from the railway. The 
actual placing of teachers represented only about half the work 


Annual Report, 1919 


17 


done by the Exchange, the remainder of the time being taken up 
with correspondence leading to the encouraging of boards of trustees 
to take better care of their teachers, to provide satisfactory accom- 
modation and offer sufficient remuneration. 

Inspection of Schools . — Four new inspectorates were organised 
in 1919 at Turtleford, Mortlach, Kerrobert and Vidora and the 
following inspectors appointed: L. Charbonneau, B.A., G. D. 
Robertson, B.A., Robt. Weir, B.A., F. W. Rowan, B.A., B. W. 
Wallace, W. J. Small, B.A., and C. A. Scarrow, B.A. B. W. 
Wallace was assigned to the Yorkton Inspectorate, a position 
made vacant by the appointment of Dr. J. T. M. Anderson as 
Director of Education among New Canadians. W. J. Small took 
over the Biggar Inspectorate in the place of R. W. Asselstine, B.A., 
appointed to the staff of the Normal School at Saskatoon, and on 
the resignation of J. J. Stapleton, M.A., C. A. Scarrow was made 
inspector at Kincaid. These appointments brought the total 
number of inspectors of schools to forty-five, as compared with 
five covering the same territory in 1905. 

Notwithstanding interference with inspection due to the large 
number of inspectors engaged in Normal School work in the earlier 
part of the year and to the early approach of winter, 1919 was a 
very good year for the inspection of schools. The number of 
schools inspected was 3,894 and the total number of inspections 
made, 6,974. These figures represent an average of 86.53 schools 
inspected and an average of 154.75 inspections per inspector. 
Assistance was given in the inspection of schools by the following 
members of the Normal School staffs: R. W. Asselstine, J. H. 
Hedley, J. S. Huff, J. H. McKechnie, F. M. Quance and A. S. Rose. 


School Attendance . — The following is a comparative table for 
1918 and 1919 showing in statistical form the operation of The 
School Attendance Act. 



Town and city 

Rural and village 


school districts 

school districts 


1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 

Cases of truancy 

225 

269 

16 

None 

Number of convictions 

88 

17 

874 

1,871 


Total number of warning notices issued, 1918 5,241 

“ “ “ “ “ “ 1919 13,326 


The percentage of attendance for the year is 62.02. This 
figure does not accurately represent the conditions of attendance 
which are in reality very satisfactory. The figure is considerably 
lowered, for example, by the enrolment of the same pupils in 
two or more schools during the year. The reports of inspectors 
of schools and calculations made on other bases indicate that 
the average attendance for the province is approximately 77% of 


18 


Department of Education 


the enrolment. A movement is under way for the Departments 
of Education in the various provinces to adopt a uniform 
system of statistics. A change in the method of finding the 
percentage of attendance will probably come into effect in 1921. 
In this event the figures given for the percentage of attendance 
throughout the Dominion will be based on similar sets of statistical 
facts and will be properly comparable. 

Plans of School Houses. — A statement from the Provincial 
Architect contains the following information. Districts to the 
number of 182 were supplied with school plans in 1919, twenty-fiv 
districts were supplied with plans for teachers’ residences, 153 
plans for alterations were approved, seven inspections were made 
at the request of boards of trustees in connection with new buildings 
or alterations. . In twenty-two cases the Provincial Architect was 
unable to give his approval of the plans submitted. 

Exhibitions and Conventions. — School exhibitions to the number 
of 207 were held in 1919, an increase of 32 over 1918. Judges for 
exhibitions were supplied from the Department of Education, 
the Department of Agriculture, the Extension Department of the 
University of Saskatchewan, the Normal Schools and by some 
of the Collegiate Institutes. The majority of the judges gave 
lectures or addresses at the school exhibitions. 

Rural Education Associations. — At the close of 1919, 116 rural 
education associations were in operation, an increase of thirty- 
three over 1918. Three inspectorates, namely, Elbow, Milestone 
and Humboldt, were completely organised in 1919 into rural 
education groups. 

School Agriculture. — Boys’ and girls’ clubs have developed 
relatively faster than any other phase of school agriculture work. 
Short courses in school agriculture, school gardening, nature study, 
etc., were given at the Third Class Normal School sessions at 
Estevan, Weyburn, Moosomin, Yorkton, Prince Albert and Saska- 
toon and a discussion of school exhibition work was held with 
First and Second Class students at Saskatoon and Regina. 

The development of the rural education association with its 
varied activities, particularly the school exhibition, made the 
appointment of Mr. F. W. Bates, B.A., M.Sc., as Director of Rural 
Education Associations and School Fairs, a necessity and this 
appointment was made to take effect on January 1, 1919. 

Great use was made of the Better Farming Train in connection 
with educational work, 11,670 children from 388 schools being in 
attendance, together with 327 teachers. 

Special mention should be made of a special short course in 
agriculture conducted in Moosomin by A. M. McDermott, B.S.A., 
in co-operation with the Collegiate Institute. Twenty-seven 
students were in attendance, their ages ranging from fourteen to 
fifty-seven. In addition to the various phases of agriculture the 
tudents received instruction in the use of business forms, literature, 


Annual Report, 1919 


19 


economics, composition, writing, public speaking, arithmetic and 
physical training. The work was thoroughly practical, neighbour- 
ing farms being visited for stock judging, etc. As a result of lec- 
tures given by Mrs. Feeny, school nurse, fifteen members of the 
class obtained First Aid certificates. A detailed description of 
this experiment in education is contained subsequently in this 
report. 

Household Science . — In the month of September a year’s 
leave of absence was granted to Miss F. A. Twiss, Director of House- 
hold Science, to .enable her to continue her studies at Columbia 
University, New York, and Miss Isabel Shaw was appointed 
Acting Director. Miss Hiltz and Miss Neelands resigned in June, 
their places being taken by Miss Jean F. Flatt and MissMargaret 
McColl, the appointments being made on September 1st. Short 
courses were given at Estevan, Melfort, Herbert, Watrous, Gren- 
fell, Rosthern, Cabri, Griffin, Moosomin, Indian Head, Unity, 
Leader, Oxbow, North Battleford, Wilkie and at the Summer 
School for teachers at Saskatoon. The ultimate purpose of such 
short courses is to familiarise citizens and school authorities with 
the value of this phase of education with a view to the appointment 
of teachers on the staffs of the large centres qualified to teach a 
certain amount of the household science course or, in case a district 
does not require the full services of a teacher in household science, 
to join one or more districts in the employment of an itinerant 
teacher. Short courses also stimulate attention to such matters 
as the provision of the hot lunch in rural schools. 

School Hygiene . — The work in school hygiene made very rapid 
progress in 1919 and the following were appointed on the staff in 
this branch: Miss Cassie Willoughby, Mrs. E. L. Shaw, Miss M. 
Russell, Miss Jean Urquhart, Miss Olive Fuller, Miss Gertrude 
Kilburn and Miss Ruby Simpson. During 1919, 548 schools 
were visited by our school nurses and 14,926 pupils inspected. 
Surprisingly few children were found free from any defect. The 
homes of children were visited in 325 cases. Sixty meetings were 
addressed and fifty school fairs attended. A course in health 
education was included in the curriculum of the Summer School 
for teachers at the University. 

Cadet Organisation . — The number of cadets in the province 
at the end of the cadet year, i.e., August 31, 1919, was 3,165. 
Efficiency prizes were awarded by the local committee of the 
Strathcona Trust for Saskatchewan to the following fifteen cadet 
corps in order of merit: 

Seniors. — 

Saskatoon Collegiate Institute C.C. No. 328. 

Prince Albert High School C.C. No. 390. 

Regina Collegiate Institute C.C. No. 155. 

Moose Jaw Collegiate Institute C.C. No. 120. 

Melville High School C.C. No. 464. 


20 


Department of Education 


Juniors. — 

“E” Christ Church C.C. Saskatoon No. 25. 

Moose Jaw Public Schools C.C. No. 422. 

Regina Public Schools C.C. No. 321. 

Prince Albert Public Schools C.C. No. 459. 

North Battleford (King’s) C.C. No. 652. 

Maple Creek C.C. No. 463. 

Rosetown C.C. No. 504. 

Lloydminster C.C. No. 172. 

Areola C.C. No. 519. 

Rouleau C.C. No. 472. 

New corps were organised at Turtleford, Colonsay, Carlyle, 
Fleming, Conquest, Unity, Luseland, Kerrobert, Saskatoon (Separ- 
ate Schools), Wolseley, Kisbey and Davidson. 

Cadet camps were held by the following corps: Maple Creek 
No. 463; Rosthern No. 462; Lloydminster No. 172; St. Barnabas 
Mission No. 764; St. George’s Church, “G” Coy, Saskatoon, No. 
25; Christ Church, “E” Coy, Saskatoon, No. 25; Regina Separate 
Schools C. C. Nos. 755, 593 and 754; Areola No. 519; Stoughton 
No. 230; Biggar No. 586 and Macklin No. 582. 

Cadets from the following corps attended Boy Scout camps 
in 1919: Melville No. 464, Lebret No. 343, Qu’Appelle No. 669, 
Grenfell No. 143 and Regina Public Schools No. 321. 

Seventeen corps were not active in 1919 but six of these were 
undergoing re-organisation at the end of the year. 

In the silver medal rifle shooting competition, the Regina 
Collegiate Institute Cadet Corps, No. 155, with a score of 342 
out of a possible 350, were the winners among the senior cadet 
corps of the province. The silver medal will be awarded to one 
of the following cadets, each of whom obtained the possible score 
of 35: J. 0. Mollard, H. J. French, H. Vernon, W. A. Wood and 
H. Wright. 

The competition among the junior corps was won by the 
Big River Cadet Corps No. 606 with a score of 290. The silver 
medal will be presented either to Florian Durand or to Elmer 
Kennedy, both having obtained the highest score of their team, 
namely, 32. 

Inspection of Secondary Schools . — The rapid increase in the 
number of departments in our High -Schools and Collegiate Insti- 
tutes and the necessity for more frequent inspection of this phase 
of public educational work made the appointment of an Inspector 
of High Schools desirable. J. A. Snell, M.A., LL.D., for some 
years Principal of the Normal School at Saskatoon, was selected 
for this work, his place in the Normal School being taken by- 
Geo. M Weir, M.A., D.Paed. 


Annual Repobt, 1919 


21 


NEW LEGISLATION. 

The Technical Education Act . — A distinct advance was made 
in education by the introduction at the session of the Legislative 
Assembly which began November 27, 1919, of The Technical 
Education Act. This Act provides for day schools either having 
an independent organisation or constituted as a department of 
an existing educational institution for the purpose of training 
adolescents in industrial pursuits and for the duties of citizenship 
and for evening schools in which adolescents and adults might 
receive instruction in the various occupations. The establishment 
and management of such schools is placed in the hands of a voca- 
tional education committee appointed annually wherever such 
schools are instituted. This committee is composed of ten members, 
four nominated by the board of trustees — three being members 
thereof — three employers of labour nominated by the local civic 
council and three employees nominated by such local organisation 
as the board of trustees may determine. It is provided that the 
members of this committee be British subjects and resident rate- 
payers of the school district. The Act sets forth the powers of 
the committee and the method of its operation and provides for 
the apportionment by the Minister of any moneys available for 
the support of technical and vocational education under such 
regulations as may be approved by the Lieutenant Governor in| 
Council. 

The Education of Soldiers’ Dependent Children Act . — Generous 
provision was also made at the session mentioned above for the 
education of the children of deceased or disabled soldiers. Assis- 
tance is given to such when they have reached the age of sixteen 
years and have passed the Grade VIII examination or its equivalent 
and may be continued for a period of three years or until the child 
has obtained Junior Matriculation standing. The limit of assistance 
is $240 for the scholastic year of ten months. The administration 
of this Act is placed in the hands of a commission consisting of the 
Deputy Minister of Education as chairman, a person nominated 
annually by the Minister of Education and a person nominated 
annually by the executive committee of the Saskatchewan Command 
of the Great War Veterans Association. 

An Act for the Creation of Scholarships for Canadian Students 
in Paris . — Under this Act the Lieutenant Governor in Council 
is authorised to grant annually three scholarships of $1,200 each 
to such students or teachers, usually resident in Saskatchewan, 
as he may designate, for the purpose of assisting them to follow 
postgraduate courses of study in the city of Paris. Such scholar- 
ships shall be granted on such terms and conditions and under 
such regulations as may be prescribed by the Lieutenant Governor 
in Council. This Act is really the outcome of representations 
made by the general commissioner for Canada in Paris that the 
best war memorial to be raised in honour of Canadian soldiers 
who fell in France and Flanders would be the creation of a per- 
manent home in the capital of France for C anadian students. 


22 


Department of Education 


For the furtherance of this object it was necessary that scholarships 
be established by the various provinces of the Dominion as their 
annual contribution to the proposed foundation. 

The staff of the department has grown very rapidly in recent 
years. The inside staff at the close of the year numbered 78 and 
the outside staff (normal schools, inspectors and officials serving 
on the extension staffs in school agriculture, household science and 
school hygiene) numbered 77. These figures at the time you 
began your administration of the department were respectively 
49 and 47. Departmental work, in order to economise time and 
labour and give prompt and effective service, is distributed in 
branches or sections each in charge of a head. Notwithstanding 
the rapid development of the system and the multiplication of 
officials most effective co-ordination in the work and co-operation 
of the staffs has uniformly prevailed and I wish to pay a tribute to 
the members thereof for their good service in the cause of public 
education. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Augustus H. Ball, 

Deputy Minister. 


23 


PART I 


STATISTICAL TABLES. 

PUBLIC AND SEPARATE SCHOOOLS. 


General Summary. 


Number of school districts in existence December 31, 1918 \ 4,145 

Number of school districts erected during 1919 155 

Number of school districts disorganised during 1919 14 

Number of school districts in existence December 31, 1919 4,286 

Number of school districts having schools in operation 4,159 

Number of departments in operation 5,132 

Number of pupils enrolled 159,468 

Average attendance of pupils 96,206 

Percentage of attendance 62. 02 

Number of pupils enrolled in: 

Rural schools 93,943 

Village schools 26,555 

Town schools 18,421 

City schools 20,549 

159,468 

Average daily attendance of pupils in 

Rural schools 55,854 

Village schools ^ 15,537 

Town schools 11,440 

City schools 13,375 

96,206 

Number of teachers employed during the year: 

Male 1,269 

Female .> 5,117 

6,386 


Comparative Summary. 



1918 

1919 

Number of districts in existence December 31 

Number of districts in operation 

4,145 

3,941 

4,844 

147,232 

88,883 

60.37 

1521,770 

609,150 

4,286 

4,159 

5,132 

159,468 

96,206 

62.02 

$1,581,770 

1,461,695 

Number of departments in operation 

Number of pupils enrolled 

Avpr?»gp fl.t.tp.ndanne of pupils 


School debentures authorised 

School debentures registered 



4 


24 


Department of Education 


✓ 

School Districts. 



Public 

schools 

Roman 

Catholic 

separate 

schools 

Protes- 

tant 

separate 

schools 

Total 

Number of school districts in existence 
December 31, 1918 

4,126 

15 

4 

4,145 

Districts erected 1919 

154 

1 


155 

Districts disorganised 1919 

14 



14 

Districts in existence December 31, 1919. . 

4,266 

if> 

4 

4,286 


Comparative Statement of Rural Schools. 



1917 

1918 

1919 

Number of pupils enrolled 

81,829 

87,739 

93,943 

Boys 

42,878 

45,802 

49,161 

Girls 

38,951 

41,937 

44,782 

Aggregate attendance of pupils 

8,062,812 

7,856,103 

9,961,760 

Average daily attendance 

47,858 

52,860 

55,854 

Percentage of attendance 

58.48 

60.25 

62.75 

Average number of days in school year .... 

163 

150 

169 

Average enrolment in each department .... 

25 

25 

26 


Comparative Statement of Village, Town and City Schools. 



1917 

1918 

1919 

Number of pupils enrolled 

Boys 

Girls 

56,902 

28,368 

28,534 

6,857,170 

38,718 

68.04 

200 

48 

59,493 

29,561 

29,932 

6,020,240 

36,023 

60.55 

177 

44 

65,525 

32,845 

32,680 

8,011,205 

40,352 

61.13 

200 

42 

Aggregate attendance of pupils 

Average daily attendance 

Percentage of attendance 

Average number of days in school year .... 
Average enrolment in each department .... 


Attendance of Pupils ( All Schools ). 



1917 

1918 

1919 

Number of pupils attending during school 
year 

138,731 

71,246 

67,485 

7,345,414 

7,574,569 

14,919,983 

86,575 

62.40 

147,232 

75,363 

71,869 

8.298.671 

5.577.672 
13,876,343 

88,883 

60.37 

. 

159,468 
82,006 
77,462 
9,415,010 
8,557,955 
17,972,965 
96,206 
62 02 

Boys 

Girls 

Total aggregate attendance for first term. . . 
Total aggregate attendance for second term 
Total aggregate attendance for the year.. . . 

Average daily attendance for the year 

Percentage of attendance for year 


Annual Report, 1919 
Classification. 


25 


Grades and classes 

'Rural schools 

Village, town and 
city schools 

1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 


30,785 

30,891 

16,536 

18,565 

7,663 

8,196 

7,841 

6,441 

5,255 

3,596 

4,443 

2,646 

771 

108 


11,612 

12,357 

7,156 


12,841 

13,816 

7,292 


12,163 

13,482 

7,779 


7,806 

8,930 

6,093 

Crnrip VI 

5,359 

6,076 

4,544 


3,009 

3,601 

3,173 

Crnrlp VTTI 

3,531 

4,066 

4,158 


571 

683 

2,164 


59 

39 

558 

•Senior Form 

3 

2 

40 


87,739 

93,943 

59,493 

65,525 







•These figures do not include the number of students registered as pupils of High 
Schools and Collegiate Institutes. 


Classification ( All Schools ). 


Grades and classes 

1918 

Per cent, 
of 

enrolment 

1919 

Per cent, 
of 

enrolment 

Grade I 

47,321 

18,768 

20,133 

19,942 

13,899 

9,903 

6,182 

7,689 

2,735 

617 

43 

32.14 

12.81 

13.65 

13.54 

9.44 

6.72 

4.19 

5.22 

1.85 

.41 

.03 

49,456 

20,020 

22,012 

21,323 

15,371 

11,331 

7,197 

8,509 

3,329 

810 

110 

31.01 

12.55 

13.83 

13.38 

9.64 

7.10 

4.52 

5.33 

2.08 

.50 

.06 


Grade IV 

Grade VI 

Grade VII 

Grade VIII 





Totals 

147,232 

100. 00 

159,468 

100. 00 


•These figures do not include the number of students registered as pupils of High 
Schools and Collegiate Institutes. 


Comparative Statement of the Classification of Pupils in the First Eight Grades in Rural, Village, Town and City Schools. 


Department of Education 




6? 

OOOOWOO^O) 

00O5r-it^.CJ5COC?^ 




^(N^C0O51>^id 

Whhh 



o 

Eh 

No. 

®ONWHiHN© 

*OC<H(MNM®0 

H^O_0_CO CO_CO_rH no 

020<NT-Tu5'i-4'tCo6’ 

155,219 



IS 

^ ''f I>- GO ^ 05 rH CO 

05 00O05»0 00N^ 



>> 

o—<cs\-iot>cbt^ 



o 

No. 

OOCOTjl^ltXMl^CO 
U3MO®®NNOI 
i-^ 5£> CO lO 
co" ®T cTei" i-T i-T rt 

20,549 



IS 

^ 05 CO *H QO Oi" 

cooo^ooocoo^ 


05 

e 

> 

'^rHC^r-HO500lOcb 
Whhh th 


05 

rH 

o 

Eh 

No. 

®OOh®^ON® 
OOOOt-H>OOCOCO<0 
-^>-H_CO HN®®N 
®7 <M~ N r-T r-T r-T 

16,664 



IS 

OOiO(NliOt>-03COQO 

rH lO ^ O ^ 05 00 IQ 



o 

bo 

05 cd co <n © oo id i>» 

CJHHHH 

1 

1 

£ 

No. 

NNhOOMNN 

N^oooaooe® 

: t^O^e^^r-^eci CO 

l> CO co eo ®T csT i-T »-T 

t'- 

00 

l> 

3 



65 

®®iH«J®N^M 
00i-l®3l0lou5 00lf3 



# c3 

03* CO Tjt rtf 05 CD CO 

CO rH rH r-H 



s 

PH 

No. 

hnowooho 

05 iO rH 00 CO l> o CO 

CO^C0^00^^05 ooo 
cT cf cd* cd <xT cded'd 

CO 1 “H rH rH 

93,219 



65 

OiCONOOOO^ 

OOOOOCOOOCOCO 



15 

(NC0T^C0O5cd^id 

CO rH r-H rH 



o 

H 

6 

tHC0C<S<N05C0(MO> 

(Ncoeo-^cBooooo 

CO t^r-^O^0q_O> rH to 

t^oo'o'oj'co'oTcotC 

^HWHH 

143,837 



65 

CO<MCO<M<MHj<a><N 

®«00®'#^N 



s 

t>C3C3^»Htd<£j|> 

03 r - 1 rH rH rH 



5 

No. 

®»CO’#0(NrHCO®l 
H®lO«®®Hl)( 
C^CO_®J_CO rH CO ®1 
>0 ®Tc<f pfpfrH HT r-T 

18,687 



65 

MOOOO0ONH 

(Wh-^OOWOW 


00 

G 

fe: 

sd co co co o 05 o 

Whhhh 


iH 

05 

rH 

O 

H 

No. 

OC005i-H0500c©i0 
00^NC3 hcDO 5CO 
00^05^05^0 cq^eq^oo o 

CO H H 03 H r-T r—T 

14,771 



65 

OOOOOOONN05 

05 r-H r-H rfi 05 CO IQ O 



05 

bO _ 

rHC3C0C0O5td-^^ 
CO rH r-H rH 



o3 

> 

No. 

t^t>O5O0(NU5-^rH 

COrHlOCOIMOOCDl® 
tCofco'co'e4'rH rlrt 

23,273 



65 

•^CO’^t^t^-iOiOiO 
CO CO t>- 05 05 r-H ^ O 



13 

idcoT^cooooco^' 

COHHH 


li 

g 

Ph 

No. 

lO(MrHC000505TH 

GOH-^OOIOOW 

t>^o oq^rH^oq^co o io 

O rH (M 03 td id CO CO 

CO rH rH rH 

87,106 


Grades 






I. . . . 

II. .. 

III. . 

IV. .. 

V. . . . 

VI. .. 

VII. . 

VIII. 

Total 


Annual Report, 1919 


27 


Comparative Statement of Receipts and Expenditures. 
( All Elementary Schools) 


Year 

Receipts 

Expenditures 

1 QAK 

$1,004,470. 00 

$1,002,875.63 

i onfi 

1,465,360.80 

1,448,914.69 

1907 

1 QO& 

1,957,472.22 

2,783,153.35 

2,UUU,b/5. 26 
2,672,372. 99 

i QOQ 

3,192,271.09 
3,672,582. 12 

3,032,998. 74 

iQin 

3,645,4^8. 43 

1Q11 

4,029,791.57 

3,989,036. 28 

IQIO 

6,030,613.07 

5,931,843. 83 

1913 

8,360,421.89 

8,327,178. 79 

1014 

8,536,576. 95 

8,588,461. 61 

1915 

8,428,492.88 

8,163,896.62 

1Q1A 

9,312,694.32 

9,211,389.76 

10,117,917.46 

1917 

10,271,728.48 

1918 

9,177,390.05 

9,220,977. 54 

1919 

11,494,164.14 

11,433,258.46 




Comparative Statement of Assets and Liabilities of all Schools. 


Assets 

1918 

1919 


$ 1,111,214.64 
15,057,227. 05 
4,240,117.37 

$ 1,239,866.30 
18,041,582.27 
3,280,028. 18 

Estimated value of lands and buildings 
Other assets 

Totals 

$20,408,619.06 

$22,561,476. 75 

Liabilities 

1918 

1919 

Debenture indebtedness 

Other liabilities ; 

Excess of assets oyer liabilities 

Totals 

$ 8,334,122.55 
2,161,519.72 
9,912,976.79 

$ 8,962,374.94 
2,793,875. 76 
10,805,226. 05 

$20,408,619.06 

$22,561,476.75 


Comparative Statement of Assets and Liabilities of Rural Schools. 


Assets 

1918 

1919 


$ 831,681.46 
5,438,157.55 
917,232.02 

$ 869,323.53 
7,948,387.86 
990,706.84 

Estimated value of lands and buildings 

Other assets 

Totals 

$7,187,071.03 

$9,808,418. 23 

Liabilities 

1918 

1919 

Debenture indebtedness 

Other liabilities ...... 

Excess of assets over liabilities 

Totals 

$2,204,298.74 

371,527.23 

4,611,245.06 

$2,427,824.65 

400,252.24 

6,980,341.34 

$7,187,071.03 

$9,808,418.23 


28 


Department of Education 


Comparative Statement of Assets and Liabilities 

and City Schools. 


of Village, Town 


Assets 

1918 

1919 

Cash on hand 

$ 279,533. 18 

9,619,069. 50 
2,491,263.89 

$ 370,542.77 

10,093,194. 41 
2,289,321.34 

Estimated value of lands and buildings 

Other assets 

Totals 

$12,389,866. 57 

$12,753,058. 52 

Liabilities 

1918 

1919 

Debenture indebtedness 

Other liabilities 

$6,129,823. 81 
1,789,992.49 
4,470,050. 27 

$6,534,550. 29 
2,393,623.52 
3,824,884. 71 

Excess of assets over liabilities 

Totals 

$12,389,866. 57 

$12,753,058.52 



Comparative Financial Statement of all School Districts. 


Receipts 

1918 

1919 

Cash on hand January 1 

$1,154,802. 13 
5,618.191.91 
1,162,490. 38 
455,776. 92 
1,735,896.32 
138,563. 04 
66,471.48 

$1,114,455.81 
7,121,046. 34 
1,255,094. 19 
1,105,601.73 
1,845,266. 16 
167,155.72 
64,504. 81 

Proceeds of taxes 

Government grants 

Proceeds of debentures . 

Borrowed by note . . 

Other sources 

Debit balance December 31 

Totals 

$10,332,192. 18 

$12,673,124. 76 


Expenditures 

1918 

1919 

Teachers’ salaries 

$3,831,942. 04 
1,020,573.94 
1,588,994.58 
845,974. 36 
144,335. 35 
182,836. 43 
42,818. 79 
1,526,499.40 
37,002. 65 
1,111,214.64 

$4,813,000.42 
809,998. 50 
1,737,891.07 
1,369,833. 16 
176,789. 35 
235,670. 39 
53,433. 16 
2,173,466. 94 
63,175. 47 
1,239,866.30 

Paid on debentures 

Paid on notes, including interest 

School buildings 

School grounds. . . 

Furniture and equipment 

Library 

Other expenditures . 

Debit balance January 1 

Cash on hand December 31 

Totals 

$10,332,192. 18 

$12,673,124. 76 


Annual Report, 1919 


29 


Comparative Financial Statement of Rural Schools. 


Receipts 

1918 

1919 

Cash on hand January 1 

$ 891,142.85 
3,251,814.35 
944,507. 15 
310,359. 79 
86,296.40 
57,617. 15 
23,412.81 

$ 837,091.15 
4,099,940. 76 
1,006,111.95 
471,174.47 
145,003.22 
60,252. 11 
29,217.43 

Proceeds of taxes . 

Covernmont ejants 

Proceeds of debentures 

Borrowed by note 

Other sources 

Debit balance December 31 

Totals 

$5,565,150.50 

$6,648,791.09 


Expenditures 

1918 

1919 

Teachers’ salaries 

$2,530,411.69 
490,882. 18 
101,672. 12 
574,809. 68 
117,398.89 
136,014. 08 
32,563.33 
735,882. 15 
13,834. 92 
831,681.46 

$3,179,025.99 
449,615.20 
140,917. 67 
680,468.92 
132,300.71 
157,500. 98 
40,774.91 
976,364.95 
22,498. 23 
869,323.53 

Paid on debentures 

Paid on notes, including interest 

School buildings .. . . 

School grounds 

Furniture and equipment 

Library 

Other expenditures 

Debit balance January 1, 1919 

Cash on hand December 31, 1919 

Totals 

$5,565,150. 50 

$6,648,791.09 



Comparative Financial Statement of Village, Town and City Schools. 


Receipts 

1918 

1919 

Cash on hand January 1 

Proceeds of taxes 

$ 263,659.28 
2,366,377.56 
217,983.23 
145,417. 13 
1,649,599.92 
80,945. 89 
43,058.67 

$ 277,364.66 
3,021,105. 58 
248,982. 24 
634,427.26 
1,700,262.94 
106,903.61 
35,287.38 

Government grants 

Proceeds of debentures 

Borrowed by note 

Other sources ... 

Debit balance December 31, 1919 

Totals 

$4,767,041.68 

$6,024,333.67 


Expenditures 

1918 

1919 

Teachers’ salaries 

$1,301,530.35 
529,691.76 
1,487,322. 46 
271,164.68 

26.936. 46 
46,822.35 

10.255.46 
790,617. 25 

23,167. 73 
279,533. 18 

$1,633,974. 43 
360,383. 30 
1,596,973.40 
689,364.24 
44,488. 64 
78,169.41 
12,658. 25 
1,197,101.99 
40,677.24 
370,542. 77 

Paid on debentures 

Paid on notes, including interest 

School buildings 

School grounds 

Furniture and equipment 

Library 

Other expenditures 

Debit balance January 1, 1919 

Cash on hand December 31, 1919 

Totals 

$4,767,041.68 

$6,024,333.67 



30 


Department of Education 


Debenture Loans — Comparative Statement, 1918 and 1919. 



1918 

x 1919 


Districts 

Amounts 

Districts 

Amounts 

Debentures authorised 

212 

$521,770.00 

293 

$1,581,770.00 

Debentures registered 

197 

609,150. 00 

277 

i;461,695.26 


Debenture Loans Authorised — $ 5,000 and over. 


School District 


No. 


Amount 


Waldheim Village 

2546 

Wolseley 

25 

Battleford. 

71 

Dinsmore 

2349 

Norquay Village 

1.884 

St. Brieux 

1463 

Silver Hills 

2393 

Rosthern 

474 

Theodore 

253 

Bethune 

1498 

Bulyea 

1215 

Goodeve 

2697 

Glenavon 

2446 

Viscount 

2086 

Ernfold 

2600 

Asquith 

1768 

Hubbard 

1513 

Kelliher 

2254 

Ellerslie 

2662 

Webb 

2514 

Wawota 

14 

Freeman 

634 

Dodsland 

3952 

Sunny Plain 

1443 

Katepwe. . . 

116 

Parkside 

1445 

Southey 

1617 

Glenhill 

2581 . 

Regina.: . . . 

4 

Maidstone 

1528 

Anemone.. 

541 

Edenwold ...... 

101 

Simpson Village 

1359 

Riverhurst 

3836 

Mark-inch 

1880 

Melfort 

1037 

Perdue.. 

1852 

Pembroke 

4115 

Springside 

1148 

Central Butte 

2033 

Cantire 

4220 

Passchendaele 

4084 

Saskatoon 

13 

Lewiswyn 

3272 

Davidson 

888 

Souris Flat 

4226 


$18,000 

7.500 

50.000 

10.000 

9,000 

6.500 

10,000 

35.000 

19.500 

10.000 

10,000 

10,000 

10,000 

28,000 

10.500 

9.000 

6.000 

13.500 

10,000 

10,000 

12,000 

10,000 

11.500 

11,000 

5,700 

10,000 

12.500 

13.000 

139.000 

14.000 

5.000 

8.500 

20.000 

6.000 

22.500 

25.000 

19.000 

10.000 

20,000 

20,000 

5.000 

9.000 

175.000 

5.000 

18,000 

5,000 


Separate School Districts. 


Annual Report, 1919 


31 


o M 
fi.S 

'■€'3 

o Xi 

*h 

d 
° o 

o*.3 

-TZ 

d'O 


C Q 

09 

£ 

d 

.2 


iO 


io 

iO 

*-£3 

o - 

o 


CD- 

o 


d 

03 

03 


03 

03 

O 

o 

H 

o 




rH 

CO CO 03 ^ 

f| 

q. 

rH O - 

»H O rH 

o- 

H rH rH Q 

o 

o 

03 

03-P03H 

03 03 03 ■+» 

CQ 


rH H 


tH 

u 

H rH rH ^ 

V< 

d 

o ^ 

.2 


.2- 

.2 

C$ 

t ^ 

*S " 

*C 


‘C w 

*S 

K® 

d 

Oh 

Ph 

Ph 


Ph 

p- 


A 
.2 
*o "2 

?.a 

*-< 

m «3 

CO 

,p 3 


*.a 


o 


03 

a 

ai 

55 


rH 

•o> ; ; ; ; ; ; 

H 

; # g ; ; ; ; ; ; 

■03 

• d 

; o ; ; ; ; ; 

; co* ^ 

. H H 

.03 03 

. rH T— I 

;.S 9 

* © 03 

: d :::::: d 

•O o 


c0l^l>-l>03O<MC0C0i0 

©©■©©OiHrHrHrHrH 
03 03 03 03 ^0303030303 


lO 

o 

03- 

rH 


• lO to • ^ 

• rH rH • Q3 

• 03 03 -GO 


• GO 

• rH 

• 03 


(NCDNCOt-CONNOOf^OSOGJONNNOOrHtNW^ O O 00 

hoOOOhoOhqOOOhhhqOOOOOOOOOOhhhhh 03 03 rH 

03 00 00 03 00 03 00 00 03 03 03 00 00 00 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 03 00 00 03 


cS'O 

■21 P 0 


O Q 
bCj? 


.. - _ „ _ <u o> H 

2, S & ® ^'3 *o <u ■§ > 
gvg,3 >*- “ - - 
3 a es <3 


IM <M 

& £ 

i-H <N 


» CO 
bJD bD 


a> 


T3 

a 

o3 

05 £ g m 

rH CS1 rH *-3d 
^ . C3 o3 

^£32^ d-g® || ddflll I 1 J1JJ I’S.-ll 


c3^ P W 


0 B | 

_ _ _ „ Si 1-8 

* -• -• s&s 11 s s'S'i.a § * 


0Q 
0 = 
ps 


GO- 

Ph“ 


HMM^'#lOlO<ONl»®OTHW'!t(lO®NQOO>OHIMHOO NM 
hhhhhhhhhNNN CO 00 


Vl 


£ 


£ » 
A ►>- 




0^ 

§.2 

* ■ 


b)0 L*"n 5 

3 ^ 5 o § S h , 2S • fl S 

$ . . o 3 


."’PjS.P 

flo® 5 


■qxi 


si 

s’S. 


03 


3 

^’8* 


p 3 Pp 


J'ggfiSH&S -812 

<11 H ri ^ O? !-» i'-i 


s ® 

<s 3 

rM - 


a)c»a?Oc»c»coPH^cQHc»a50coK&^>coc»cQajfeW 


d o 

G£ 


..C.S. — Roman Catholic Separate. 
.S.- — Protestant Separate 


32 


Department of Education 


Comparative Statement of Public and Separate School Districts. 



Sept. 1 
1905 

Dec.31 

1905 

Dec.31 

1915 

Dec.31 

1916 

Dec.31 

1917 

Dec.31 

1918 

Dec.31 

1919 

Number of school districts in exist- 
ence — 

Public 

8S5 

931 

3,685 

3,859 

4,004 

4,126 

4,266 

Roman Catholic Separate .... 

7 

7 

14 

16 

16 

15 

16 

Protestant Separate 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

4 

4 

Total number of separate school 
districts in existence 

9 

9 

17 

19 

19 

19 

20 

Total number of school districts in 
existence 

894 

940 

3,702 

3,878 

4,023 

4,145 

4’,286 








• ■ • . 



























- 













































32 


Department of Education 


Comparative Statement of Public and Separate School Districts. 



Sept. 1 
1905 

Dec.31 

1905 

Dec.31 

1915 

Dec.31 

1916 

Dec.31 

1917 

Dec.31 

1918 

Dec.31 

1919 

Number of school districts in exist- 
ence — 

Public 

885 

931 

3,685 

3,859 

4,004 

4,126 

4,266 

Roman Catholic Separate .... 

7 

7 

14 

16 

16 

15 

16 

Protestant Separate 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

4 

4 

Total number of separate school 
districts in existence 

9 

9 

17 

19 

19 

19 

20 

Total number of school districts in 
existence 

894 

940 

3,702 

3,878 

4,023 

4,145 

4’,286 


1919 REPORT ON CONSOLIDATED SCHOOLS. 


District 

No. 

Doto of 
establishment 

square 

Assessment 

Rate of 
taxation 

T otal cost 
of operating 
conveyances 

Averago 
cost of 
convey- 
ance per 
pupil 

Averago 

pupil 

enrolled 

Annual 

debenture 

payment 

Teachers’ 

salaries 

tary's 

salary 

Averago 
wage of 
van driver 
per day 

Initial cost 
of vans 

Total 

expenditure 

Government grants 

Regular 

Conveyance 

grants 

Year 1918 
supple- 
mentary 
grants 

Total 

grants 

Rural 

Village or 
town 

Rural 

Village or 
town 








mills 

mills 














D’Arcy. 

3016 

May 23, 

1913 

49J4 

/ $339,744. 00 
\ 197,436.00 

( included in 

/ 8 and 
l 9 

8 

S3, 610. 05 

$ 58. 25 

S 96. 70 

S 662.03 

$2,047. 39 

S100.00 

$3.90 

/ 2 @ S250.0C 

$6,866. S9 

$331.80 

S1.1S5.62 

S415. 42 

SI, 932. 84 

Portreeve 

302S 

June 9, 

1913 

45 

662,552.00 

71,966.00 

8 

17 

4,069. 94 

113.05 

152.25 

616.19 

2,099. 30 

75.00 

3.93 

$225.00 

7,918.52 

333.60 

1,286.21 


1.619.81 

Aneroid . . ... 

2704 

June 27, 

1913 

50 


2S6.089. 50 

19 

12.4 

5,663.50 

217.80 

122.80 

1,274. S5 

4,500.00 

125.00 

5.00 

250. 00 

14,857.45 

766. 10 

1,499.24 


2,265.34 


4SS 

July 5, 

1913 

4954 

553,420. 00 

52,737.00 

9.5 

11 

3,382. 26 

116.63 

107.00 

712.00 

2,029. 30 

100.00 

3.85 

150. 00 

7,484. 93 

32S.05 

1,127. 42 



Trossachs 

1077 

Sept. 19, 

1913 

38 >4 

256,200.00 


12 


2,398. 20 

74.94 

66 95 

nil 

2,003.07 

85.00 

4. 16 

150.00 

4,753.94 

337. 60 

799.41 

415.42 

1,552.43 

Cupar 

972 

Oct. 17, 

1913 

56 

946,100.00 

345,914. 00 

13 

11 

7,730. 75 

69. 02 

111.69 

1,582.62 

5,850. 00 

300.00 

4.87 

/ 4 @ $300. or 
\ 4 @ $250. 0C 

20,210.57 

910.00 

2,23122 


3,141.22 


1370 

Oct. 21, 

1913 

43 

73,600. 00 


4.5 


1,087.00 

90.58 

204. 14 

356.00 

S85. 00 

50.00 

2.66 

none 

2,S57. 99 

113.70 

340. 17 

397. OS 



2S56 

Nov. 20, 

1913 

49H 

630, S59. 00 

72,309.00 

7 

ii 

3,686. 25 

92. 15 

157.40 

615. 20 

2,292.30 

100.00 

4.70 

usmeo™ 

10,075. 16 

285. 23 

1,227. 10 


1,512.33 


2496 

June 12, 

1914 

50 

711,890.00 

116,365.00 

6.5 

6.5 

1,068.80 

66. SO 

140.30 

2S0 00 

2,206. 70 

50.00 

10c mile 

6,875. S4 

329.41 

357.41 


686. 82 

Cabri • • 

1326 

Aug. IS, 

1915 

48 

/ 428,000.00 
\ 150,000. 00 

531,173.00 

/ 12. 2 
l 9.1 

20 

5,617.50 

76.95 

136.90 

940*. 00 

6,564. 55 

150. 00 

6.6S 

{ 4 $975 S 00 

18,979.38 

966.08 

1,695.67 


2,691.75 

Shackleton. . 

1288 

Feb. 5, 

1916 

42K 

47,560. 00 

66,519.00 

10.5 

11 

3,170.52 

81.30 

110.50 

792. 73 

1,868.85 

40.00 

6.08 

255.00 

9,729.98 

429. 65 

1,056.84 

420. 83 

1,907.32 

Hoosier 

1145 

Mar. 29, 

1916 

50 

599.S15.00 


( 11-7 J 

( 13. 0J 

3R.M's 

3,862.58 

75.74 

164.00 

967. 70 

2,312.69 

210. 00 

3.60 

155.00 

10,353. 55 

370.00 

1.2S6.69 

420. 42 

2,077. 11 

Mildcn 

382 

June 12, 

1916 

42 

606,520. 00 

157,525.00 

8 

10 

2,814. 00 

70.00 

102. 50 

749. 00 

2,828.00 

100.00 

2.95 

{ 5 $525. S 00 

7,981.90 

296. 25 

938. 01 


1,234.26 


235 


1916 

47 

321,430.00 


9.1 


1,898.25 

44. 12 

100. 12 

626. 08 

1,025.00 

20. 00 

2.75 

125.00 

4.405.40 

158.22 

687. 42 

414 17 

1,259.81 


3678 

Feb. 22, 

1917 

39 ^ 

528,500. 00 

214,385.00 

6.9 

12 

■1,192.60 

174.69 

124.00 

1,103.98 

2,369. 50 

150.00 

4.83 

245.00 

10,416.57 

359. 60 

1.105.25 


1,464.85 

Gavrclle 

3910 

June 20, 

1917 

47 H 

392,000.00 


7 


1,981.85 

79.24 

167.38 

796.66 

810.00 

23.00 

5.75 


1,352.03 

187.75 

637. 37 

392. 91 

1,218.03 

Duval 

2S64 

Aug. 6, 

1917 

43 54 

\ 4S9.660.00 

113,885.00 

12 

11 

5,927.27 

95.60 

116.00 

350. 00 

2,450. 75 

150.00 

6.31 

{ si.Tiaoo 

11,254.22 

336. 00 

1,969.39 


2,305. 39 

Dinsmorc 

2349 

Dec. 14 

1917 

47 

1 621,600.00 
\ 85.200. 00 

186,120. 00 

4.5 

5 

1,484.65 

49. 4S 

90. 69 

368.80 

2,339.97 

100. 00 

3.50 

350. on 

5,351.08 

329. 86 

478.04 


807. 90 

Tantallon. 

949 

Feb. 27 

191S 

56 ^ 

442,841.00 

94,025.00 

/ 16.5 

10.75 

5,353.00 

50.50 

98.30 

1,800.00 

4,267.67 

100.00 

4.70 

/ 6 vans 

13.S63.67 

1,050.80 

1,762. 09 


2,812.89 

Griffin . . 

2488 

May 21 

1918 

76 Vi 

982,828. 00 

124,000. 00 

8.8 

14.1 

6,447.05 

161.15 

144.00 

914. 95 

3,297.20 

125.00 

6.10 

315.00 

19,383.36 

647. 00 

1,944.61 


2,591.61 

Paynton. . 

1417 

June 28 

1918 

7354 

566,629. 00 

43,350.00 

19 

33 

6,731.00 

100.46 

54.75 

nil 

'3,200.00 


4.20 

{ S 1^50750 

10,891.50 

499. 23 

2,228. 17 


2,727.40 

Kincora 

2726 

Oct. 9 

1918 

66 

632,994. 00 

39,671.00 

7.66 

7.66 

3,860. 00 

183.81 

175.91 

200. 00 

1,100.00 

75.00 

5.50 


6,332.75 

160.95 

1,286.67 

416.66 

1,864.28 

Viscount 

2086 

Mar. 19 

1919 

63 

/ 466,100.00 

185,870. 00 

11 

12 

1,772.25 

33.43 

57.66 

629.80 

3,90S. 00 

200. 00 

3.00 

Including car 
S6, 143.70 

7,842. 8S 

639. S6 

542.64 


1,182.50 


2152 

Mar. 19 

1919.. 

44 

596,620. 00 

139,765.00 

10 

10 

3,121.65 

57.80 

138.25 

980. 00 

2,005.25 

ICO. 00 

S76 . 60 mo 

416.00 

12,166.74 

269.70 

662. 40 


932. 10 

Markinch 

18S0 

July 29 

1919 

4054 

not operated 

as consolidatec 

during 

1919 














Bridgeford 

1649 

Aug. 20 

1919 

4054 

not operated 

as consolidator 

durirg 

1919 














Conquest . 

3139 

Sept. 25 

1919 

4454 

not operated 

as consolidate 

durirg 

1919 














Ardath 

2863 

Sept. 25 

1919 

5554 

not operated 

as consolidated 

during 

1919 















Number of large school districts in existence December 31, 1918. 23 

Number of large school districts formed 1919. 6 

Number of large school districts disorganised 1919 . . 1 

Number of large school districts in existence December 31, 1919 28 



Educational Institutions not Directly under the Control of the Department. 


Annual Report, 1919 


33 


°^* 2 c.2® 

11113s 

1 1 nr 

*+H O 

o g 

' H 0 05 


II 


c3 feC 

s|l| 

fc 6 °1 


•05 • • (N CO • • iO CO 

• 03 • CO • *-h 


OHXOOOOOINOi^-JHOJOOOOO 0 050 

< 00 rH rH rH H .3 S rH H H r— ( rH 

o 


£ 



O CO (N (N kO 05 
CO CO CO 


• OHOIOCDN (M 00 iO 

• (N^tNCOOO H CO 


° 70 02 
fl © 

a " *v- 

I'iS ° 


• <M 05 00 CO C* 

• rH ^ lO tQ 


G 

.2 

’4^ 

<3 

a 

3 


o 




I fill! § 

11 


1 i 


o o 

<D a; 
43 43 

HH 

’C'd 

a a 

o3 <3 

^ ■*> 

s § 

-a ~a 
a a 

88 

££ 


£ 


■ 

" O 
►> ^ a> 

g-s w 

weSS 


b g'&fcESt? 

1l«* e « 

■ -a i 



a 

«*-( 

o 

a> 

a 

a! 



33.0 -g-S -5 s § 
■83 §<> £ g.| I 

ssJS a a a a > c 
<i«6666flo 


Jh 

ai^so-s 

h-o^ «° a 

“ 8 °-| g 53 

s3<j a s^o 

3 7 : 

O* 2 o w S 

§gg § 8 © 


w 

TJ 

05 

8 

o3_, 
CC o 
o 

043 

-a 


■^«3 g,« 
« § 

6 oS 




Educational Institutions not Directly under the Control of the Department — Continued. 


34 


Department of Education 


Number of 
candidates 
prepared for 
departmental 
examinations 
in 1919 

•05 LO . • • 00 • • • • H t> -00 rHIO 

• l> <N • • • .... . . 

* 

Number of 
months in 
operation 
during 1919 

\N \N 

O 0> O O O O O O O 1H 05 O O O 1> O 00 ONOOOOOO 

rH i— I rH tH r4 iH t-H rH l-H r— 1 t-H i— H rH tH rH 

Number of 
pupils aged 
14 years 
and over 

(MN ^ (M iO LO »0 (M • COI> • t-h • • *00 -NCON 

rH LO CO t-H CO * • rH • • • tH t-H 

LO 

Number of 
pupils under 
14 years 
of age 

00 i-H ^ONHO^IMM®N©ffl00®O OMNnaiMOO 

t~- i© co •a’ t-i rH <m t> w i> oo co -^uo »o r~ ©i »o ^ us «© i-i 

Location 

Regina 

Regina 

Regina 

St. Hubert Mission .... 

Willow Bunch 

Yorkton 

SW. 1 3-45-4 w3 

Prince Albert 

Dead Moose Lake 

Prelate 

St. Benedict 

Leofeld 

Bruno 

Lebret 

Willmont 

Forget 

Fulda 

Stockholm 

Cudworth 

Radville 

North of Fulda 

Prince Albert 

Muenster 

Wolseley 


o 


-.2 
• ’© 

. J-H 

;.2 S 

a 

5 5 

.!Zo 

h (3 
45 03 £ 
a os 
o.«t> 

« h a 

01 O) o 

m a g.s 

■2 a«j g 

5 o *5 
o o a 

o 3 ^ c 3 

2 2 Jh 

a o 
© o © 

6 J£* 




oooooooooooooo 

^• fJ - tJ - p + J - p - pp - p - p - p - p-pp 

o3a3c§c3o3c3c3<3c§G>3c3e3o5c3 

'c 3 a 3 o 3 c 3 ^a 3 e 3 c 3 c 3 e 3 c§c 3 c 3 c 3 

©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 

PhShPhPhP^PhP-iP^PhPhPhPhP-iPh 


Ih h h h h h h 

o o o o o o o 

4 J +5 +s +J -P 4 J +3 

c 3 c <3 c£ c 3 ci o 3 c 3 

*H ^ s - s - in t - t -< 

d ci cj ci cj :3 d 

a) a) (y o a) a; o 

H h H ^ M H 

&H Ph Cm pL, Ph Ph Ph 


a> 

a 

a 

£ 


o 

o 

rS 

© 

CQ 

0 

ui 

© 

o 

o 


Q 

© 


>> 

s 

© 

T3 

c3 

o 


i P -p> 


9 ® .-§ "5 © ^3 
9 9 -p> # > bfi^§ 


© 


"§"0 g‘S. 2 -^ a 
CQCQhhPh’S * o 

-p-p-p 

H 3 £ fe ».»J?-S g.. 


o 

© 

rS >, 

© a 
“ g 

-GT3 
2 c3 


o * 3,5 6 On 

®( 2 ^-§ocg 


• bfl 

• a 

. ,; 3 

. u 

. C3 
. O 

•tt 


© 

-*p • -+p 

c • of 

S' o > 

I gjfi 


w 


o 
o 

© o 
5 f<Z 2 -g 

n S’a 

2 w 

a 2 -cjs 
HI’S ft“ 

c^O S 

as--* 


o 


®<! 
bC^ 

a 3 5 S 

-om » o) ® t:%, a aa a n ® tt° 

'©~ 0 ® KWtdO g’U’aj^.'ts a'£~a ao .^2 ..„_ _ 

&O g TJ -© T3 T3 >,:2 c “So g S2.S ® OS d o <s 

K . QJU o <*■» <•■* r -< C 

3 © rp< 

O’ 


2-^ «J M 
•» d o- w 

«? J 3 -" *r ^3 


(-> 

© ~ W S . . . . •. 

Cj C 3 3 PP 4 JPPPPPP 4 JP p > P P P P P 

CGO! GO GO CO GO CO GO CO 02 GO GO GO GO 02 GO GG GO 02 GO GO 


■"Exclusive of Part I, Third. 


Annual Repobt, 1919 


35 


DEPARTMENTAL EXAMINATIONS. 
Statement of Candidates. 


Grade VIII. 


Passed 

Recommended 
under farm leave 
regulations 

Recommended 
under section 5, 6, or 
7 of the high school 
regulations 

Failed 

Total 

1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 

1,678 

2,448 

452 


732 

1,001 

1,220 

1,158 

4,082 

4,607 


Teachers Trained in Saskatchewan from 1906 to 1919 inclusive. 


Year 

Class of 
certificate 

Males 

Females 

Total 

Total for 
each year 

1906 

First 

17 

15 

32 



Second 

46 

98 

144 



Third 

2 

10 

12 

188 

1907 

First 

6 

14 

20 



Second 

33 

72 

105 



Third 


7 

7 

132 

1908 

First 

i3 

13 

26 



Second 

35 

45 

80 



Third 

20 

103 

123 

229 

1908-09 

Third 

28 

76 

104 

104 

1909 

First 

5 

3 

8 


Second 

12 

41 

53 



Third 

87 

159 

246 

307 

1910 

First 

4 

11 

15 



Second 

32 

78 

110 



Third 

94 

228 

322 

447 

1911 

First 






Second 

28 

104 

132 



Third 

18 

91 

109 

241 

1912 

First 

14 

51 

65 



Second 

29 

90 

119 



Third 

92 

304 

396 

580 

1913 

First . . 

32 

57 

89 



Second 

20 

118 

138 



Third 

83 

333 

416 

643 

1914 

First 

46 

72 

118 



Second 

22 

97 

119 



Third 

196 

453 

649 

886 

1915 

First 

68 

93 

161 



Second 

43 

180 

223 



Third 

248 

590 

838 

1,222 

1916 

First 

40 

76 

116 



Second 

48 

242 

290 



Third 

149 

356 

505 

911 

1917 

First 

26 

66 

92 



Second 

38 

287 

325 



Third 

89 

575 

664 

1,081 

1918 

First 

15 

91 

106 



Second 

35 

383 

418 



Third 

14 

83 

97 

62 i 

1919 

First 

36 

95 

131 



Second 

57 

420 

477 



Third 

71 

379 

450 

1,058 


Totals. . . 

1,991 

6,659 

8,650 

8,650 


Certificates Issued. 


36 


Department op Education 



Annual Report, 1919 


37 


Comparative Statement of Classification of Teachers employed and 
Average Salaries Paid 1918 and 1919. 



Number of teachers 


Average salary 


Certificate 

Urban 

Rural 

Urban 

Rural 


1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 

1918 

1919 

First Class: 

Male .... 

162 

181 

55 

119 

$1,493 

$1,634 

$1,027 

$1,185 

Female 

284 

304 

197 

276 

1,003 

1,132 

994 

1,125 

Second Class: 

Male 

119 

127 

206 

330 

1,221 

1,352 

1,002 

1,152 

Female 

903 

1,085 

1,111 

1,463 

912 

1,020 

951 

1,074 

Third Class: 









Male 

33 

20 

250 

308 

1,113 

1,205 

989 

1,120 

Female 

1 

217 

183 

1,613 

1,486 

879 

962 

905 

1,027 

Provisional: 









Male 

4 

1 

186 

183 

1,080 

900 

1,027 

1,148 

Female 

12 

5 

710 

315 

950 

980 

940 

1,053 


Number of Teachers Employed, 1918 and 1919. 


Certificate 

1918 

1919 

Male 

Female 

Total 

Male 

Female 

Total 

First Class 

217 

481 

698 

300 

580 

880 

Second Class 

325 

2,014 

2,339 

457 

2,548 

3,005 

Third Class 

283 

1,830 

2,113 

328 

1,669 

1,997 

Provisional 

190 

722 

912 

184 

320 

504 

Totals 

1,015 

5,047 

6,062 

1,269 

5,117 

6,386 


38 


Department of Education 


Teachers’ Conventions for 1919. 


Centre 

Date held 

Attendance 

Shaunavon 

August 21 and 22 

52 

Biggar 

September 18 and 19 

60 

Conquest 

September 24 and 25. 


Wilkie 

September 24, 25 and 26 . . . 

72 

Assiniboia 

September 25 and 26 

55 

K&msack 

September 25 and 26 

89 

Elbow 

September 25, 26 and 27 . . . 

50 

Birch Hills .. 

September 29 and 30 


Kindersley 

October 1, 2 and 3 

49 

Rosfitovm . 

October 1 , 2 and 3 

47 

Kinistino 

October 2 and 3 

18 

Prince Albert 

October 2 and 3 

98 

Qu’Appelle 

October 2 and 3 

78 

Swift Current 

October 2 and 3 

161 

Govan 

October 8, 9 and 10 

62 

Balcarres . . 

October 9 

71 

Rosthern 

October 9 and 10 

55 

Craik 

October 9 and 10 


Morse 

October 9 and 10 

ii 

Wadena 

October 9 and 10 

56 

Wynyard • 

October 9 and 10 

59 

Rouleau. 

October 14 and 15 

61 

Wapella 

October 16 and 17 

68 

Carlyle 

October 16 and 17 

42 

North Battleford 

October 16 and 17 

126 

Melfort . . . 

October 23 and 24 

29 

Carnduff 

October 23 and 24 

62 

Humboldt 

October 30 and 31 

45 

Weyburn . , . . 

October 30 and 31 

156 

Watrous 

October 31 and November 1 

47 

Saskatoon 

November 6 and 7 

216 





Annual Report, 1919 
Summary of Inspectors ’ Diaries. 


39 


No. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
21 
22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 


Inspectorate 

Inspector 

No. of 
districts 
visited 
only 

jNo^of 

schools 

inspected 

Oxbow 

W. J. Stevenson 

2 

105 

Estevan 

J. Arch. McLeod 

2 

96 

Radville 

W. S. Groomes 

10 

90 

Assiniboia 

R. D. Coutts 

11 

93 

Kincaid 

C. A. Scarrow 

10 

90 

Shaunavon 

J. J. Maxwell 

12 

75 

Vidora 

F. W. Rowan 

12 

75 

Maple Creek 

C. E. Brown 

15 

88 

Sceptre 

N. Latour 

1 

99 

Swift Current .... 

W. S. Cram 

9 

78 

Morse 

J. W. Smith 

7 

96 

Mortlach 

Geo. D. Robertson. . 

4 

83 

Milestone 

G. N. Griffin 

1 

97 

Weyburn 

A. Kennedy 

8 

73 

Moose Jaw 

W. T. Hawkings 

2 

67 

Regina 

N. MacMurchy .... 


52 

Indian Head 

John Marshall 

*2 

94 

Wolseley 

Jas. Little 

1 

96 

Moosomin 

G. D. Ralston 

3 

98 

Saltcoats 

Jas. Robinson 


100 

Yorkton 

B. W. Wallace 


80 

Balcarres 

W. E . Stevenson 

7 

100 

Last Mountain . . . 

J. G. MacKechnie 

8 

95 

Davidson 

J. Alex. McLeod 

11 

80 

Elbow 

H. A. Everts 

2 

94 

Elrose 

T. M. Creighton. . . . 

11 

91 

Kindersley 

J. E. Cowie 

7 

86 

Kerrobert 

Robt. Weir 

8 

78 

Rosetown 

S. E. M. McClelland... 

5 

85 

Saskatoon 

J. E. Coombes .... 

2 

71 

Watrous 

A. J. McCulloch. . . . 

1 

100 

Wynyard 

B. Hjalmarson 

7 

93 

Canora 

A. L. Merrill 

2 

82 

Wadena 

N. L. Massey 

16 

96 

Humboldt 

J. O’Brien 

8 

102 

Rosthern 

A. W. Keith 

12 

100 

Biggar 

W. J. Small 

2 

90 

Wilkie 

J. H. Gallaway . . . . 

1 

90 

Lloydminster .... 

W. M. Veazey 

6 

73 

The Battlefords . . 

W. H. Magee 

4 

71 

Turtleford 

L. J. Charbonneau. 

13 

58 

Radisson 

W. J. Drimmie .... 

98 

Prince Albert .... 

J. T. Tomlinson 

5 

74 

Kinistino 

J. F. Hutchison . . . 

6 

80 

Tisdale 

F. W. Harrison. 

10 

82 


Totals 

266 

3,894 


Average 

5.91 

86.53 


Totals for 1918. . . 

293 

3,679 


No. of 
inspections 


193 

192 

130 

199 

159 
103 
105 

171 
148 
124 
129 
169 

160 
222 
219 
188 
180 
222 
147 
152 
156 

172 
166 
111 
156 
150 
154 

92 

138 

i81 

185 

150 

165 

128 

212 

137 

168 

119 

147 

191 

86 

175 

180 

141 

102 


6,974 

154.75 

5,957 


N OTES. 

29 inspections were made by J. H. Hedley in the Turtleford Inspectorate. 

23 inspections were made by R. W. Asselstine in the Rosetown Inspectorate. 
20 inspections were made by J. S. Huff in the Davidson Inspectorate. 

47 inspections were made by A. S. Rose in the Kincaid Inspectorate. 

32 inspections were made by J. H. McKechnie in the Vidora Inspectorate. 

14 inspections were made by F. M. Quance in the Kerrobert Inspectorate. 


40 


Department of Education 


Inspection of Schools. 


Year 

No. of 
inspectors 

No. of 
school 
districts. 
Dee. 31 

Average 
No. of 
school 
districts 

Total No. 
school 
districts 
with 

schools in 
operation 

No. of 
depart- 
ments 
in 

operation 

Average 
No. of 
depart- 
ments in 
operation 
per 

inspector 

1906 

8 

1,190 

1,430 

1,745 

2,003 

2,255 

2,573 

2,928 

3.230 

143.7 

873 

1,017 

1,272 

1,612 

1,937 

2,207 

2,480 

2,947 

3,367 

3,787 

4,006 

4,279 

4,593 

4,844 

5,132 

127 1 

1907 

8 

178.7 

1,101 

1,410 

1,692 

1,912 

2,110 

2,444 

2,747 

3,055 

3,367 

3,808 

3,794 

3,941 

4,159 

159 

1908 

10 

174.5 

161.2 

1909. 

1.1 

182. 09 

176.09 

1910 

13 

173.4 

169.7 

1911 

15 

171.5 

165.3 

1912 

16 

183. 

184 18 

1913 

20 

161.5 

168.3 

1914 

21 

3,523 

3,702 

3,878 

4,020 

4,151 

4,293 

167.7 

180.3 

1915 

23 

160. 8 

174. 1 

1916 

25 

155. 12 

171.08 

1917 

32 

125.6 

143.7 

1918 

1919 

41 

45 

101.24 
95. 4 

118. 

114.04 



HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGIATE INSTITUTES. 


General Summary. 



1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

Number of collegiate insti- 





tutes 

7 

7 

7 

10 

Number of high schools 

14 

15 

15 

14 

Number of pupils enrolled. . . 

3,849 

3,886 

4,094 

4,751 

Average attendance of pupils 

2,067. 36 

2,182. 90 

2,127.35 

2,585.33 

Number of teachers employed 

111 

120 

161 

164 

Amount received from Legis- 





lative grant 

8 77,157.98 

$ 83,495. 68 

S 90,792.66 

$ 83,924.86 

Amount received from other 

sources 

515,986.67 

320,989. 23 

*185,368. 21 

*271,816.26 

Amount expended for teach- 

ers’ salaries 

175,097. 80 

190,703.34 

209,084.97 

235,460. 47 

Amount expended for other 

purposes 

405,529. 90 

495,688. 98 

184,025.06 

til 5, 224. 76 


This item does not include money borrowed by note. 
fThis item does not include amount paid on notes. 


Annual Report. 1919 


41 


Number of Teachers Employed. 


No. 

Name of school 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1 

Regina C.I 

5 

6 

8 

9 

12 

14 

15 

19 

19 

19 

20 

20 

2 

Moosomin C.I 

3 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

5 

6 

3 

Prince Albert C.I. . 

2 

2 

4 

5 

5 

6 

9 

13 

9 

9 

9 

11 

4 

Moose Jaw C.I. . . . 

4 

6 

8 

8 

10 

11 

11 

11 

10 

12 

18 

19 

5 

Weyburn C.I 

2 

3 

4 

3 

4 

5 

5 

6 

5 

5 

10 

8 

6 

Ou’Appelle H.S 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

5 

7 

Saskatoon CJ 

3 

3 

7 

8 

9 

14 

14 

16 

17 

19 

28 

f 

28 

not 

8 

Carlyle H.S 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

5 1 

in 

oper- 

ation 

9 

Areola H.S 


3 

3 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

4 

4 

6 

3 

10 

Oxbow H.S 


2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

2 

11 

Yorkton C.I 


2 

3 

3 

3 

4 

5 

5 

4 

4 

5 

6 

12 

N. Battleford C.I.. 


3 

4 

4 

4 

4 

6 

6 

5 

5 

5 

5 

13 

Estevan C.I 


3 

3 

3 

3 

4 

4 

4 

4 

5 

7 

5 

14 

Battleford H.S 





2 

3 

4 

5 

2 

2 

3 

2 

15 

Indian Head H.S.. . 





2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

3 

5 

4 

16 

Swift Current C.I. . 






2 

3 

5 

5 

5 

6 

10 

17 

Humboldt H.S 







2 

3 

2 

3 

2 

4 

18 

Wilkie H.S 







3 

6 

3 

3 

4 

2 

19 

Wynyard H.S 








2 

2 

2 

3 

3 

20 

Strasbourg H.S.. . . 








3 

3 

3 

3 

4 

21 

Melfort H.S 








3 

3 

3 

4 

5 

22 

Maple Creek H.S. . 










3 

6 

6 

23 

Lloydminster H.S. . 












o 

o 

24 

Kamsack H.S 




* 








3 


1 otals 

23 

41 

54 

'56 

67 

84 

99 

126 

111 

120 

161 

164- 


Classification 1919. 


No. 

- 

Name of school 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

Total 

en- 

rolled 

Boys 

Girls 

Total 

Boys 

Girls 

Total 

Boys 

Girls 

Total 

1 

Regins C.I 

188 

253 

441 

79 

131 

210 

59 

53 

112 

763 

2 

Moosomin C.I 

33 

58 

91 

18 

36 

54 

4 

12 

16 

161 

3 

Prince Albert C.I. 

61 

81 

142 

19 

41 

60 

20 

33 

53 

255 

4 

Moose Jaw C.I. . . 

107 

197 

304 

74 

80 

154 

31 

41 

72 

530 

5 

Weyburn C.I 

53 

82 

135 

30 

25 

55 

11 

21 

32 

222 

6 

Qu’Appelle H.S.. . 

11 

23 

34 

5 

19 

24 

16 

42 

58 

116 

7 

Saskatoon C.I.. . . 

381 

526 

907 

107 

149 

256 

20 

40 

60 

1,223 

8 

Carlyle H.S 

not 

in op 

eratio 

n . . 







9 

Areola H.S 

15 

19 

34 

11 

34 

45 

5 

9 

14 

93 

10 

Oxbow H.S 

15 

45 

60 

9 

14 

23 

6 

9 

15 

98 

11 

Yorkton C.I 

56 

69 

125 

30 

35 

65 

4 

17 

21 

211 

12 

N. Battleford C.I. 

26 

61 

87 

9 

30 

39 

6 

6 

12 

138 

13 

Estevan C.I 

47 

56 

103 

15 

34 

49 

8 

8 

16 

168 

14 

Battleford H.S. . . 

16 

30 

46 

2 

6 

8 


2 

2 

56 

15 

Indian Head H.S. . 

20 

42 

62 

5 

10 

15 

5 

9 

14 

91 

16 

Swift Current C.I. 

53 

48 

101 

15 

25 

40 

9 

9 

18 

159 

17 

Humboldt H.S.. . . 

10 

24 

34 

8 

10 

18 

1 


1 

53 

18 

Wilkie H.S 

18 

23 

41 

2 

9 

11 

1 

2 

3 

55 

19 

Wynyard H.S. . . . 

14 

29 

43 

3 

4 

7 




50 

20 

Strasbourg H.S.. . 

14 

16 

30 

3 

6 

9 

4 

2 

6 

45 

21 

Melfort H.S 

22 

27 

49 

8 

14 

22 




71 

22 

Maple Creek H.S. 

16 

29 

45 

7 

7 

14 

i 

3 

4 

63 

23 

Lloydminster H.S. 

10 

15 

25 

7 

10 

17 

3 

6 

9 

51 

24 

Kamsack H.S. . . . 

36 

30 

66 

7 

5 

12 

1 


1 

79 


Totals 

1,222 

1,783 

3,005 

473 

734 

1,207 

215 

324 

539 

4,751 


42 


Department of Education 


Classification. 


No. 

Name of school 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1 

Regina C.I. 

Junior Form. . . . 

159 

.24 

162 

209 

312 

331 

371 

513 

511 

398 

403 

441 


Middle Form . . . 

56 

91 

75 

92 

103 

158 

165 

165 

177 

184 

207 

210 


Senior Form .... 

25 

38 

63 

53 

56 

56 

86 

67 

63 

98 

119 

112 

2 

Moosomin C.I. 
Junior Form. . . . 

70 

77 

54 

57 

49 

73 

84 

79 

73 

73 

80 

91 


Middle Form . . . 

32 

37 

30 

55 

46 

51 

42 

48 

48 

38 

41 

54 


Senior Form .... 


4 

12 

19 

24 

24 

21 

15 

9 

24 

20 

16 

3 

Prince Albert C.I. 









132 

156 

139 

142 


Junior Form. . . . 

54 

70 

64 

53 

47 

105 

120 

145 


Middle Form . . . 

15 

12 

20 

26 

14 

35 

39 

40 

57 

41 

60 

60 


Senior Form .... 

6 

4 

3 

8 

5 

12 

16 

15 

20 

15 

28 

53 

4 

Moose Jaw C.I. . 
Junior Form. . . . 

79 

90 

124 

134 

145 

169 

209 

196 

255 

272 

263 

304 


Middle Form . . . 

31 

39 

23 

44 

53 

79 

77 

106 

123 

103 

105 

154 


Senior Form .... 

11 

21 

40 

42 

45 

47 

39 

49 

49 

60 

67 

72 

5 

Weyburn C.I. 
Junior Form. . . . 

19 

34 

36 

39 

48 

92 

97 

101 

no 

104 

105 

135 


Middle Form . . . 

6 

20 

20 

30 

26 

33 

33 

40 

64 

72 

55 

55 


Senior Form .... 

6 

8 

6 

4 

7 

12 

13 

19 

20 

28 

30 

32 

6 

Ou’Appelle H.S. 
Junior Form .... 

24 

22 

26 

34 

19 

18 

23 

20 

31 

25 

28 

34 


Middle Form . . . 

17 

6 

7 

14 

23 

21 

14 

18 

13 

18 

27 

24 

58 


Senior Form .... 

3 

1 

2 

2 








7 

Saskatoon C.I. 
Junior Form .... 

57 

87 

167 

204 

263 

330 

431 

616 

553 

641 

683 

907 


Middle Form . . . 

18 

37 

51 

92 

102 

131 

147 

144 

235 

218 

286 

256 


Senior Form. . . . 

8 

9 

9 

18 

26 

39 

51 

37 

84 

54 

103 

60 

8 

Carlyle H.S. 

Junior Form. . . . 

25 

35 

20 

25 

18 

21 

30 

35 

34 

37 

35 

not 


Middle Form . . . 

8 

21 

12 

7 

10 

15 

13 

14 

15 

19 

19 

in 


Spnior Form .... 

5 

6 

9 

9 

8 

7 

10 

13 

10 

7 

4 

op. 

9 

Areola H.S. 

Junior Form. . . . 


37 

45 

51 

57 

49 

35 

37 

35 

38 

32 

34 


Middle Form . . . 


16 

17 

16 

31 

20 

26 

27 

29 

24 

22 

45 


Senior Form .... 


1 

4 

4 

7 

9 

6 

11 

13 

13 

10 

14 

10 

Oxbow H.S. 

Junior Form .... 


24 

27 

34 

40 

52 

11 

66 

37 

51 

50 

60 


Middle Form . . . 


26 

24 

23 

21 

27 

31 

21 

34 

28 

18 

23 


Senior Form .... 


4 

13 

15 

17 

10 

56 

13 

13 

6 

14 

15 

11 

Yorkton C.I. 
Junior Form. . . . 


43 

77 

44 

88 

58 

81 

114 

122 

125 

125 

125 


Middle Form . . . 


13 

34 

39 

37 

26 

39 

32 

53 

56 

60 

65 


Senior Form .... 


6 

10 

11 

10 

10 

18 

10 

16 

21 

21 

21 

12 

N. Battleford C.I. 
Junior Form. . . . 


26 

30 

52 

38 

43 

53 

71 

76 

84 

94 

87 


Middle Form . . . 


10 

22 

25 

20 

12 

17 

24 

27 

23 

25 

39 


Senior Form .... 


4 

10 

10 

13 

16 

14 

6 

12 

12 

10 

12 

13 

Eslevan C.I. 

Junior Form .... 


25 

42 

43 

73 

62 

78 

89 

64 

87 

124 

103 


Middle Form. . . 
Senior Form .... 


10 

9 

11 

8 

13 

6 

17 

4 

28 

5 

37 

8 

36 

16 

35 

14 

31 

18 

30 

20 

49 

16 

14 

Battleford H.S. 
Junior Form. . . . 
Middle Form . . . 





24 

8 

38 

13 

32 

11 

36 

7 

26 

12 

26 

7 

32 

5 

46 

8 


Senior Form . . . . 





3 

3 

4 

5 

3 

2 

2 

z 

15 

Indian Head H.S. 
Junior Form . . . . 
Middle Form. . . 
Senior Form . . . . 





26 

11 

1 

43 

27 

56 

27 

48 

38 

46 

43 

40 

22 

9 

42 

21 

13 

62 

15 

14 

16 

Swift Current C.I. 
Middle Form. . . 





•• 

23 

14 

48 

26 

61 

22 

4 

68 

29 

12 

74 

16 

16 

80 

25 

16 

101 

40 

18 


Annual Report, 1919 43 


Classification — Continued. 


No. 

Name of school 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

17 

Humboldt H.S. 
Junior Form. . . . 








36 

47 

49 

35 

34 


Middle Form . . . 








16 

15 

8 

10 

18 


Senior Form .... 








1 

8 

5 

6 

1 

18 

Wilkie H.S. 

Junior Form. . . . 








51 

40 

39 

38 

41 


Middle Form . . . 








18 

29 

14 

7 

11 


Senior Form .... 








3 

2 


3 

3 

19 

Wynyard H.S. 
Junior Form. . . . 








34 

39 

46 

40 

43 


Middle Form . . . 








12 

14 

12 

5 

7 


Senior Form .... 








2 

2 




20 

Strasbourg H.S. 
Junior Form .... 








14 

36 

32 

21 

30 


Middle Form . . . 








15 

22 

14 

10 

9 


Senior Form .... 










3 

3 

6 

21 

Melfort H.S. 
Junior Form .... 








67 

58 

60 

41 

49 


Middle Form . . . 








20 

16 

12 

16 

22 


Senior Form .... 








5 

8 

7 

2 


22 

Maple Creek H.S. 
Junior Form. . . . 










50 

43 

45 


Middle Form . . . 










14 

11 

14 


Senior Form .... 










7 

5 

4 

23 

Lloydminster H.S. 
Junior Form .... 












25 


Middle Form . . . 












17 


Senior Form .... 












9 

24 

Kamsack H.S. 
Junior Form .... 












66 


Middle Form . . . 












12 


Senior Form .... 












1 


Totals 

734 

1147 

1409 

1656 

1995 

2447 

2926 

3583 

3849 

3886 

4094 

1 

4751 


Total Enrolment by Form. 


Year 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

Total 

1914 

1,814 

2,429 

2,398 

2,507 

2,533 

3,005 

763 

349 

2,926 

3,583 

3,849 

3,886 

4,094 

4.751 

1915 

863 

291 

1916 

1,090 

974 

361 

1917 

405 

1918 

1,065 

1,207 

496 

1919 

539 



Classification of Students in High Schools and Collegiate Institutes. 

Sciences and Languages. 


44 


Department of Education 


Music 

d 1 

102 

2d 

7 

23 

19 

526 

w 

CO O • ' HlO • rH 

^ • • ... ... • • • CM • • tH • GO • • ... 

CO 

Ger- 

man 

| ... ... ... O CO • ... ... • *h • ... 

d ! ^ 

pq 

8 

I 

\n 

French 

d 

tO D- 05 ^ to to 1000 to rH CO *00 • N r-H oi • • 

tO^CM COH NNCO TfHH • • CO to CM • • • 

rH CM ^ rH 

PQ 

h O CO O H H o i-h HHO 05 CO !>• • CO • to CM GO • • • 

CM CO CM CO rH 1 -H CO CO rH IMH • • O 05 >H • • • 

T-H rH CO 

Greek 

d 


pq 


Latin 

d 

CO CO O rH CO • to to ^ 00 CO CO CO CM CO • rH • lOCOCM • • • 

CO ^ CM ^ • CM H ^ CM Tji rH 1 — < • 1— 1 • to to CM ■ • • 

rH r— 1 rH 

pq 

l>- ^ 00 O CO • CO GO ■'d 1 to CM 00 00ON • to • tO CM t— ( ■ • • 

rH lO CM CO * rH 05 H CM rH • • rH rH • » • 

H CO rH 

Agricul- 

ture 

d 

D- • • 05 CO • COCO • CM 00 • COO • • 05 • COO • • • • 

^ • • CM CO • CM • HH • CM CM • • • CM 00 • • - • 

rH to 

pq 

C5 • rH o • ^ • to • toco • -CM • rH tJH • - . . 

^ • • rH rH • rH • ^ iH • rH rH • • • 00 tO * ... 

CO 

Manual 

training 

d 


pq 

I s . • CM * * • O •• ... ... rH » • ... 

co • ... ZQ • • 10 • • ... ... f*"*^ . • ... 

rH CO 

House- 

hold 

science 

d 

160 

23 

46 

90 

52 

23 

361 

8 

pq 

! * ■ | * ■ ■ * ’ \ \ \ ■ * II! Ill III 

Biology 

d 

••CM ■ • c O • ■ ^ • • CO -*00 ... **00 ... 

• • CM • • • rH • ... . . rH • • • 

PQ 

•rH • • CM • • rH • 00 'N ... • • 05 ... 

Chem- 

istry 

d 

• I> 00 • CM CO • CM CO *tO!> • tH CO • TjH • to O O • • • 

• £>• rH • CO * rH • CM • rH • • O *0 CM ... 

CM H 

CQ 

• rH o • l> CM • rH tH • CM CO • 00 GO -CM* OlOCO ... 

• CM CM • rH • rH • ^ iH • H « • ONH • • • 

rH 

Physics 

d 

• -GO • CO 1> • !>. CM • CM rH • to Th -to • CO to CO • • • 

• • rH • CO * rH • CO CO • rH rH * • CM *0 CM ... 

tO rH 

PQ 

• • -r^co • co tH -oooo • co rH • • • hoio • • • 

• • CM • rH • tH • to CM -HH • • • GO O H • • . 

CO rH 

Elemen- 

tary 

science 

d 

153 

58 

63 

230 

58 

5 

23 
526 
n . . 

PQ 

124 

33 

42 

132 

36 

13 

11 

381 

ope 

Total 

enrol- 

ment 

hOIM T-i-tfctO INOW iniocs H H • MOO P • • 

rHH 03101-1 CO lO OUJN CO lO CO CO(M • OlOCO O • • 

^CMiH rH CO rH rH • 05 CM 

Form 

Junior 

M'ddle 

Senior 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

Junior 

Middle 

Senior 

School 

Regina C.I 

Moosomin C.I 

Prince Albert C.I. . . . 

Moose Jaw C.I 

Weyburn C.I 

Qu’Appelle H.S 

Saskatoon C.I 

Carlyle H.S 

No. 

iHCMCO^iCCDt^OO 


Annual Repobt, 1919 


45 




CO 


to • 

-h 0 «o 

O 










CM 


CO • * 

CD CO 

to • • 









0 




CD - ■ 









rH 




. rH 

. 









tO to 

^ toco 

iOOtP 

to CO CD 

© rH itf 

00 CD CM 

CO to CM 

00 O 05 

rH O 


CO 05 CM 

i-H 

rH 

rH 

. 

to CO rH 

rH CM 

tO rH 

CM 

rH 

rH rH 

CM rH 


CM 

c^co^ 

tO rH ^ 

to O CO 

rHl>CO 

CD tOCO 

tOCM • 

CM t> CM 

CO O CD 

000 


OONrt 

rH 




rH CM 

CM 

rH 

rH 


tO rH 

rH 


rH 



tO tOCD 

CO to CO 

CO 00 CO 

D^CO 

O 1> CO 

CD rH CM 

rH CO CM 

00 O to 

rH O 


CO 05 CM 

^H 

rH 

rH 


to WH 

CO rH 

to 

CM 

rH 

rH rH 

CM rH 


w 

CM CO rH 

tOr HrH 

rH 00 CO 


CD CO CO 

rH CM • 

CM CD CM 

co co to 

OOO 


OONrt 

rH 




rH rH 

CM 

rH 

rH 


to 

rH 


rH 

CD CM • 


to • 

• tH • 


O rH • 

05 CM • 

rH * • 

• CO • 



IO ‘ * 

rH 

rH • 





tO CM • 

CM 

1 —! 




- -1 

CM rH • 


rH • 

• CO • 


CD t>* • 

CD • • 

CO • • 

• H • 



rH • • 







rH rH • 

rH • • 


































... ... ■ • ^ ... ... ... ^ 0 ... 

... ... ... .. . ... ... ... ... r _| ■ . . . 



• rH 



• • CM 



• co 


• to 






• rH 



• • rH 





• • rH 

. cD 



: : : 


co i> 


O CM 

• to l> 

• 05 to 


rH to 

• • CM 

• CD to 

• CD rH 

• O 


;C5(N 


rH 



• CO H 

• CM 


CM 



• rH 

• rH 



CD CO 


CM CM 

• 0 rH 

• CO CD 


to 


• toco 

• CM rH 

■ 00 







• CO 






• rH 




CD O • 


O • 

• rH CM 

• CO CD 


CO CO 

• cD 

■ CD CD 

• cm 





rH • 


rH • 


• CM 





• rH 




CM 00 CM 


<M • 

• CO rH 

. 05 CD 


rH rH 

• CM • 

• co co 

• CM rH 




rH 





, 


rH 



• rH 





CO • • 

05 • * 

1— 1 • • 

o 

• • 

05 • • 

CM • • 

00 • • 

rH • 


?5 : : 



CM • * 

co • - 

CD • • 

to • • 

CM • • 

rH • • 

^ • • 

CM • 


CM • • 

C 

• • 

O - • 

CD • • 

CD - • 

CD • • 

O • • 

co • • 

O • 


00 • • 





to • • 

CM • • 

rr 



CM • • 

to • • 

rH • 


rH • • 

rH tO rH 

O CO to 

IOIOH 

l> 05 CM 

CO 05 CD 

CD 00 CM 

CM to rH 

rH O 00 

rH 00 



CO^H 

COC1H 

MON 

rH 

00 CO rH 

© 

r— 

rH rH 

rH 

CDHH 

O rH rH 

rH 

CO rH 


rH rH 

*- 

a> , 

*- 

* 

Cj 

u 

0 ~a 0 

u 

O 

-=< »H 

* 

O 

uS u 



K® u 

OT3 O 

O-r- O 

o-o O 

o-O O 

Pt 3 0 

o-a 0 

. 0-0 0 

0 -a 

O 

O -d 0 

"3 

33 

*3 

3'3 

‘S3‘3 

<=3'3 

e 

3 '3 

g3'3 

S3'3 

ars-3 

'S3 

"3 

'S3'3 

►= 

hi a> 
*302 


<U 

Sco 

P 0 
•"5^CG 

P «-< D 


fcH O 
^<02 


P*H O 

»-*2gg 

Pt-i as 
'-srfCQ 


<D 

m 

pa 5 

•“5^503 






hh 




m 

HH 









d 



02 

B 

d 

aj 


: u. 





►H 

u 

r- 


B 

"0 

a 

05 

H 

H 

P 

M 


. / 

02 

W 

02 

B 

d 

a 

O 

< 4-1 

a> 

O 

a 

u 

O 

«3 

O 

W 

2 


m 

a 

J 

'c 


£ 

O 

X) 

O 

"t? 

M 

u 

-h> 

ci 

CQ 

a3 

> 

O 

0 

-4-3 

P 

c3 

*3 

O 

+» 

?a 

0 

rO 


.2 | 

*- 

< 


X 

C 


0 

>* 

a 

CO 

H 

o3 

PQ 

a 

hH 

& 

OQ 

a 




c 



CM 

CO 

rH 

to 

CD 



GO 





rH 

rH 

1— 


rH 

rH 

rH 

rH 


rH 


Classification of Students in High Schools and Collegiate Institutes — Continued. 

Sciences and Languages — Continued. 


•I I 

46 Department of Education 



PARTMENTAL EXAMINATIONS. 
Statement of Candidates. 
High School. 


Annual Report, 1919 


Total 

1919 

• oo o co eo ^ cm 

•NtOHHOiO 

• CO O^CO 

rH 

2,366 

1918 

WHiomoa^ 
00 ® >-H -e 1 <N Cl CO 
^ CO V- O CO 

y—i T-4 

I>- i 

T— ! j 

M 

V 

M 

Failed 

1919 ! 

”92 

195 

328 

63 

00 

CO 

1918 

CO HN 

10 »-H CM CO 

CO 

CO 

CO 

H 

Granted partial 
standing 

6161 

•HNH . a> X) 
• CO 'HN 

• CM 

336 

1918 

OOO^OiOON 
HCCCOH *0 

CM »— 1 r-4 

009 

Recommended under 
farm leave 
regulations 

1919 



1918 | 

OONN • CO t'- 
CO CM • CM 

CQHH • tH 

969 

Passed 

1919 

•lO^cqcONH 
• 00 CO H H ^ CO 
. (M CO »OH 

CM 

iO 

CO^ 

■f— l 

1918 

OS OS CO vH H 0 ^ 

N N O N H H N 
^ CO CM ^ rH 

os 

00 

CO 

T— 1 

Class 



Third, Part I 

Third. Part II 

Full Third 

Commercial, first year ^ 

Commercial, second year 

Second 

First 

Totals. 


Receipts and ^Expenditures of High Schools and Collegiate Institutes. 


48 


Department of Education 


csJ.TS 

, ft 

J x 

<D 


(N N (30 (N 'HH O 03 
OONOMCOO 
lOCOHOQO^ 


■GO^COCOOO^HCOrHCOCON(NrHlOO 

•CO(NOJ(M(NC^HOiOONN(NOiH^ 

• 00 NlO 0500 O 5 HO 00 C 005 C 005 C 0 ^C 0 


ip 

*0 


<V T5 

24 aS 
J^rG 

<5 

CQ § 


• o 

• LO • 

• O i-H t£> i-H 

• 05 05 

•DON 

•o 

H 

• r=M 

• o • 

• Ci 03 rH rH T^< 

•ONO 


• 00 

LO 

• »o 

• !> • 

•COMOIO) 

• 00 05 05 

• N CO rH 

• 05 

03 

• oo 

• • 

CO D- 

• 03 CO 05 

• 05 |> 05 

• 05 

LQ 

• i© 

" ^ ■ 
of 



• cqrq^ 

of r-f of 


T— H 

00 

s 


0) .Th 

O 03 
Qh 
X 


oo CO ^ oo lo in 

IN rH H H CD 03 

co 

o' of o' riT GO l© 

05 i-H t*h 05 


•O^OcOCOOiOHNWMON^iCO 

•N^OOJNMOOOOHHHOOINNCO 

•kdcDHdNQojdcDNojoiNojojd 

■NCNiOCOOOJCO^iONiOOCOOOOO 
• io 05 ^^^*^05 0^0 CO CO^ t-h 

Tjr-^Tco'T-Tof T-fof rH* r-Tr-T 


i 


o 


o> 

co 

05 


• cD 

• ^ 


oo 

-22 


•.CO 
• ^ 
• GO 


• CO 

• 05 

• 


• cD h N* 

• oo i© co 
•MNN 


rH 

»© 


w 

« 

p 

& 

s 

£ 

H 

Ph 

X 

H 



rH 

cD 

05 

rH 

CD 

r- 

t> • 

• o 

05 

G 

° 


03 

o 

00 

03 

CO • 

J 00 


a 

03 

rH 


rt< 

t— H 

CO 

rH 

• H 

CO 

G 

00 

CO 


CD 

o 

05 

CO • 

• 03 


Ph 

05 


03 


CD 

rH 

H 


CD 

3 

io' 



05 



co - 



• cr 

m 









w 

i 










•COr-(O 5 Tj<C 0 C< 5 C 0 t^t^COt-H 

•co>-ioooO'~iioa5'-<r~cO'-< 

• r— I r*H H 05 vN |>- 


o 

I© 

iq 

»© 

rH 


X5 

btB 

O B s 

2^3 g 

bC 

d 


O 

CD 

• LO • 

• co • 

• LQ O 

• o 

00 

GO 

- oo • 

• co • 

1 o o ; • 

• 00 

LO 


• 03 - 

• oo • 

‘CON 

• d 

LO 

05 

- • 

• iO • 

• 05 05 

• CD 

CO 

05 

• rH • 

• LO • 

co 

• o 


OOOhOO 

nooD^hio 


s? 

*3 c 

£h 


OOhWO^ 
OOCOOOO 
tq^r-^C^a^G^CO 
o' i> of rjf of co 
lO 05 


t^05 -OOrfi^NOOOO l© 

• oi i> -hiooo^oooo • i© 

• i© • t^c^ocq^to co r=n^ • o 
of o' oVhV cf of erf 


03 

05 

o 


CO 

o 


O I© o o o o o 

l© C3 03 05 O O O 


-G’P 
o c$ 
d •~zi 


t> co O 00 <M 05 LO 
W Q N ^ (N CO Cl 
iqr-qo^© cq^cq 
of co' CO of o' ^ of 

CO HCOH ^ 


^OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 

COOG^OOOOOOOOOOIOOO 


c0O(N00OC5OOOK5OOOiCHO 
CON(N^OIOOOCD^^^O(NHHCO 
cq oo t> o cq ^ »o oo co co t-h^ 

^ofrftftfc«fTfcde©ofofcfi©'' 3 fco'cf 


o 

co 

rq 

LO 

CO 

05 


, c 

- d 


c 

£ 


’ G P o o 

fa CUO o 

.5 § 2 §|,H S 3 
g’S-g Jills 

Spl^-SQ - 


cpq c o 
°3 £Sji a 
o O-^t 3 

o -P N ^ — 

X O O cc c 3 


bfi 

’S s 

ca o • 


a> 43 

03 CO 

6-g* 


03 S_ « W W [fl C3 « « 

cSO<CO^£KP 3 > 3 a 2 


3 g 
ffi S 2 


'CQ 


OS 

^ <§ h5 W 


rt?)K^li 5 ®NOOO)OHMM^lO®NOO©OHNM'a( 


o 

E - 1 


Receipts and Expenditures of High Schools and Collegiate Institutes. 


Annual Report, 1919 


49 


.2 e- 

o v 


-2 § 
QJ 


:-^SiOO(N03 

. LQ LQ LQ 


■^HOCOHOOlC 
iq_ ©__ ©__ © ©_ 00^ 

o' ©~ Otf T“T r-H o' 

04 t— ■( CO t'-» 04 CO 


OO^^N^N(N^COCO^iOWO £0 

(NC 0 (N 05 WC 0 NcD 00 h^O 0 )h^cD 

io *>^^^00 ©^©^oq^oo ojo^cq^ 
^c^ooVf^cd^oTd'od'cdcdofodcoof 

rH t-H 04 H t-H t— < CO 


CD ^ CD T*H 

• o • 

05 • • 




rJH 

05005N 

• o • 

t> • • 




04 

OOiON 

• ID • 

00 • • 


• -tH • 


00 

® lO 00 CD 

. ^ • 

o • • 





05 CO ^ 05 

* of 


co • • 




CO 

*o 


00 

iO 

1C 


. GO 
& ® 

-+■3 3 

O o 

c n 


OiOONOHiQ 

•lOOiO 

■ • • -O 

• LO • 

• © • 

00 

iO 05 ^ iO O 04 l> 

• o o ^ 

• • • •© 

• CO • 

•© • 

ID 

00 05 04 CO O CO 04 

• 04 d ^ 

• • • 04 

• ^ • 

• ia • 

T— * 1 

t-h t^- 04 00 04 

• CO y-* ID 

... 04 

• 04 • 

• 04 • 

»-H 

H 04 H N H 

=/? 

04^04 


■ 00 • 

•© • 




OOiOO^fNO 
O O CO C O 04 O 
© r^© © © 00 ID 

tO t-T to o ^ ©~ of 

ID CO 


© © 

• © 

■ © © © o © o 

• © 

• © © 


© H 

• o 

• © 04 © © © © 

• © 

• © ^ 

© 






tO 

© tH 

• ^ 

• © iD © © © 

• ID 

• © CO 


© 04 

• © 

• © r-H © 00 04 © 

• R- 

• © © 


© 

• T“H 

•■^H iOlO© © 

• ^ 

• co eo_ 

00 

00 

00 

m 

04 © 

H 


H00 - 04 CO 

iO 

04 

04 


C2 

o 

E£ 

p$ 



NOOCOMON 
04 O © 1^ ^ 04 00 


iD*D©iDiDiD©©©©© 

04040l>t^04i0000i0 


© 00 00 04 CO 04 © 
CiO^^^HOi 
04^ 04^0 O © ©^ CO 
O co' iO t>f i-=f 


05 04 O CO 00-04 05 04 00 05 O 

04I>cDCOCOi0^iOt-hc£>04 

04 ^ 00 ^ 1 ^ lO^-^O^ 
C$T*CQC*CQT*T*CQr-*i-4y-* 


iO O 

00 o 
00 o 


’ o 
o 
X 


rH 

04 

05 


■8 


_ © 
& X 

g c3 

tL 

£ ° 


05 HH^HO(M^OOOHOC 0050 NOOhOiOCfi 
NOiO^OiOO bJDO 000000000005c0000 


OiQ(D 05 05 ^iO^OOO(NOHHOaOONOOiO 
»i5 iC Tf CD 05 CO 05 -iOCOiOiONtOHNONONiOC^ 
04^0 00 O 00 ^00 O^O^O^H^WO^O^NO^NO^iOOO^H 

©* o' t>f rtf r-f i— T of 25 C^rH CO oT^^t^iCc^t^cN ^Tt-h rjf^-T 
^ WNH lO t~H tH H 

bto 

a 


Ttt 

04 

t*T 

co 

04 


'O 

^ S 

CO 2 
C3 .-D 

o a 

o 


© to 

• 00 04 

S - 4 

• © SI 

. rH © 00 © ^ • 

• • ^ ^ CO 00 

to 

• 04 

: 05 g- 

• © © oo © © r^- • 

• • © ^ N ^ 

04 

• 00 


. 00 © rH ID • 

• • 1-t 04 LO 04 

© © 

• to 

• ^ o 

• © ID 00 © rH -H . 

• • to 00 © © 

CO 

© © 

• ® a 

• CO H rH 

© r-H 04 







o 

TfH 


o3 

5? 


• • • • • • • • • • 

• • • t-i • 

• • • O • • . *.* 

: : : : \m s : 

: gJS & A ; : 

a % 8 sl g J.g S«^.S J | 

■ao a o g-a d gsa o«>>g 

tte-p &£' a a a §"8^ S-s-g-f-s S 


o 

H 


o 

S5 


*-H 04 C 0 ^i 0 C 0 t^ 0005 OrH 04 C 0 ^i 0 c 0 t ^00 05 O^ 04 C 0 ^< 
HHrlHHrHHHHH0<O4O4OiN 


Academic Standing Obtained in: 


50 


Department of Education 


2 


K 

£ 



Annual Report, 1919 


51 


\ 


C^t^COOOOCiOcOOCTJOOiO'^f-O 
W-I C<t Tji CO Cs 03 .-1 --a 1 CO O c£> ®> »o 
*■* (N <N <N 05 •<*< « 00 t© ^ 

o 

io 

CO 

c r 

• • 

rH 

t-H 


(N 

• • io <M h 00 O ^ ^ CD 03 Tin O 

• • (N ^ t>- CO ^ l> t-h 03 

438 

• ••••• rH • t— 1 • • • 

CO 

• • • • • CO H • H r=H * r-H 

03 

03 

• • • • i-H • 03 T*« • • • -H 

*C 

CO 

• •H05lOOC5lOOO^COH • ^ 

• • rH rH r-H t-H 

191 

i-H ^ 03 • tH • 

fH 

t-H 

• ••••••• r-H t-H r— 1 

IO 

• • • •C^hNhcccOhhh^ 


• • 03 00 CO •hhhc^hW 

CO 

• -ClHtNCO -HH -<Nr-H 03 


• •»CHCONHH^lC05H(NN 

• • WHW(N(M^COHCOH(N 

400 

•HOOCOCOHOOlQO^HfN 
• rH r-H r-H CO 

146 

• *NNO5HN00O5lM^NC0H 

• •^H^CO^'^T^l>I>COrH (M 

1,127 

• •COWCONNCCNCOOIOOCO 

• • HrHH^Cl^OlOCOHN 

938 

C3CD»OC0»-<C0C©0303^H00Oe0t>- 

T-h OO^iONWiOCOCClNiOiOO 

FHHHWWCOIOCO^ <M 

5,177 

^C0N00OOh(NC0t}<»0c0N0005 

OOOOOt— •»-'»-H*-H*-Hr-iT-HT-Hr-^»-H 
OiCiC >CiCiC5CiOG5CiOCiC5Ci 
HrlHHHHrlHHHHHHrt 

K 



52 


Department of Education 


List of School Districts Erected during 1919. 


No. 

Name 

Township 

Range 

Meridian 

4122 

Buffalo Hill 

24 and 25 

12 

W. 3rd 

4123 

4124 

4125 

Welcome Valley 

Vancise 

25 and 26 
22 

12 

25 and 26 

W. 3rd 
W. 2nd 
W. 3rd 

Mount Rumble 

16 and 17 

6 

4126 

Olicana 

35 and 36 

2 and 3 

W. 3rd 

4128 

Cosmopolitan 

29 and 30 

5 

W. 3rd 

4129 

Erinlea 

8 

10 

W. 3rd 

4130 

Omega 

3 and 4 

9 and 10 

W. 2nd 

4131 

Spruce Grove 

32 

2 

W. 2nd 

4132 

Bonnie Doon 

28 and 29 

10 

W. 3rd 

4133 

Cottage Grove 

54 and 55 

21 and 22 

W. 3rd 

4134 

Brada 

43 

15 and 16 

W. 3rd 

4135 

Bapaume 

30 and 31 

7 and 8 

W. 3rd 

4136 

Hillmond 

51 and 52 

26 

W. 3rd 

4137 

Canadian 

40 and 41 

27 and 28 

W. 3rd 

4138 

Olympic 

33 and 34 

12 and 13 

W. 3rd 

4139 

Hay land 

2 and 3 

12 and 13 

W. 2nd 

4140 

Mundell 

12 

32 and 33 

W. 1st 

4141 

Beauchamp 

7 

14 and 15 

W. 3rd 

4142 

Clydesdale 

3 and 4 

27 

W. 2nd 

4143 

Downing 

11 and 12 

10 and 11 

W. 2nd 

4144 

Kempville 

10 

25 

W. 2nd 

4145 

North Bench 

7 and 8 

23 and 24 

W. 3rd 

4146 

Shannon View 

42 and 43 

19 

W. 2nd 

4147 

Seward Hill 

14 and 15 

15 

W. 3rd 

4148 

Brooksdale 

50 and 51 

19 and 20 

W. 3rd 

4149 

Reed Lake 

39 and 40 

23 and 24 

W. 3rd 

4150 

Flowerville 

12 

13 and 14 

W. 3rd 

4151 

Balfour 

12 and 13 

13 and 14 

W. 3rd 

4152 

Maharg 

12 and 13 

12 and 13 

W. 3rd 

4153 

Falkland 

12 and 13 

11 and 12 

W. 3rd 

4154 

Iris 

13 and 14 

11 and 12 

W. 3rd 

4155 

Versailles 

13 and 14 

12 and 13 

W. 3rd 

4156 

La Bassee 

39 and 40 

4 

W. 3rd 

4157 

Embury 

40 

j 4 and 5 

W. 3rd 

4158 

Steele 

40 

4 and 5 

W. 3rd 

4159 

Bayard 

3 and 4 

2 and 3 

W. 3rd 

4160 

Rocky Mound 

9 and 10 

28 and 29 

VV . ord 

4161 

Liverpool 

33 

3 

W. 2nd 

4162 

Cordelia 

49 and 50 

20 and 21 

W. 3rd 

4163 

Rose Vale 

31 and 32 

13 

W. 2nd 

4164 

New Insinger 

29 

8 

W. 2nd 

4165 

Willowvale 

18 

30 and 31 

W. 1st 

4166 

Pinto Creek 

7 and 8 

9 

W. 3rd 

4167 

South Frobisher 

2 

3 and 4 

W. 2nd 

4168 

Alandale 

32 

20 and 21 

W. 3rd 

4169 

Monet 

26 and 27 

15 

W. 3rd 

4170 

Garville 

3 and 4 

23 and 24 

W. 2nd 

4171 

Rereshill 

46 and 47 

25 and 26 

W. 3rd 

4172 

Ridgehill 

25 

26 

W. 2nd 

4173 

Belleau Brook 

35 and 36 

32 

W. 1st 

4174 

Manitou Hill 

32 and 33 

25 and 26 

W. 2nd 

4175 

White Cap 

44 and 45 

17 and 18 

W. 3rd 

4176 

Grainland 

12 

7 

W. 2nd 

4177 

Rich Hill 

34 

7 and 8 

W. 3rd 

4178 

Spy Ridge 

40 and 41 

18 and 19 

W. 3rd 

4179 

Rose River 

42 

6 and 7 

W. 3rd 

4180 

Greenvale 

35 

25 and 26 

W. 3rd 

4181 

Clow 

27 and 28 

27 and 28 

W. 3rd 

4182 

Wavy Creek 

12 

4 

W. 3rd 

4183 

Thorneliffe 

22 

21 and 22 

W. 2nd 

4184 

Nut Mountain 

36 and 37 

9 

W. 2nd 

4185 

Ranch Centre 

13 

19 and 20 

W. 3rd 

4186 

Dunning 

9 and 10 

/ 30 

l 1 

W. 2nd . 
W. 3rd 1 


Annual Report, 1919 


53 


List of School Districts Erected during 1919 — Continued. 


No. 

Name 

Township 

Range 

Meridian 

4187 

4188 

Gooseberry Tjake . 

11 and 12 

9 

W. 2nd 

Uxbridge 

5 

19 and 20 

W. 3rd 

4189 

Rock Mountain 

1 and 2 

26 

W. 2nd 

4190 

4191 

East Side 

28 and 29 

28 and 29 

W. 3rd 

Port Arthur 

39 and 40 

12 and 13 

W. 2nd 

4192 

4193 

4194 

4195 

4196 

4197 

4198 

4199 

4200 

4201 

4202 

4203 

4204 

4205 

4206 

4207 

4208 

4209 

4210 

4211 

4212 

4213 

4214 

4215 

4216 

4217 

4218 

4219 

Blairlogie 

26 

/ 29 

W. 2nd 
W. 3rd 
W. 3rd 

Vindictive 

8 and 9 

Lister 

33 

31 and 32 

W. 1st 

Crimea 

25 and 26 

25 

W. 3rd 

Robin 

49 and 50 

15 and 16 

W. 3rd 

Sunny Knoll 

25 

27 

W. 2nd 

Avebury 

48 

7 

W. 3rd 

Cloverdale 

50 

25 and 26 

W. 2nd 

Coulee Hill 

7 

22 and 23 

W. 3rd 

Atoimah 

8 and 9 

11 and 12 

W. 3rd 

Llanwenarth 

26 and 27 

19 

W. 2nd 

Gertrude 

38 

23 and 24 

W. 2nd 

Manitou Plain 

44 

24 

W. 3rd 

Riverstone 

47 and 48 

15 

W. 2nd 

Root 

26 

25 

W. 3rd 

Nichol 

32 and 33 

25 

W. 3rd 

Honora 

15 and 16 

22 

W. 3rd 

Riverburn 

4 and 5 

18 and 19 

W. 3rd 

Roseneatb 

16 and 17 

5 and 6 

W. 3rd 

Snowbird 

43 

5 and 6 

W. 3rd 

Mountain View 

1 

25 

W. 3rd 

Lake Lillian 

13 and 14 

28 

W. 3rd 

Big Arm 

9 and 10 

22 and 23 

W. 3rd 

Carnagh 

25 and 26 

24 and 25 

W. 2nd 

Edinburgh 

12 and 13 

8 and 9 

W. 3rd 

Kilton Hill 

17 and 18 

14 

W. 3rd 

Norris 

33 

20 and 21 

W. 3rd 

Lac Cheval 

45 and 46 

2 and 3 

W. 3rd 

4220 

4221 

Cantire 

14 and 15 

21 

W. 2nd 

Teepee 

24 and 25 

23 and 24 

W. 3rd. 

4222 

Dundalk 

10 and 11 

25 and 26 

W. 2nd 

4223 

Sand Creek 

1 

23 and 24 

W. 3rd 

4224 

Fortsburgh 

50 and 51 

27 

W. 2nd 

4225 

Fairholme 

35 

9 and 1C 

W. 3rd 

4226 

Souris Flat 

1 

34 

W. 1st 

4227 

Deer Run 

52 

19 

W. 3rd 

4228 

Meadow Ville 

28 

2i and 25 

W. 2nd 

4229 

Ackerman 

36 

28 

W. 3rd 

4230 

Bordervale 

1 and 2 

1 arid 2 

W. 3rd 

4231 

Clashmoor 

45 and 46 

13 

W. 2nd 

4232 

Suffield 

14 

19 

W. 3rd 

4233 

Hardy 

6 

20 and 21 

W. 2nd 

4234 

Half Way 

47 and 48 

23 and 24 

W. 3rd. 

4235 

Sewton 

48 

22 an<l 23 

W. 3rd 
W. 2nd 

4236 

Holland 

48 

14 and 15 

4237 

Bon Accord 

27 

10 and 11 

W. 2nd 

4238 

Fanford 

48 and 49 

22 and 23 

W. 2nd 

4239 

Brancepeth 

46 and 47 

23 

W. 2nd 

4240 

Little Bridge 

48 and 49 

15 and 16 

W. 2nd 

4241 

Hay Meadow 

4 and 5 

1 and 2 

W. 3rd 

4242 

Whitfield 

49 and 50 

26 and 27 

W. 2nd 

4243 

Aryton 

2 and 3 

30 

W. 2nd 

4244 

Bell Rock 

31 and 32 

3 

W. 3rd 

4245 

Little Moose Lake 

42 

22 

W. 2nd 
W. 3rd 

4246 

South Loverna 

30 

28 and 29 

4247 

Candiac 

14 

9 and 10 

W. 2nd 

4248 

Prairie College 

26 and 27 

2 

W. 3rd 

4249 

Lake Russell 

48 and 49 

18 and 19 

W. 3rd 



54 


Department of Education 


List of School Districts Erected during 1919 — -Continued. 


No. 

Name 

Township 

Range 

Meridian 

4250 

Lake Mona 

22 and 23 

8 and 9 

W. 2nd 

4251 

Sugar Hill 

51 and 52 

3 and 4 

W. 3rd 

4252 

Tagg 

8 

15 and 16 

W . 2nd 

4253 

M undie 

7 

21 

W. 2nd 

4254 

Eagle Valiev 

42 

17 and 18 

W. 3rd 

4255 

Twamley 

13 and 14 

16 

W. 3rd 

4256 

Eldred 

53 

7 

W. 3rd 

4257 

Waterbury 

41 

10 and 11 

W. 3rd 

4258 

Lunby 

17 and 18 

2 

W. 2nd 

4259 

Stefan 

5 

1 

W. 3rd 

4260 

Clay Loam 

28 and 29 

27 

W. 3rd 

4261 

Meskanaw 

44 

22 

W. 2nd 

4262 

Little Six 

7 and 8 

13 and 14 

W. 3rd 

4263 

Higgson 

28 and 29 

17 

W. 3rd 

4264 

Ryeburn Valley 

1 and 2 

18 and 19 

W. 2nd 

4265 

Rhyl 

36 

19 and 20 

W. 3rd 

4266 

South Radville 

5 

17 and 18 

W. 2nd 

4267 

Fairwell Creek 

7 

24 

W. 3rd 

4268 

Antelope Valley 

1 and 2 

21 

W. 3rd 

4269 

White Poplar 

44 and 45 

4 

W. 2nd 

4270 

Local Centre 

39 

21 

W. 3rd 

4271 

Church Hill 

26 and 27 

11 

W. 2nd 

1272 

Glengarry 

5 

18 

W. 3rd 

4273 

Loon Lake 

57 and 58 

21 and 22 

W. 3rd 

4274 

Saltmead 

29 

19 and 20 

W. 3rd 

4275 

Murray Lake 

47 

16 

W. 3rd 

4276 

Bitter Lake 

14 and 15 

29 

W. 3rd 

9 

R.C.S. Edam 

48 and 49 

19 and 20 

W. 3rd 


Alterations in Names of School Districts, 1919. 


No. 

Name of 
school district 

Changed to 

1138 

Parkside 

Honeywood 

1445 

ldylwood 

Parkside 

1944 

Ryan 

Spring Grove 

CP 15 

St Joseph de 
Dauphinais 

St. Joseph de 
Dauphinais 
No. 317 

1692 

Wasileff 

Yemen 

1884 

Spring Hill . . . 

Norquay Village 

2367 

Austria 

Aysgarth 

2505 

Howiedale . . . 

Superb 

4137 

O’Leary 

Canadian 

4147 

Seaward Hill . . 

Seward Hill 

2935 

Carlsburg 

Millsdale 


No. 

Name of 
school district 

Changed to 

2195 

Morningside . . 

Rush Lake 

4149 

Reed Lake.. . . 

Alfred Knowles 

2433 

Horosziwci. . . . 

War End 

2421 

Kilbach 

Melville View 

3972 

North Percy. . 

Glenwood 

4032 

Hardscrabble . 

Kinmount 

4262 

Bull Creek.. . . 

Little Six 

2055 

Bridgeford — 

Hawoods 

1649 

Fairdale 

Bridgeford 

1542 

Strassburg 



Station 

Strasbourg 

264 

Verenczanka. . 

New Canadian 


No. 

2489 

1676 

3840 - 

1045 

3139 

3801 

1458 

1323 

217 

2725 

4240 

271 

4115 

4116 

4117 

3386 

3496 

4117 

2863 

706 

217 

2504 

4072 

1328 

3942 

4252 

451 

2985 

668 

1666 

3246 

3692 

514 

1676 

4192 

3605 

2400 

514 

1676 

3454 

2545 

2553 

2962 

2058 

2407 

3739 

2433 

3261 

3972 

89 


Annual Report, 1919 

\ 

List of Official Trustees Appointed during 1919. 


S3 


Name of 
school district 


Buffer’s Lake 

Poplar Springs 

St. Eloi 

East Weyburn 

Conquest 

Wildflower 

Riel Dana 

Braeburn 

Line Coulee 

Seifert 

Little Bridge 

Whitesand 

Pembroke 

Renfrew 

Venice 

Reinfeld 

Nanton 

Venice 

Ardath 

Winnetka 

Line Coulee 

Audley 

Carlton Siding 

Robert 

Five Mile Creek 

Tagg 

Hamona 

MacVille 

Hannah ville 

Toporoutz 

Raspberry Creek .... 

Ypres 

Devil’s Lake 

Poplar Springs 

Blairlogie 

Brena 

Kitzman 

Devil’s Lake 

Poplar Springs 

Sich 

Green Lawn 

City View 

Mount Carmel 

Pleasant Grove 

Willing 

Dumas 

War End 

Johnson Lake 

North Percy 

Two Rivers 


Official trustee 


Brunelle, H. E 

Bomford, A. R. G 

Bitcon, John 

Bullis, W. J..L 

Balkwill, A.. . . .' 

Barber, Richard S — 

Currie, J. H 

Cowie, J. E. . 

Crysler, H. L 

Corscadden, A. W. A. 

Dahlstrom, L. W 

Evans, Norman 

Friesen, J. J.. 

Friesen, J. J 

Friesen, J. J 

Fisher, H. W. 

Green, W 

Holz, Chas 

Haskett, M. Y 

Holden, W 

Halladay, C 

Keith, J. J.. 

Klassen, G. G. 

Kendal, John 

Lawson, J. B 

Longueville, P. J 

Meyrick, H. A 

Morris, L. A 

Maxwell, J. J 

Mugford, S. J 

Morrison, Henry .... 

McKellar, R. A 

McKay, Norman.. . . 
McKay, Norman.. . . 

McLeod, J. Alex 

McKay, Norman.. . . 

Oswald, O. T 

Paul, James 

Paul, James 

Roberts, J 

Reynolds, Martin T.. 
Read, Chas. J. R. . . . 
Reynolds, Martin T. . 
Reynolds, Martin T.. 
Reynolds, Martin T. . 

Sim, William 

Smith, John 

Shcpardson, W. R. . . 
Thomson, Alex. G — 
Wilkie, Jas 


Address 


Vonda 

Canora * 

Kindersley 

Weyburn 

Conquest 

Morse 

Vonda 

Kindersley 

GovenSock 

Macklin 

Spooner 

Springside 

Rosthern 

Rosthern 

Rosthern 

Hague 

Fenwood 

Rosthern 

Ardath 

Eden wold 

Govenlock 

Waldron 

Carlton 

Goodeve 

Limerick 

Weyburn 

Tantallon 

Bengough 

Shaunavon 

Rothbury 

Perdue 

Elrose 

Canora 

Canora 

Davidson 

Canora 

Rhein 

Canora 

Canora 

Blaine Lake 

Annaheim 

Moose Jaw 

Annaheim 

Annaheim 

Annaheim 

Windthorst 

Theodore 

Expanse 

Kisbey 

Bethune 


56 


Department of Education 


School Districts Disorganised in 1919. 


No. 

Name 

Date disorganised 

No. 

Name 

Date disorganised 

75 

2394 

620 

4028 

1750 

1755 

21C.P. 

Roy ton 

Lonsdale 

Brunswick. . . . 
West End .... 
Throstlenest . . 
Charlottenburg 
St. Julien 

Mar. 19, 1919 
Mar. 19, 1919 
Mar. 19, 1919 
Aug. 14, 1919 
Get. 1 , 1919 
Oct. 1, 1919 
Nov. 26, 1919 

25C.P. 

32C.P. 

9C.P. 

1850 

2347 

1297 

1564 

Belanger .... 

Moulin 

Grandin 

Layfield 

Violet Hill. . . 
Rouworth . . . 
Warminster. . 

Nov. 26, 1919 
Nov. 26, 1919 
Nov. 26, 1919 
Sept. 25, 1919 
Sept. 25, 1919 
Sept. 25, 1919 
Sept. 25, 1919 


Winners of Governor General’s Medals, 1919. 


Regina C.I Donald Edmund Armstrong. 2312 Cornwall Street, Regina 

Moose Jaw C.I Cyprienne Anne Lenhard, Grace 

Saskatoon C.I Helen Gordon Manson, Bright Sands 

Prince Albert C.I Irene Evelyn Frith, 320 Eleventh Street E., Prince Albert 

Moosomin C.I Robert B. Martin, Dubuc 

Yorkton C.I Warren Whittier Nicholas, Yorkton 

Weyburn C.I Clifford Joseph Goheen, Ogema 

North Battleford H.S... .Wybren Hiemstra, Edam 

Swift Current H.S Dorothea Irene Horton, Swift Current 

Battleford H.S Greta Lenora Nicoll, Battleford 

Estevan H.S Lucy Doris Leslie, Estevan 

Oxbow H.S Clifford Earl Nesbitt, Oxbow 

Indian Head H.S Leonard Wilton Van Alstine, Indian Head 

Areola H.S Eula Winnifred Webster, Areola 

Humboldt H.S Hugh Brown, Humboldt 

Qu’Appelle H.S Edith Amas, Qu’Appelle 

Wilkie H.S.. Edith Whittles, Wilkie 

Wynyard H.S Sigurveig Josephson, Box 63, Kandahar 

Strasbourg H.S Hammond Addison MacKinnon, Strasbourg 

Melfort H.S Ernest Harold Fennell, Melfort 

Maple Creek H.S Walter Ronald Meadows, Maple Creek 

Lloydminster H.S Doris Hall Holland, Lloydminster 


Students from rural schools who obtained the highest standing in the Grade VIII 
examination, 1919: 

Sautner S.D. No. 3696, Alice Irene Peacock, Box 157, Leader. 

Malvern Link S.D. No. 717, James McDonald Minifie, Box 16, Vanguard. 
Students from village and town schools who obtained the highest standing in the 
Grade VIII examination, 1919: 

Wolseley S.D. No. 25, Edith Eleanor Marlin, Wolseley. 

Harris S.D. No. 2498, James Reginald Burnett, Harris. 


PART II 

SPECIAL REPORTS 

AND 

REPORTS OF INSPECTORS OF SCHOOLS 


58 


Department of Education 


SUMMER SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS AT THE UNIVERSITY 
OF SASKATCHEWAN. 

As in former years a Summer School designed to meet the 
needs of teachers who wished to improve their educational standing 
was held at the University of Saskatchewan. To accommodate 
teachers who were not free to take the full course of six weeks, 
the work was divided into quarters of three weeks’ duration, each 
complete in itself. The first and third quarters ran concurrently 
from July 2 to 21; the second and fourth quarters from July 21 
to August 9. Teachers were expected, in so far as could be 
arranged, to take some part of the work in agriculture or household 
science with other special work on the programme. 

This year saw the largest attendance on record at the summer 
school. There were two types of course offered, one leading to a 
University Degree and the other intended to improve the standing 
of teachers actually engaged in teaching the prescribed course of 
study. For the first seventy-nine students registered and for the 
second seventy-seven, classified as follows: 


(i) Academic Classes. 


' — * ■' 

Class 

Number of students 
registered 

Instructor 

Chemistry Sla 

11 

Prof. Thorvaldson 

Chemistry Sib 

n 

Prof. Thorvaldson 

French Sa 

7 

Prof. MacDonald 

French SI 

5 

Prof. MacDonald 

History Sla 

.10 

Prof. Morton 

History Sib 

10 

Prof. Morton 

Mathematics Sib 

7 

Prof. Ling 

Mathematics Sic 

5 

Prof. Ling 

Physics Sla 

25 

Prof. Hogg 

Physics Sib 

22 

Prof. Hogg 


(u) Pedagogic Classes. 


Class 

Number of students 
registered 

Instructor 

Agriculture and Science 

11 

M. R. Ballard, B.Sc. 

Art 

32 

A. M. McDermott, B.S.A. 
Mrs M. V. Thornton 

Health Education 

6 

M'ss J. E. Browne, Reg.N. 
Miss 1. Shaw 

Household Science 

16 

Manual Training 

2 

W. W. Snider 

Music 

12 

W. E. McCann 



The work done in the academic classes was substantially the 
same as that done in corresponding classes in the regular academic 
year and was intended to be equivalent to it in educational value. 
Numbers of students are encouraged to proceed to their degrees 
by being enabled to start in the summer and almost all such students 
make up by their studies the difference between the work of a sum- 


Annual Report, 1919 


39 


mer class and that of the regular academic year. This matter 
has been considered in many other places where summer sessions 
are held and there seems to be no tendency to reduce the credit 
given for summer session classes. 

The work of the pedagogic classes was made as practical as 
possible. The course in agricultural science included study |of 
the following: roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds, soils, gophers, 
insects, plant propagation and fungous diseases of plants. The 
students made local or extended tours for study of the phenomena 
especially valuable to them and also visited the Forestry Farm 
near Sutherland. The students in the art classes received instruc- 
tion in model drawing, freehand drawing with special attention 
to blackboard drawing as required in the classroom, designing 
and handwork. In health education the time was equally divided 
between school hygiene and physical training. In the first quarter 
the time was devoted to a course in physiology supplemented by a 
lecture on tuberculosis by Dr. Ferguson, Superintendent of the 
Qu’Appelle Sanatorium, and a course of lectures on bacteriology by 
Dr. Manning, Professor of Chemistry at the University. Marches, 
folk dances, folk songs, games, sports and dumb-bell exercises were 
taught. In the second quarter a course in practical school hygiene, 
first aid and home nursing was given. This was supplemented 
by two lectures on eugenics given by Prof. W. P. Thompson of the 
University. In addition to a review of the first quarter’s work 
in physical culture, club-swinging and curative and preventive 
exercises were taken and a programme of work for the year for each 
teacher was planned. The course in household science included 
lectures and practical work in cooking, sewing and household 
administration. In connection with the last-named, excursions 
were made to two local furnishing houses. A well-rounded course 
in manual training was provided, in which, besides the regular 
work done in the shop a series of lectures was given, with instruction 
in_ mechanical drawing and some work in design taken with the 
art class. The music course covered the work required for Grade 
VIII and the Junior Form of the High School. Elementary form, 
with special reference to the construction of the hymn tune, folk 
song and ballard, elementary acoustics and a brief historical survey 
completed the theoretical part of the course. The practical part 
dealt with schoolroom methods, chorus conducting, tone pro- 
duction, etc., and a curriculum for each grade of the public school 
was outlined for the guidance of the students. 

To relieve the strain of the steady class work, lectures in 
subjects apart from classroom work were arranged for the evenings, 
also concerts, dances and excursions to points of interest. Pro- 
fessor J. B. Arp, Superintendent of Schools, Jackson County, 
Minnesota, spent an entire week at the Summer School, delivering 
an address every evening. Lectures were also given by Professors 
Manning and Thompson of the University staff; Mr. J. E. McLarty, 
formerly Director of Rural Education for Prince Edward Island; 
Mr. F. Bradshaw, Chief Game Guardian for Saskatchewan; Dr. 
Ferguson, Superintendent of the Qu’Appelle Sanatorium; Mr. 
Norman Ross, -Chief of the Tree Planting Division at Indian Head; 


s > 


60 


Department of Education 


Superintendent McLean of the Forestry Farm, Sutherland, and 
Dr. J. T. M. Anderson of Regina. 

Summer School Staff. 

President: 

Walter C. Murray, LL.D. 

Registrars: 

A. R. Weir, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon 
R. F. Blacklock, Department of Education, Regina 

instructors: 

Agriculture and Elementary Science: 

W. J. Rutherford, Dean of the College of Agriculture, Saskatoon 
Professor Bracken, University, Field Husbandry 
Professor Tisdale, University, Animal Husbandry 
Professor Hogg, University, Physics 
Professor Thorvaldson, University, Chemistry 
M. McDermott, B.S.A., Assistant Director of Elementary Agriculture, Regina 
. R. Ballard, B.Sc., Instructor in Agriculture and Elementary Science, Collegiate 

Institute, Moose Jaw 

Household Science: 

M'ss Isabel Shaw, Assistant Director of Household Science, Regina 
Miss Lilia Isbister, Teacher of Household Science, Saskatoon 
Miss Margaret Campbell, Assistant Director of Household Science, Regina 

Art and Manual Training: 

Mrs. M. V. Thornton, Instructor in Art, Regina College, Regina 
W. W. Snider, Instructor in Manual Training, Collegiate Institute, 

Moose Jaw 

David Swan, Instructor in Manual Training, Provincial Normal School, Regina 

French : 

Professor MacDonald, University 
History: 

Professor Morton, University 
Mathematics: 

Professor Ling, University, Trigonometry, Algebra 
Hygiene and Physical Culture: 

Miss Jean Browne, Director of School Hygiene for Saskatchewan, Regina 
Miss Jean Urquhart, Extension Staff in Hygiene, Department of Education, Regina 
Miss Pearl McNeill, Instructor in Physical Culture, Collegiate Institute, Regina 

Music: 

W. E. McCann, Supervisor of Music, Public Schools, Regina 


Annual Report, 1919 


61 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to present herewith my report as 
Director of Rural Education Associations and School Exhibitions 
for the year ending December 31, 1919. 

The development of the School Exhibition and Rural Education 
Association movements in 1918 was so rapid and future possibilities 
so apparent, that the Department of Education decided to place* 
these activities under the direction of a person who should spend 
his full time and energy in this work throughout the province. 
In November, 1918, I received this appointment and assumed 
my duties early in 1919. 

In planning the work it was decided to continue along the 
lines which had proved so satisfactory in the past. Not only 
should school exhibitions and rural education associations be assisted 
in their immediate needs but also every opportunity should be 
grasped to bring about a true understanding of the place and pur- 
pose of these activities. This implied lectures to teachers in train- 
ing and in the field as well as public meetings where the general 
public were given an opportunity to study the work. In every 
phase, the school inspector was recognised to be the man in charge 
of the educational work of his district and an endeavour was made 
to keep definitely in touch with him in everything attempted. 
In this report the work will be considered under three main headings, 
viz.: School Exhibitions, Rural Education Associations and general 
educative propaganda. 

School Exhibitions . — The first decade of this work in Saskat- 
chewan has just ended. Of this period the first half was devoted 
to discussion and education while the latter portion has been a 
season of rapid development, as indicated by the following state- 
ment of the numbers reported year by year. 


Year Numbers reported 

1909 1 

1914 14 

1915 42 

1916 84 

1917 129 

1918 175 

1919 207 


Not only has this development been marked by increase in 
numbers but there has been as well a marked adaptation of the work 
to the school and its needs. The first exhibition was an attempt 
to truly express the school and it activities. The exhibitions of 
the past year have, more than ever before, given the public an 
opportunity to see what is being done in the schools of Saskat- 
chewan. That this opportunity is being well made use of, is shown 
by the attendance figures which promise, when all reports are in, 
not only greatly to exceed those of previous years but as well to 
show a higher general average. 


62 


Department of Education 


But the school exhibition of today is doing more than merely 
express the work of the school. It is emphasising those phases 
of work which should have greater attention such as music, public 
speaking and play. Each year sees a development of the contest 
work which brings the attention of the public to these weak points 
and prepares the way for such modification of the school programme 
as shall make it possible to adequately meet present day deficien- 
cies. It is pleasing to note in this connection the growth of club 
work such as poultry raising, calf feeding, swine growing, etc. 
By means of these projects the child is given an opportunity to 
do something of his own, he goes into business and at once becomes 
more interested in the life about the home. The value of such 
work cannot be over estimated and its further development is 
ardently hoped for. 

With the growth of the work new difficulties have arisen. 
The value of holding at least one “children’s day” during the 
year has appealed to all. Into this day has been crowded the school 
exhibition, the sports programme, boys’ and girls’ club work, 
•and the many special contests such as physical training, spelling, 
etc. This makes a very long programme which frequently lasts 
far into the night. To overcome this a number of points are 
holding a two days’ exhibition. Others hold a sports’ day in 
connection with a school picnic early in the summer. Others 
have done away with the evening meeting and are holding their 
contests later at the time of the annual meeting. It would seem 
not at all out of proportion to have two or even three days during 
the year specially devoted to the work of the school children. 

Whatever the future of the school exhibition may be, it is 
rapidly reaching the stage of satisfactory organisation. In a num- 
ber of inspectorates there is now a complete scheme whereby each 
school is attached to a group and every child has an opportunity 
to exhibit the results of its efforts. There are several varieties 
of organisation which are more or less modifications of three main 
types. The beginning is usually of what might be termed the 
local autonomy type. A group of schools form an organisation 
and develop a prize list and programme of work without any 
relationship to neighbouring groups. At the other extreme is the 
central inspectoral form in which a committee of the Teachers’ 
Association of the inspectorate develops an inspectoral prize list, 
selects local centres and designates the grouping of schools con- 
stituting these locals. The local centres finance local operations 
and provide funds for the central organisation which in return 
holds an exhibition at which the winning exhibits from the locals 
are eligible to enter. Another type developed during the year in 
which the rural municipality constituted the territory for a central 
organisation which arranged an exhibition at which the winning 
exhibits of the locals were shown. In this case the locals consisted 
of groups of two or three rural schools each. Schools of more than 
two rooms were classed as locals and could only enter three exhibits 
in each section at the central. 

As hinted in last year’s report, practice more and more inclines 
to the natural trading group as the most efficient unit for school 


Annual Report, 1919 


63 


exhibition purposes. The principle involved is simply to make 
use of the usual habits of travel in the community when planning 
the exhibition. During the year several Rural Education Associa- 
tions recognised this principle and held two, three and even four 
exhibitions in the municipality involved. 

Again, the work is becoming more efficient through early 
organisation. Already a number of centres have the 1920 prize 
lists printed and in the schools. Several have their work in such 
good shape, that new booklets are not being issued, last year’s 
lists with a few slight amendments being used for 1920. 

The largest problem now facing the movement is the estab- 
lishment of standards. It is impossible to supply judges in suffi- 
cient numbers to visit all the exhibitions and do all the judging. 
Local judges must be pressed into service. It is felt that there 
should be leadership provided in this phase of work and therefore 
an attempt has been made to send to each point one or more outside 
judges. To bring this about arrangements were made with the 
various branches of the Department of Education, the Department 
of Agriculture, the University Extension Department, the Normal 
Schools and some of the Collegiates whereby all available help 
was pooled and much duplication of effort avoided. In this way 
expert assistance was provided at 160 points. Very frequently 
the visiting judges were given opportunity to address the public 
on some phase of school work. 

It is hoped to render still greater assistance in this regard in 
1920. To make such possible, exhibitions must be arranged in 
circuits so that time and energy may be best utilised and travelling 
reduced to a minimum. In 1919 several circuits were arranged 
and during the fall a great deal of preliminary work was done 
toward a complete organisation of the province for 1920. At 
present, indications are that with few exceptions this principle 
will be accepted and the exhibitions of 1920 will be held on dates 
which will make it possible to have two or more outside judges at 
each centre. 

At the annual convention of the Saskatchewan Teachers’ 
Association in April, an exhibit of prize winning material from 
inspectoral centres was shown. This was simply a beginning of 
what is hoped will develop into an important feature of the con- 
vention. Certain difficulties in operating such a scheme have 
prevented the development expected this year, but the idea has 
not been dropped and will be carried into effect in the near future. 

Rural Education Associations . — Another year of marked success 
in the Rural Education Association Movement has just closed. 
Of the eighty-three associations reported in existence at the end of 
1918, some seventy-four reorganised and carried on a successful 
year’s work. During the year forty-one new organisations were 
formed while three points where associations had been in existence 
but allowed to lapse, again took up the work making a total of 
forty-four in addition to the seventy-four referred to above. This 
constitutes a record year in organisation work which closed with 
118 associations in good standing. 


64 


Department of Education 


Number of Rural Education Associations 1916 to 1919 inclusive. 


Year 

Organised 

during 

year 

Re-organised 

during 

year 

Disbanded 

Operating 
at close 
of year 

1916 

38 



38 

1917 

26 

31 

7 

57 

1918 

33 

50 

7 

83 

1919 

44 

74 

9 

118 


A study of the above table indicates that the movement is 
growing in stability. In 1917, 18.4 per cent, of the associations 
failed to reorganise. This dropped to 12.3 per cent, for 1918 
while during the past year only 10.8 per cent, gave up the work. 
While it is not possible to show all the other evidences of permanency 
a close study of the work convinces one that the association is 
finding for itself a real place in the life of our province. 

During the year three inspectorates, Elbow, Milestone and 
Humboldt joined the ranks of those completely organised into 
Rural Education Association groups. Marked progress toward 
this same end may be noted in several other portions of the prov- 
ince. The new associations have in most cases organised on the 
community group basis rather than following municipal lines, 
and in some cases further reorganisation toward this end is likely 
to take place. 

The school exhibition continues to hold the premier place 
among the activities carried on. The growth of general community 
effort, however, has been very marked throughout the year. 
Boys’ and Girls’ Club work had developed, relatively, more than 
any other activity and experience shows that the Rural Education 
Association is the most satisfactory organisation under which 
to carry on' such work. In a growing number of instances a definite 
attempt has been made to develop a full community programme. 
For example, the Eldon Association with centre at Maidstone 
reports that upon reorganising late in 1919, it was decided to carry 
on the work in four main divisions or groups with a separate com- 
mittee in charge of each. These divisions or branches are: 1. The 
School Exhibition in charge of a committee of teachers; 2. The 
Boys’ and Girls’ Club of which the Sheep Club was best developed, 
this club committee being made up of prominent farmers expert 
in sheep, pig, or poultry raising; 3. A sport’s department of which 
the committee was planning a complete programme of school 
sports culminating in a community sports’ day and 4. The Social 
Department to provide and promote social work and entertainment 
of educational nature for the community. 

As hitherto, the early spring months have been most popular 
for organisation purposes. As the true character of the Association 
is becoming known, there is less excuse for putting off th organisa- 
tion meeting and a growing tendency is shown to organise in the 
early fall. This is most evident in matters of reorganisation,' a 
large number having decided to hold the annual meeting in Novem- 


Annual Report, 1919 


65 


ber and early December. In this connection quite a few have 
held the contests in spelling, singing, etc., at the time of the annual 
meeting, thus removing the long evening programme from the 
the school exhibition which certainly has sufficient of interest 
and entertainment without it. 

The call for assistance at Rural Education Association meetings 
is much greater than can be supplied. Over twenty-five centres 
were visited personally and assistance was arranged, for as many 
other points. In this phase of the work the co-operation of all 
interested in community betterment has been freely sought and 
as freely extended in so far as conditions would permit. Practically 
every association has held at least two public meetings and many 
have organised series. It is for such meetings that the request for 
assistance is most urgent and every effort is put forth to provide 
the help desired. 

The library of lantern slides is at last coming into real service. 
For a time it seemed as if the effort was not worth the trouble. 
Toward the end of the year, however, the demand became so great 
that it was found necessary to arbitrarily arrange lecture sets and 
therefore reduce the number of topics. Sixteen lecture sets, 
numbered and named as follows are now available for loaning. 


Lecture Set No. 1 The British Empire 70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 2 Agriculture in Many Lands 75 slides 

Lecture Set No. 3 Homes and People of Many Lands.. . .70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 4 Child Life 70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 5 Food Stuffs and theiir handling 70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 6 Industries related to the home 70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 7 Mining and Manufacture 75 slides 

Lecture Set No. 8 Animal Life 70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 9 Architecture 70 -slides 

Lecture Set No. 10 Hills and Mountains 75 slides 

Lecture Set No. 11 Europe 75 slides 

Lecture Set No. 12 Asia and Africa 70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 13 United States and Possessions 75 slides 

Lecture Set No. 14 The American Continent 70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 15 Canada 70 slides 

Lecture Set No. 16 The British Isles 70 slides 


A number of associations having secured lanterns during 
the year are organising work among the schools in their groups. 
Several have arranged with local ministers to use their lanterns 
for such meetings 

The function of the Rural Education Association has become 
much clearer during the year, and its true place is becoming appre- 
ciated. The need for some such organisation is greater than ever 
and when once fairly tried, it has proven its value. During the 
year, School Agriculture Circular No. 12 “The Rural Education 
Association, a Community Organization,” was prepared and issued, 
in which an attempt was made to place the association and its work 
in better perspective. The development during the latter part 
of the year indicates that this effort has not been without its effect. 
The community character of the association is secured through 
the Board of Directors which consists of representatives from 
every group organisation in the community. We have, there- 
fore, in the Rural Education Association a true community club, 
rooted in the only community institution in general existence — 


66 


Department of Education 


the school. The possibilities of such an organisation are tremendous 
and the future development of the work quite beyond present 
appreciation. 

General Educative Effort . — In order to develop in the teachers 
in training an intelligent understanding of their duties in regard 
to School Exhibitions and Rural Education Associations, a visit 
to each Normal School Centre was arranged. To conserve time 
and energy the inspector of Normal Schools requested that a 
short course in school agriculture, similar to that given in previous 
years, be put on at the same time. January and February were 
devoted to this work, a course of talks on School Agriculture, School 
Gardening, Nature Study, the School Exhibition and Rural Educa- 
tion Association being given the Third Class Normal students at 
Estevan, Weyburn, Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Yorkton, Prince 
Albert and Saskatoon, while a discussion of the school exhibition 
work was held with the First and Second Class students at Regina 
and Saskatoon. 

Wherever and whenever opportunity presented itself, the 
claims of the work were placed before the general public. Some 
forty-five public addresses were given, including one before the 
Trustees’ Convention and ten at Teachers’ Conventions. At 
practically every school exhibition, opportunity to speak was 
afforded while the meetings of the Rural Education Associations 
were always attended by large numbers of the people of the com- 
munity. 

In addition to the above, almost four weeks were spent on 
the Better Farming train. As in previous years, a special schools’ 
section was -provided by which the school children in attendance at 
the train were given a programme of their own including lantern 
lectures on birds and animals, inspection of the train under direc- 
tion and a series of moving pictures. Arrangements were made 
so that schools attending the train would be considered in regular 
session. The record of attendance shows that sixty points were 
visited at which a total of 11,670 school children attending 388 
schools saw the train. Three hundred and twenty-seven teachers 
were also in attendance. 

During the period usually allotted to vacation, a special trip 
was taken for the purpose of seeing the methods of carrying on 
similar work in other places. The summer meeting of the National 
Education Association at Milwaukee was attended and Chicago 
and Norwestern Universities visited. Several days were spent 
at Madison where the organisation of boys’ and girls’ work, agri- 
cultural courses in High Schools, special community service and 
community library work was investigated. In Iowa, a visit was 
made to Iowa State College at Ames and to Iowa Teachers’ College 
at Cedar Falls. Here a further insight was gained in regard to the 
practical working out of club projects. At the latter point, a 
number of rural schools, which are associated with the Teachers’ 
College for training rural teachers, were inspected and several 
consolidated schools visited. Similar work in Minnesota was 
investigated, especially at the University and Department of 
Public Instruction. In Winnipeg, the Manitoba Agricultural 


Annual Report, 1919 


67 


College was visited and the summer school work discussed. In 
this way much assistance was obtained and it was possible to 
see our own work in Saskatchewan in better perspective. 

The demands of the work in general during the later summer 
months were such that the services of Mr. A. R. Brown, who had 
assisted during 1917 and 1918, were again secured, while from 
time to time, especially during September and October, a large 
number of trained men and women were pressed into part time 
service. 

In conclusion, I wish to thank the school inspectors, the mem- 
bers of the various branches of the Department, the staffs of the 
Normal Schools, the workers and directors of the University exten- 
sion service and all others who by their sympathetic assistance and 
co-operation have made it possible to accomplish the work that 
has been referred to in this report. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fred W. Bates, 

Director of Enrol Education Associations. 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — With the beginning of the New Year, I had the pleasure 
of undertaking a somewhat newer phase of secondary education. 
According to Dr. Foght’s report, there are many thousand youths 
in the province 14 to 21 years of age with very indifferent education; 
not qualified to enter High School and yet of High School age and 
sorely in need of higher education. For such, this type of work 
was specially designed. 

The Department of Education has for some time encouraged 
special work for both boys and girls in Collegiate Institutes and 
High Schools of the above ages specially adapted to the needs of 
those in rural districts whose education may have been interfered 
with or neglected; but perhaps due to difficulty in obtaining 
competent assistance, little was undertaken by school boards. 

Conditions being particularly favourable at Moosomin, the 
Department co-operated with the Collegiate Institute Board at the 
above place. Neighbouring and local municipalities were circularised 
to know of interested persons desirous of obtaining further 
education. 

This work was planned during the early autumn of 1918, to 
be opened in November, but due to epidemic influenza progress 
was delayed till the New Year. Some difficulty was experienced 
in securing a competent instructor. Finally, it was given to me 
to take charge of this work as a demonstration. Work began 
January 6. 


68 


Department of Education 


The agreement was that the Collegiate Institute Board should 
provide class room accommodation and incidental expenses such 
as conveyance of the class for demonstrations. Only on one 
occasion was any outlay necessary, conveyance at other times 
being willingly offered by students or interested persons who 
accompanied the class. No expenditure whatever was made 
necessary for class room equipment. • 

♦. The special agriculture class formed a regular part of the 
school and this is as it should be. There seems no good reason 
why a class of such students should be segregated because of the 
special requirements and mode of work of its members. In this 
case the young men of the class automatically became members 
of the collegiate literary and other societies. 

There was some interchange of work between the special 
instructor and other members of the Collegiate staff. In this regard 
improvement might be made so that every, member of the staff 
should come in contact with the class. This would be mutually 
beneficial. It may even necessitate reconconstruction of the time 
table of the various forms but will well repay the effort in far- 
reaching effects. 

Much credit is due the citizens of Moosomin for their sym- 
pathetic and helpful attitude in many ways for the duration of 
the course in opening their homes and providing entertainment 
and hospitality frequently during the term. 

For the first ten days, the registrants were eight in number. 
This number grew to 27. No students were lost through dis- 
continued attendance. The ages ranged from 14 to 57 with an 
average of 22. They came from homes in Moosomin— having 
come in for the winter months from nearby farms and in some 
cases students drove in each day bringing other members of the 
family for regular school work. Others came from within a radius 
of ten to sixty miles. The regularity and punctuality of attendance 
of the members of the class is worthy of mention. 

The students were of varied previous educational attain- 
ment, from Grade III to that of Third Class Teacher’s certificate 
or its equivalent, and, as might be expected, individual students 
were variously capable of assimilating instruction given. In this 
respect, they were quite the average of those who would be found 
in any locality in the province. For this and other similar reasons, 
this information is submitted thus in detail since the methods 
employed and the information gained may be of value as repre- 
senting a fair average of conditions prevailing throughout the 
province. 

Nearly all the students had been out of school for many years 
—from two to twenty or more, so that recovering many principles 
of educational work previously acquired, served to brighten them 
and show their application to new and interesting problems. . The 
whole programme, while allowing much latitude, had necessarily to 
be adapted to the varying needs of the class as these became appar- 
ent. The time table followed is herein set forth: 


Annual Report, 1919 


69 


Time Table. 


9. 30- 10. 15 Poultry 

10. 15-10. 45 Business Forms 

1 1 . 00-1 1.30 Arithmetic 

11. 30- 12. 00 Writing 

12 00-1.30 

Cereal 
Hr sbandry 

Arithmetic 

Literature 

Dairying 

Animal 

Husbandry 

Business 

Forms 

Poultry 

Public 

Speaking 

Dairying 

Civics 

Literature 

Writing 

Soils 

Composition 

Economics 

Economics 

Home- 

planning, 

Economics 

question 

drawer 

1 . 30 Poultry or Dairying. . . 

Plants 

Animal 

Soil, 

Public 


and Seeds, 

Husbandry 

Physics and 

Speaking 


Weeds 


Chemistry 

and 





Literary 





Work 


Manners, morals, social practice and physical training taken 
at suitable times. 

It will be seen that the major part of the time was given to 
various phases of agriculture, for example — animal husbandry, 
dairying, poultry, plants, weeds and seeds, soils, etc. This is as it 
should be in special work whose object is to educate in terms of, 
and to give increased interest in rural life. 

An attempt was made to be entirely practical in all work, As 
will be seen from the foregoing time table, the forenoon work was 
mainly lecture in preparation for the afternoon practical work. 
For example, when, on Wednesday afternoon an excursion was to 
be made for judging a herd of Herefords, the morning period and 
others previous were spent in a study of this type and breed in 
respect to its history, conformation, records, noted sires and dams, 
marketing and feeding, colour markings, adaptability and suit- 
ability for Saskatchewan conditions, etc. A time spent previous 
to excursion work was well spent in enabling students “to go out 
for to see” and profit. It meant system instead of chaos and 
meaningless effort. 

After an excursion, too, some time was always given to dis- 
cussion of points arising out of the day's work. In this regard, it 
is surprising how little better work was done by the mature stud- 
ents living in contact with similar opportunities as compared to 
those younger and new to such work Notable, too, was the lack 
of systematic effort in placing awards and, in fact, in most practical 
work undertaken. As notable too, was the interest taken and 
rapid improvement. 

However, the judging of live stock was only a means to an 
end. All classes of farm stock, horses, cattle, sheep and swine, were 
dealt with in the same way. The best pure bred herds and flocks 
were used in each case because these were within easy reach and 
because they were of greater value under existing conditions. 


70 


Department of Education 


Outsiders, men of the town and district frequently accompanied 
the class on excursion work and visited for regular class periods. 
This was encouraged as it made for a better understanding of the 
work by the public and gave a confidence and interest to all con- 
cerned. 

An outline of various work in several departments may suffice 
to show the nature of the work carried on. Had not special effort 
been made to make so thoroughly practical, work so admirably 
adapted to such treatment, much of the interest and value would 
have been lost-. It is not so much a new education as a new method 
that is needed and here applied. 

It will be noticed that there is much on the time table which, 
perhaps, might not be considered as agriculture — nor is it in the 
narrow sense of the term. Educational work of this kind must 
embrace the many activities and interests of a fuller rural life — fuller 
and more meaningful than has been lived heretofore. 

The nature of the work was not so much “agricultural educa- 
tion,” as it was “educational agriculture.” Farm arithmetic, 
business, literature, civics, economics, public speaking and physical 
training, have a very large place in rounding out and balancing 
the training intended to be given by these classes to those it is hoped 
to reach. 

Under farm arithmetic, practical problems leading out of class 
work were developed, for example: “Saskatchewan annual rain- 
fall being seventeen inches, how many gallons of water would be 
collected on a roof of given dimensions and how large a tank in 
the basement would be required to hold it?” 

“If a tractor travelling three and one-half miles per hour draws 
two ploughs cutting 12 inch furrows, how much can be ploughed in 
two working days?” 

Business forms included such as cheques, drafts, money 
orders, promissory notes; the uses, abuses and essentials of each. 

In literature, it was planned to give an acquaintance with 
standard authors both in poetry and prose; also, by selecting 
articles from farm papers and magazines, enabling students to read 
intelligently. If reading can be encouraged and made more mean- 
ingful it is felt that a brighter and fuller life might be enhanced 
under rural surroundings. 

Civics embodied an acquaintance with the formation and 
business working of legislative bodies — all this leading to individual 
duties of citizenship. 

Economics comprised the study of farm labour, co-operation in 
different branches of farm work which makes for success where 
individual effort might fail, planning of farms, farm homes and 
buildings, the care and preservation of farm machinery and 
appliances with a view to economy thereby. 

Perhaps one of the most notable improvements was seen in 
what we choose to call “Public Speaking.” The class was thor- 
oughly organised. Mr. Jas. Sharpe, Chairman of the Collegiate 
Institute Board, under whose auspices the work was carried on, 
was appointed Hon. President. The president, vice president 
and committees — all offices, save that of secretary, changed each 


Annual Report, 1919 


71 


two weeks, thus giving every member of the class an opportunity 
of gaining a working experience on the executive. On some occasion 
the addresses given were quite impromptu, but at other times, 
the speaker was given several days during which to acquire informa- 
tion and to organise experience in certain lines to make his thoughts 
of value to others. This subject was a training to a large degree 
in parliamentary practice. The object was not to develop orators, 
but to enable a man to take his place before others and state his 
opinions clearly and concisely. Confidence and force come only 
by practice in this regard. The improvements were well nigh 
unbelievable. 

Penmanship and spelling needed, perhaps, more time than 
could well be given. Surely in these two subjects our average 
Saskatchewan student is weak. These subjects were given a fair 
proportion of available time, but even at that the progress was slow. 

We were fortunate in having in the Collegiate a returned soldier, 
previously a local student and completing his work on his return. 
His services were enlisted for physical training of the class. In 
early periods of the regular class work, as might be expected, boys 
having been out of school for some time, were unable to apply 
themselves for any length of time. Short intermissions with 
limb and trunk exercises were interspersed between periods and 
when, later, Mr. Ireton’s services were so kindly given, three 
periods weekly were taken in systematic gymnasium work. Besides 
this regular time was taken for organised sports, particularly 
hockey. 

Soils, soil chemistry and soil physics were studied only in 
principle and outline — first, because special equipment would have 
been necessary and second, because it was difficult to arrange the 
time table for all classes concerned. 

To this time, no doubt, we have left the education of the 
young wholly to teachers in charge, even though those concerned 
be our own children. It is, of course, the teacher’s business to 
teach school and, perhaps, she would resent any interference of 
parents, but surely the parents and teachers ought to be working 
in harmonious partnership for the best results to be obtained. 
Parents and local authorities should be invited to the school fre- 
quently to see its working and to assist in any place where they 
may be competent or specially qualified to do so. This plan was 
followed at Moosomin. Some of the most valuable and interesting 
periods were spent by the class in listening to specialists in different 
walks of life. 

Regular lectures were given by Mrs. Feeny, the school nurse 
for this inspectorate, so that each member of the class had an 
opportunity of qualifying for and writing upon the examination in 
First Aid work. Fifteen members of the class obtained First Aid 
Certificates. 

Mr. Dunbar, V.S., gave a series of very practical and interest- 
ing addresses on veterinary topics such as feeding and care of 
farm stock, contagious diseases, glanders, etc. From his intimate 
knowledge of conditions prevailing in the district, he made all 
features of his work fit the home conditions. 


72 


Department of Education 


J Strang, B.A., a local barrister, acquainted those interested 
with mortgages of different kinds, lien notes, registration of docu- 
ments, etc., as well as what might be called “Geography, _ viz., 
location of a section by number, etc. Himself an experienced 
teacher, the material which he chose for dissemination *»as jus., 
what even an experienced citizen might greatly appreciate. 

Frequent excursions were made to the local creamery, where 
Mr. Slater, in charge, extended to the class every hospitality. 
The work of weighing and testing milk, cream and butter, packing 
and shipping, pasteurising, cooling, refrigeration, etc., added a 
large amount of valuable information. Here again this helped, 
incidentally, to make for a better understanding between patrons 


and institution. 

An excursion was made to the local gas plant where a full 
explanation was given of the manufacture and control of acetylene 
gas. A demonstration was given also of a plant suitable for farm 
purposes. This, it might be said, was customarily done; that is, 
the seeing of certain methods in town was always a stimulus to a 
creation of better conditions on the faim. 

Other excursions were made to local elevators and to con- 
ventions in the town held, for example, in the interests of co-opera- 
tion, Grain Growers, etc. Some from outside who gave addresses 
or practical talks were the local ministers, Revs. Gross Reeves, 

Heathfield and Greening. Mr. Whiting, President of the Boar 
of Trade, Mr. McCreary, District Supervisor of Delco-Light, Mr. 
Brown, Manager of the Bank of Commerce, Mr. Learmonth, 
Provincial Superintendent of Institutional Farms, Messrs. Cor- 
coran and Howard, Field men for Y.M.C.A., Dr. Snell Inspector 
of High and Normal Schools, Mr. Sharpe, Chairman of the High 
School Board, on grading and shipping of grain and others. 

There were frequently visitors who came to hear part of the 
lectures or merely to see the class at work. Among these, beside 
the above named, might be mentioned the municipal councillors, 
who came in a body to learn more in detail of the plan and nature 

of the work. . 

Numerous others did much to make the results so gratifying 
by co-operating in a quiet but large way, and this opportunity is 
taken of thanking them. Among them were those who extended 
hospitality to the class on the occasion of excursions for stock work, 
Messrs. Cooper, Kinsie, Field, Wilson, McLoughry and Phin. 

At the conclusion of work, the class was organised as ine 
New Furrows Association” whose object is to better rural 1 e 
and conditions. It is hoped to work out some of the advantages 

arising from discussions in class. 

The Collegiate Institute Board, the Board of Trade, the coun- 
cillors from adjoining municipalities have entirely approved of 
this venture and have indorsed it in a resolution forwarded to 
the Premier and Department of Education. 

Glowing tribute should be paid to the Department of Educa- 
tion, in particular, the Deputy Minister, A. H. Ball, M.A., BL.B., 
whose farsightedness and faith in the work was an inspiration to 
those in charge and made the work possible, and to the Collegiate 


Annual Report, 1919 


73 


Institute Board, the principal and staff of the Collegiate Institute 
and others who so kindly and thoughtfully assisted the class and 
instructor in making the work a success. 

This experiment was conducted at Moosomin under what 
are quite the average conditions prevailing in Saskatchewan. It 
was intended to serve, as well, as a demonstration for other dis- 
tricts. Improvements or changes might be necessary and modi- 
fications could be made to adapt the work to other needs and 
circumstances, but this might easily be done. 

This — a reconstruction period — seems a particularly suitable 
time. The need is great; the means are at hand. Essentials 
of success are, first: a sympathetic and co-operatively inclined 
people; second, a broad-minded principal and staff; third, the best 
possible man in charge of the work — all of these, seeing in rural 
life, as a foundation of democracy, unlimited possibilities, and willing 
to contribute of their personality to its uplift and improvement. 

From correspondence received at the Department of Educa- 
tion from time to time, it is well known that in many centres through- 
out the province High School Boards and Public School Boards are 
considering just such work as this. This report is made with a 
view to acquainting them with principles to be carried out in making 
the work a success. 

On the completion of the Special Course at Moosomin though 
spring work was at hand, a beginning was made in similar work at 
Grenfell. Class room accommodation was not available but 
room was secured above the post office. 

Classes were held in the afternoon and evening for a period 
of three weeks. These were largely attended, the programme 
was the same as that outlined for Moosomin. It is hoped to 
carry out to completion the work begun at this point. 

During May and June, besides preparation for Summer School 
work, assistance was given the inspector for the Elbow districts, 
Mr. H. A. Everts, B.A., in organising Rural Education Associa- 
tions throughout his inspectorate. 

On the conclusion of Summer School work at the University 
of Saskatchewan, I undertook assistance with School Fairs, parti- 
cularly in the judging of agricultural products and school work. 
Assistance was given at Borden, Radisson, Tisdale, Alsask, Flax- 
combe, Kindersley, Foam Lake, Leslie, Elfros, Saltcoats, Annaheim. 

A programme of varied nature frequently including contests 
in the various departments of regular school work usually occupied 
a part of the afternoon or evening. At that time I usually had 
opportunity of addressing those assembled on the value of the work 
and school fairs educationally. Wherever opportimity permitted, 
classes were organised to go over the awards to learn the reason 
for awards and excellence of exhibits. More and more must the 
school fair represent an exhibit of the best of the year’s work rather 
than much effort crowded into a few days previous to fair dates. 

Various competitions were held somewhat out of the ordinary. 
Worthy of mention was one in the Flaxcombe district several schools 
competing in the beautification and arrangement of school grounds. 
In this contest there were five entries and close competition. 


74 


Department of Education 


I attended and addressed teachers in convention at Tisdale, 
Saltcoats and Wadena, and addressed several other meetings during 
the year, on educational topics. Many contributions were sent 
agricultural and educational magazines. 

During most of the past year I have also had charge of tree 
planting in school grounds of the province. Due to very unfavour- 
able soil and weather conditions, less was done in this connection 
than usual. Great difficulty is continually experienced in con- 
vincing school boards that the requirements of agreements must 
be thoroughly and carefully carried out. Too frequently plans 
of school grounds must be returned repeatedly to secretaries for 
data asked for in this regard. 

Much time was spent during late fall and early winter months 
in organising special courses at various centres throughout the 
province. It is hoped to carry out these plans at Cupar, Tan- 
tallon and Moosomin. 

I have earnestly striven to assist and advise wherever oppor- 
tunity appeared, not so much to add new work to the course of 
study as to give, whether through nature study, science or agricul- 
ture itself, a new phase of interest to education which will fit the 
young for “complete living” under our own peculiar conditions 

• 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. M. McDermott. 


New York, October 1, 1919. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I beg to submit herewith my report for the first half 
of the year 1919. 

The outstanding feature of the work in Household Science 
during this period was the short courses conducted by the extension 
staff during February, March and April in the following places: 
Moosomin, Grenfell, Estevan, Griffin, Melfort, Rosthern, Watrous, 
Herbert and Cabri. I visited each place, made the necessary 
arrangements with the board of trustees and the school principal 
and visited the classes when in session. The boards of trustees 
were most willing to co-operate by furnishing the necessary equip- 
ment and supplies. In three of the centres where the room was 
small, some of the equipment was loaned by the hardware mer- 
chant or the pupils attending the course. The cost of supplies 
did not, in any case, exceed $25. The total cost of equipment 
and supplies did not exceed $100 and in the majority of cases 
it was much less. The classes were held in the school building 
with the exception of two places where crowded conditions made 
it necessary to secure a room elsewhere. 


Annual Report, 1919 


75 


The length of the course was about three weeks. This was 
found to be much too short. 

The attendance was good as the following list will show: 


Centre 

Number in 
attendance 
at day 
classes 

Number in 
attendance 
at evening 
classes 

Total 

Estevan 

55 

42 

97 

Melfort 

55 

24 

80 

Herbert 

18 

48 

59 

Watrous 

35 

24 

59 

Grenfell 

29 

25 

54 

Rosthern 

31 

13 

44 

Cabri 

32 

9 

41 

Griffin 

9 

25 

34 

Moosomin 

16 

12 

28 

Totals 

280 

222 

503 


Those attending the day classes were girls from the high 
and public schools. In Melfort, the boys attended but in the 
other places there was no room for them. In Moosomin, girls 
from the country paid their board in the town in order to attend 
the day classes. A course in agriculture was going on at the same 
time and the two classes had a pleasant time socially. Those 
attending the evening classes were business girls, teachers and 
married women, the last mentioned being in the majority always. 

The subject matter of the course included problems in sewing 
and cookery. The sewing was taken in day classes with the school 
girls. The stitch forms were studied with application to a simple 
garment. Patching and darning were taught the girls of Grade 
VIII. As there were no machines, hand sewing only was taught. 
The cookery consisted of food study and practice in preparation 
of fruits, vegetables, milk, cereals, egg, cheese and cornstarch dishes, 
puddings, salads, invalid cookery, food for children, noon lunch 
dishes, table setting and serving. The course usually closed with 
a banquet prepared and served by the class. The guests were the 
members of the school board, the inspector, the teachers, the 
mayor of the town and other citizens interested in education. 
Following the banquet was a discussion on the value of the course 
and the possibility of having a permanent teacher of Household 
Science. 

The popularity of these courses is gratifying. Their success 
is largely due to the excellent teachers of the extension staff who 
had charge of them. Great interest was shown by the married 
women, who attended all the classes open to them. In Estevan, 
Grenfell, Herbert, Watrous and Griffin, where women attended 
in large numbers in the evening, the work was given in the form of 
lecture and demonstration in accordance with the request of those 
attending. In Herbert, women came who could not read the 
recipes nor speak English. They watched the demonstrations 
and their friends read the recipes to them. 


76 


Department of Education 


Many letters were received regarding the courses, containing 
expressions of appreciation to the teacher for excellence of work 
and to the Department of Education for organising short courses 
and sending teachers They also expressed a desire thaT House- 
hold Science be taught in the school during the following school 
year and if this could not be accomplished that the short course 
could be given next year, with extension of time. All thought 
the course too brief. 

The following comments and suggestions have been received 
from those in charge of the courses: 

1. The limited time makes the work too strenuous. Because 
the interest is intense and the numbers are large, the teacher 
is urged to do more than she is physically able to do. Under 
such conditions, two teachers should be sent to a centre. 

2. The time of the course should be lengthened to three months 
and a teacher of Household Science, a teacher of Agriculture and 
a school nurse give instruction to two classes, one of girls and 
one of boys. 

3. Places that have purchased equipment for short courses 
and that do not engage a permanent teacher during the year, 
should be offered a short course next year. 

4. Short courses should be given in the summer time in order 
to serve boys and girls in the country who have missed part of 
their education because of having to help at home. The inclemency 
of the weather in the winter prevents many from taking advantage 
of the classes held during February and March. 

The most marked result of this work was shown in the desire 
of the people to have Household Science taught in the schools. 
Many discussed the possibility of having an itinerant teacher. 
This was under consideration at Cabri, Herbert, Grenfell and 
Melfort. At Estevan, the people wish to have a permanent teacher 
who will take the work in the high and public schools. If these 
places do not take steps this year, I would advise visiting them 
next year with a short course. This will encourage them to take 
definite steps. 

Inspections . — Inspection of work in Household Sciencefwas 
made in Regina, Moose Jaw, Saskatoon and Kamsack public schools 
and in the Collegiate Institutes at Saskatoon, Regina and^Wey- 
burn. The recent regulations governing the grants for Household 
Science have been instrumental in awakening active interest on 
the part of boards of trustees. Many inquiries have been received 
regarding choice and cost of equipment. For the purpose of 
providing such information, Household Science Circular No. 2 
entitled, “Equipment for Household Science” was prepared and 
printed in June. It contains plans of suitable work-tables and 
cupboards and gives directions for arrangement of rooms. Lists 
of equipment with prices are given for classes of 24 and for classes 
of 12. 

Rural Schools . — Two years ago a questionnaire was sent out 
to the rural schools to ascertain the extent to which noon lunches 


Annual Report, 1919 


77 


were provided for the children. It was found that 250 schools 
were active in this respect. In comparison with other provinces 
in Canada, this was very satisfactory. 

In May of this year, another was sent regarding work in 
Household Science. The questions are as follows: 

1. Noon Lunch: 

(a) Do you remain at school at the noon hour with your pupils? 

( b ) Is a warm dish served to supplement the cold lunch brought by the 
pupils? 

If so, what is served? 

(c) How do you obtain your supplies? 

( d ) Do you sit with your pupils at a table or are desks used? 

(e) If you are not having the noon lunch, why? 

Do you expect to have it? 

If so, when? 

2. Equipment: 

(а) What articles of equipment are you using? 

(б) How was it obtained? 

(c) What is the total value? 

3. Sanitation: 

(a) Give the method of cleaning after the lunch. 

(b) How do you keep the equipment clean and in good order when not 
in use? 

(c) What method is used for cleaning the school room daily? 

( d ) Where is the water obtained ? 

4. Sewing: 

(a) Do you teach sewing? How much time is given? 

( b ) What work is attempted in sewing? 

The report for the last half of the year will be presented by 
Miss Shaw, Acting Director of Household Science. 

In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation for the year’s 
leave of absence granted me for the purpose of continuing my 
studies at Columbia University, New York City. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Fannie A. Twiss, 

Director of Household Science . 


78 


Department of Education 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 
Minister of Education. 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 


Sir, — I beg to submit the following report of the work of the 
Household Science Branch for the year 1919. 

The staff, owing to the’ leave of absence granted to the Direc- 
tor, Miss F. A. Twiss, and the resignations of Miss Hiltz and 
Miss Neelands, was reduced to two in number for the months of 
July and August. These two carried on the Household Science 
work of the summer session. Fifteen students were in attendance. 
Through the kindness of the Director of School Hygiene, our stu- 
ents were permitted to spend six hours each week with the Health 
Education class and to attend the special lectures given by Miss 
Browne, Dr. Ferguson, Dr. Manning, Dr. Murray, Dr. Middleton 
and Dr. Thompson. 

On September 1, Miss Jean F. Flatt and Miss Margaret 
McColl were appointed assistants in this branch. In September 
and October, Miss Flatt attended the following school fairs: Borden, 
Maidstone, Meota, Stornoway, Rhein, Springside, Sheho, Theo- 
dore, New Insinger, Yorkton, Jansen, Kandahar, Lemberg and 
Morse. She gave addresses at the conventions held at Morse 
and Wapella and conducted short courses at Indian Head and 
Unity. 

Miss McColl attended school fairs at Parkbeg, Carnduff, 
Glen Ewen, Cedoux, Glenside, Outlook, Kerrobert, Salvador, Druid, 
Rosetown, Brownlee, Grenfell and Milden and conducted short 
courses at Leader and Oxbow. 

Miss Hiltz gave instruction in Household Science work at 
the Third Class Normal sessions held at Moosomin, Yorkton and 
Regina with short courses at Moosomin, Rosthern and Melfort. 
She visited 57 rural schools in the Yorkton inspectorate and gave 
a noon lunch demonstration at Calder. Miss Hiltz resigned in 
June to study for a year at Columbia University. 

Miss Neelands gave lectures at the Third Class Normal ses- 
sions at Weyburn; Prince Albert, Estevan and Moose Jaw and 
conducted short courses at Estevan, Herbert and Cabri. She 
visited 36 rural schools in the Swift Current inspectorate before 
she, too, resigned in June. 

Miss Campbell was appointed Assistant to the Director on 
March 1. She assisted at the summer session and in September and 
October attended school fairs at Gallivan, Wilkie, Kelfield, Spring- 
water, Sweet Grass, Colonsay, Bradwell, Radisson, Warman, Ros- 
thern, St. Brieux, Middle Lake, Cudworth, Dana and Humboldt. 
She gave addresses at conventions at Wakaw, Wilkie, Rosthern and 
Humboldt. She also visited 69 rural schools in the Rosthern and 
Wilkie inspectorates and conducted four short courses during the 
year. 

From January 3 to May 1 I assisted Miss Weir at the Regina 
Normal School. In May, I visited 31 rural schools in the Moose 
Jaw inspectorate and during the year met the trustees of Cupar, 
Markinch, Southey, Duval, Strasbourg, Govan, Bladworth, 


Annual Report, 1919 


79 


Indian Head, North Battleford and Sintaluta with regard to the 
placing of itinerant teachers of Household Science. In July and 
August, I gave lectures at the summer session. In the fall, I 
attended school fairs and conventions at the following points: 
Griffin, Fillmore, Weyburn, Biggar, Wingello, Hawarden, Loreburn, 
Elbow, Markinch, Earl Grey, Govan, North Battleford and Watrous. 

In September a memorandum re short courses in Household 
Science was sent out from the Department to each inspectorate. 
Replies were received from 25 inspectors and two points named 
in each division where such courses would be welcome. Fifteen 
courses have been given during the year. For these courses, a 
certain amount of equipment is purchased by the school board 
and our assistants carry on the work for three weeks in each centre 
chosen. As we feel that itinerant teachers could do good work 
in this province, we usually give our courses in neighbouring towns, 
hoping in this way to so interest the people that they will engage 
a teacher of their own. It would be quite possible for one specialist 
to supervise the Household Science work in several towns and 
possibly, in time, to have charge of the work in the surrounding 
rural schools. As the government grant is such a generous one 
in this regard, it is probable that such a plan will be adopted. 

Our assistants teach sewing in all the grades — in the junior 
grades to boys as well as girls — in the presence of the regular 
teacher. It is hoped in this way to encourage such teacher to 
carry on the work when the special instructor leaves. Other 
branches of the work are taken up with the senior pupils and 
whenever possible special classes are held for the older girls and 
women. 

It is the aim in these short courses to give to the public an 
actual demonstration of Household Science work as we should 
like to see it conducted in all schools in Saskatchewan. 

Short courses were given during November and December 
at the following points: 


Date 

Centre 

Attendance 

Cost 

November 

North Battleford 

110 

$111.29 
66 10 

November 

Indian Head 

263 

November 

Leader 

204 

12.45 
67.38 
48 80 

December 

Wilkie 

152 

December 

Unity 

97 

December 

Oxbow 

129 

66.65 




The equipment costs approximately $50 and may be used 
again and again. At Leader, no equipment was purchased — work 
in sewing only being given — while at North Battleford, because 
of the distance between the two schools, a double equipment was 
necessary. 

In order to make final arrangements for the short courses, I 
have met the trustees and teachers of North Battleford, Indian 
Head, Qu’Appelle, Vibank, Leader, Shaunavon, Oxbow, Wilkie, 
Sintaluta, Unity, Balcarres, Abernethy and Kindersley. With 


80 


Department of Education 


our present staff it is possible to give three courses each month 
and in this way we are endeavouring to comply with all the requests 
that have come to us. Definite arrangements have been made 
for courses at Qu’Appelle, Abernethy, Kindersley, Shaunavon, 
Davidson, Balcarres, Kinistino, Wadena and Springside. 

We are glad to report that a specialist in Household Science 
has been appointed at Moosomin and we feel that, could we supply 
the demand, many other school boards would make similar appoint- 
ments. A Household Science laboratory is also being equipped 
at Yorkton. 

We have room for many more teachers of this subject in Sas- 
katchewan. In order to supply such teachers should we not have 
a training school of our own in the province? May I suggest that 
a one-year training course open to teachers holding Second Class 
certificates who have had several years teaching experience would 
not only be popular, but would very shortly give us the required 
number of specialists? 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Isabel Shaw, 

Acting Director of Household Science. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 
Minister of Education. 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 


Sir, — I beg to submit the following report of the work in 
school hygiene for the year, 1919. 

During the winter term of 1919, I gave courses of lectures in 
school hygiene in Regina and Saskatoon Normal Schools and, 
assisted by Mrs. Feeny, at the following Third Class Normal 
sessions: Moose Jaw, Moosomin, Weyburn, Estevan, Prince 
Albert and Yorkton. At the beginning of the fall term, Miss 
Willoughby was added to the staff of the Saskatoon Normal School 
rand Miss Urquhart to the staff of the Regina Normal School. 
The chief function of these nurses is to teach the teacher-in-train- 
dng how to conserve the health of their pupils. Under this arrange- 
ment, it is possible to take a fairly complete course of lectures in 
■physiology, hygiene and first aid to the injured. They also inspect 
ithe students for physical defects and visit students who are ill. 

In January, I addressed the convention of the Saskatchewan 
'Trustees’ Association and arranged an exhibit for rural schools. 
'This exhibit was very well attended and many of the ideas demon- 
strated were put into practice in the schools afterwards. 

In May, at the request of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture, 
I joined the staff of the Better Farming Train, giving two lectures 
each day to the women’s section. At the end of the second week. 
Miss Urquhart substituted for me. 


Annual Report, 1919 


81 


This summer, for the first time, a course in health education 
was given in connection with the summer school at the University. 
This consisted of lectures and demonstrations in physiology, school 
hygiene and physical culture. Miss Pearl McNeil took the work 
in physical culture and Miss Urquhart assisted me in the other 
part of the course. Special lectures in bacteriology were given 
by Dr. Manning of the University and in eugenics by Dr. Thomp- 
son, also of the University. Dr. Ferguson, Superintendent of the 
Sanatorium, gave lectures on tuberculosis. Dr. Middleton of 
the Bureau of Public Health gave lectures and demonstrations on 
the treatment of hemorrhages and fracoures and Mr. Murray of 
the Bureau of Public Health lectured on the water supply of Sas- 
katchewan. I beg to suggest that an intensive course of two weeks’ 
work for school nurses be given at the summer school next year. 

Beginning in August and extending into November, I attended 
teachers’ conventions at the following places: Shaunavon, Biggar, 
Macrorie, Qu’Appelle, Kamsack, North Battleford, Balcarres and 
Weyburn. 

During the year, the following nurses have been added to 
the staff of the School Hygiene Branch: 

Miss C. Willoughby, Reg.N. 

Mrs. E. L. Shaw, Reg.N. 

Miss M. Russell, Reg.N. 

Miss J. Urquhart, Reg.N. 

Miss Olive Fuller 

Miss Gertrude Kilburn 

Miss Rubv Simpson 

Miss Willoughby is at present in the Saskatoon Normal 
School, but during the summer months she worked in the inspector- 
ate of Wilkie. Mrs. Shaw is stationed at Rouleau, Miss Russell 
at Yorkton, Miss Urquhart in the Regina Normal School, Miss 
Fuller at Kamsack and Miss Kilburn at Weyburn. With the pres- 
ent small staff, it has been impossible to serve the western part 
of the province. 

During the year, a great many requests have come in from 
rural, village, town and city schools for the services of our School 
Hygiene staff. We were able to comply with these requests in 
the following cases: Wynyard, Radville, Biggar and several rural 
schools in the vicinity, Heward, Cupar, Govan, Duval, Nokomis, 
North Battleford, Battleford, Esterhazy, Balcarres and several 
rural schools in the vicinity of Oxbow, Parry and Kerrobert. The 
requests at # the present time are out of all proportion to the size 
of the staff. 

The nurses doing field work depend on the inspector of schools 
for the means of transportation to rural schools. There has been 
one exception to this. So many urgent requests came in from 
various school districts and municipalities in the Assiniboia inspec- 
torate for the services of one of our nurses, that finally at the 
beginning of August, arrangements were made to send Miss Morton. 
The inspector of Assiniboia, however, was doing special work 
elsewhere. Consequently, the proposal was made to the secretary 
of several municipalities from which requests had come, that the 
transportation of our school nurse should be arranged by the muni- 


82 


Department of Education 


cipality. This was very willingly agreed to and seemed to be a 
very good arrangement as it allowed the nurse more time to inter- 
view parents and so to get results. 

The following is a summary of the work of the nurses of the 
School Hygiene Branch during 1919: 

Number of schools visited 548 

Number of pupils inspected 14,926 

Number of pupils with no defect found 1,962 (12%) 

Number of pupils with defective vision 2,073 

Number of pupils with defective hearing 536 

Number of pupils with adenoids 2,973 

Number of pupils with diseased tonsils 4,214 (28%) 

Number of pupils with decaying teeth 8,705 (58%) 

Number of pupils with enlarged cervical glands 244 

Number of pupils with goitre 165 

Number of pupils with pediculosis 129 

Number of pupils with inflamed eyelids 105 

Number of pupils with trachoma 8 

Number of pupils with malnutrition 93 

Number of pupils with orthopaedic defects 69 

Number of pupils with skin diseases 51 

Number of pupils with anaemia 30 

Number of pupils with feeble-mindedness 26 

Number of pupils with tuberculosis 25 

Number of pupils with defects in speech 8 

Number of pupils with nervous disorders 9 

Number of pupils with heart lesions 8 

Number of pupils with discharging ears 5 

Number of pupils with rheumatism 5 

Number of pupils with cleft palate 2 

Visits to homes 325 

Meetings addressed 60 

School fairs attended 50 

During the year, the school boards of Moose Jaw and Weyburn 
have organised a system of school nursing. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Jean E. Browne. 


Annual Report, 1919 


83 


January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir,— I have the honour to submit herewith my report for 
the year 1919 respecting school attendance. 

In connection with town and city schools, the number of 
convictions under The School Attendance Act appreciably decreased 
only 17 being obtained in 1919 as compared with 88 in 1918 and 
76 in 1917. It is noticed, however, that truancy increased in our 
towns and cities but I am pleased to report that the Local Attend- 
ance Officers are giving strict attention to the enforcement of the 
law. 

The number of exemptions under section 4 of The School 
Attendance Act granted in 1919 was less than in the previous year. 

Sickness, as in other years, has been responsible for poor or 
non attendance in the town and city schools and in this connection 
I wish to express my appreciation to the teachers, school nurses, 
Commissioner of Public Health and others concerned, for the 
assistance that has been rendered to the school attendance branch. 

The attendance in our rural and village schools has improved 
greatly. Not a single case of truancy was reported. Sickness, 
as in the town and city schools, was responsible for poor attendance 
and 275 such cases were referred to the Commissioner of Public 
Health for attention. 

During the past year, a few cases were brought to my atten- 
tion of children not being clothed warmly enough to allow them 
to attend school regularly. All such cases I have referred to the 
Minister of Agriculture, who, through Mr. Molloy, has been able 
to send supplies of clothing, etc., to needy cases and the children 
have been warmly clad and enabled to attend school regularly. 

The past winter has been severe but, taking into consideration 
the difficulties which exist in our rural districts, I am pleased to 
report that the school attendance throughout the province is show- 
ing marked improvement. 

The following statement is compiled chiefly from the monthly 
attendance reports received from the teachers of 

Rural and Village Schools. 


1917 1918 1919 

Number of children according to teachers’ census 61,856 68,348 72,487 

Number of letters sent to parents 14,576 8,667 11,100 

Number of letters sent to teachers 12,818 15,500 

Number of letters sent to inspectors 129 210 

Number of warning notices sent to parents 5,812 3,757 12,050 

Number of absences due to 

Truancy 74 16 0 

Parents’ indifference 8,081 4,006 5,410 

Illness 23,157 43,338 59,860 

Impassable roads 2,902 3,554 4,560 

Over or under age 4,668 4,509 6,320 

Other reasons ... 72,623 58,529 113,150 

Number of cases sent to Provincial Attendance Officers for 

investigation and prosecution 1,019 1,513 2,565 


84 


Department of Education 


Rural and Village Schools — Continued. 


Number of cases fined 

Number of cases dismissed 

Number of cases investigated but no action taken 

Number of cases submitted to the Commissioner of Public 

Health for invest igation and action if necessary 

Number of cases submitted to the Superintendent of Neg- 
lected and Dependent Children 


301 

874 

1,871 

44 

97 

250 

41 

182 

198 

161 

56 

275 

5 

7 

23 


The following statement is compiled chiefly from the monthly 
attendance reports received from the school attendance officers of 


Town and City Schools. 


Number of schools 

Number of schools not reporting 

Number of schools closed 

Number of pupils reported by principals 

Number of pupils reported from other sources 

Number of absences due to 

Truancy 

Parents’ indifference 

Illness 

Exemption 

Over or undei age 

Other reasons (including distance from school) 

Inability to locate same 

Attendance Officers: 

Number of calls at school 

Registration cards investigated 

Visits to picture shows 

Visits to bowling alleys . . 

Number of children found in same 

Number of h uurs spent on street 

Results of In vesi igation : 

Number of pupils returned to school. . . 

Number of pupils excused on account of illness. 

Number of pupils excused on account of exemptions . . 

Number of p upils excused on account of age, etc 

Number not located 

Number of warni lg notices issued 

Number of cases n court 

Number of convii tions 

Number of exemp tions granted under section 4 

Number of exemp tions granted under section 6 (2) 


1917 

1918 

1919 

97 

95 

95 

10 

4 

9 


1 

7 

15,792 

31,390 

31,600 

2,070 

1,386 

400 

196 

225 

269 

2,011 

2,580 

2,520 

7,234 

19,984 

18,734 

896 

1,413 

734 

745 

830 

682 

4,436 

8,566 

8,475 

687 

989 

586 

3,276 

4,953 

5,093 

776 

3,305 

433 

915 

1,112 

1,008 

1,075 

1,267 

1,174 

148 

218 

304 

12,328 

7,850 15, 245 H 

10,907 

10,856 

19,614 

3,943 

6,748 

8,695 

964 

1,597 

956 

1,457 

2,966 

2,321 

603 

722 

414 

2,277 

1,484 

1,276 

102 

103 

19 

76 

88 

17 

563 

680 

426 


7 


I have the honour to be, Sir, 


Your obedient servant, 

D. S. McCannel, 
Chief Attendance Officer. 


Annual -Report, 1919 


85 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the 
year ending December 31, 1919. 

I entered upon my duties on December 1, 1918, and have 
spent the past year in endeavouring to personally investigate as 
far as possible conditions in various non-English settlements of 
the province. In this, I have had the assistance and co-operation 
of the inspectors of schools and other officials of your Department. 
As a result of my observations and investigations, I am more 
firmly than ever convinced of the fact that the future of our prov- 
ince and our nation, depends to a great extent upon the assimila- 
tive forces at work throughout the land. Of these, the elementary 
school is undoubtedly paramount in importance. As I have always 
contended, we cannot hope to make real Canadaian citizens of 
many of the older members of some of the foreign nationalities 
represented here. They will ever remain to a very high degree 
unacquainted with us and we with them, and we could not 
reasonably expect otherwise. Although the majority appear quite 
willing and often eager to have their children reared as citizens 
of this new country, yet there are some who apparently do not 
wish to co-operate with us. With these, we must deal without 
fear or favour. There is no longer any room in Canada for the. 
man who is not willing to do his bit towards building up a united 
and solidified country. I have met with some opposition in my 
efforts to promote better educational conditions in some settle- 
ments, but I have endeavoured with the co-operation of your 
inspectors firmly and vigorously to carry out your policy of insist- 
ence that every child be given a chance to develop into a good 
( anadian citizen. There are many obstacles still in the way and 
it will take some years to do what we must do, but I feel confident 
all will be well in the end. Much of the opposition I believe is 
due to ignorance of our School Law and Regulations. When these 
are clearly pointed out to these people and explained to them, I 
have usually found them responsive. I have found i necessary 
at times to use rather strong measures of persuasion, but invariably 
the people eventually see that we are working in the interests of 
their children, and all opposition gradually disappears. 

The majority of boards dealt with seem to heartily welcome 
assistance. Where trouble has arisen, it is usually caused by one 
or two local agitators who attempt to defy constituted authority. 
In too many cases, trustees refuse to perform their duties or to 
introduce improvements recommended by the inspectors, because 
of fear of the wrath or censure of the ratepayers. A ratepayers’ 
meeting must be called to settle some of the smallest items of busi- 
ness, e.g., the purchase of towels, the purchase of a few cords of 
wood, or a few new seats. This condition obtains where many 
of the ratepayers are illiterate and in such cases the only proper 
course to take is to appoint an official trustee or ask the trustees 
or trustee to resign. 


86 


Department of Education 


“Adoption” of Schools. 

About 35 women’s organisations in various parts of the prov- 
ince have each been assigned upon request, a non-English school 
in which they are taking a kindly interest by supplying the teachers 
with little necessities, and in most cases a regular correspondence 
is carried on between the pupils and the members of the organisa- 
tion. Books, pictures, newspapers, magazines, sewing materials, 
games, etc., have been sent. In some cases needy children have 
been clothed and at Christmas time boxes of presents were sent 
for distribution. The object of this scheme, is not a display of 
superiority on the part of these good Canadian women, but rather 
to get these children and people to feel that a definite body of 
Canadian women is interested in assisting them in their efforts 
to become good Canadian citizens and to encourage the teachers 
who are engaged in this worthy work, to feel that they have the 
prayers and sympathy of a particular group of women behind them. 
The teachers and children and often the parents, are delighted 
with what has so far been done for them, and it is to be hoped that 
many more organisations will assist in this work during the coming 
year. 

English Newspapers for Schools. 

In very many of the non-English districts, and especially 
where illiteracy prevails, the older pupils and those who have 
left school, read English better than they do a foreign language. 
But the only material they ever see printed in English is the school 
reader or the library books. With the idea of introducing English 
papers into these schools, your Director has approached the editors 
of the leading papers of the province with a request that a certain 
number of free copies be sent regularly to the teachers. The 
response has been very gratifying and about 100 papers are now 
being sent regularly to as many non-English schools. 


Lantern Slides. 

With the idea of letting our people know of conditions among 
the New Canadians, I have obtained a set of lantern slides which 
I have found very useful. These have been sent out to various 
parts of the province on different occasions. Among the places 
visited by your Director during the year, were Swift Current, Rose- 
town, Grenfell, Oakshella, Yorkton, North Battleford, Prince 
Albert, Estevan, Weyburn, Ogema and Watrous. Several meetings 
were held in rural school houses and the attendance of New Cana- 
dians was in every case most encouraging. A very interesting 
and instructive moving picture film was made during the 
summer and will be used for educational work during the coming 
year. 


Winter Schools. 

In order to overcome the adult illiteracy and inability to speak 
English in the rural districts, it will be absolutely necessary that 


Annual Report, 1919 


87 


schools be kept open throughout the winter months. There are 
some who claim this is not feasible, owing to bad roads and severe 
weather. I can only answer this by stating that many schools are 
being kept open notwithstanding these conditions. Children should 
be properly clothed and driven to school daily. When parents 
take enough interest to do this, we shall have winter schools. 
Many children whose parents can afford to clothe them well are, 
through being insufficiently clad, compelled to remain indoors 
throughout the long winter months. Undoubtedly there are 
some whose parents cannot afford warm winter clothing. Let 
us search these out and provide clothing for them. We cannot 
afford to have them grow up illiterate and improperly trained 
for Canadian citizenship. Last fall, I visited a school in a Ruthen- 
ian settlement near Meacham. It was about 10 below zero that 
day and about 20 pupils were present. At four o’clock a Ruthenian 
farmer drove up with a large box sleigh. He drove several of the 
children home. This school was situated out on the open prairie. 
What was being done there could be done in most rural districts. 
In New Canadian school near Stornoway, the attendance was 
nearly 100 per cent, when the weather was 40 below zero. The 
children drove or were driven every day. No! here are some of 
the reasons why so many schools are closed during the winter 
months: 

1. Lack of interest in education on part of parents. 

2. Children insufficiently clad — in many cases the parents being well able to 
afford good clothing. 

3. Desire to keep down expenses. 

4. Some buildings poorly constructed — should be replaced. 

5. No accommodation for teachers. The miserable shack which was built for 
summer use must be abandoned as soon as the cold weather sets in. 

6. Trustees fail to secure in time a supply of fuel. 

7. Parents not interested enough to drive children to school. Some schools 
have no stabling accommodation. 

8. Lack of interest, ignorance and apathy of trustees, who are entirely unfitted 
through illiteracy or lack of interest in education to occupy such an important 
position. 

Your Director, ably supported by the Inspectors of Schools, 
is exerting every effort to overcome these conditions and it is gratify- 
ing to be able to report that an increasing number of parents and 
ratepayers are being stirred up to the necessity of having winter 
schools. The chief remedy rests in securing permanent teachers, 
living in comfortable residences, paid respectable salaries, and 
willing to remain in these settlements throughout the winter 
months. 


Qualifications of Trustees. 

There are many trustees among certain of the non-English 
who are entirely unfitted for the office. As has been stated, 
many are afraid to make the slightest change without calling 
a ratepayers’ meeting, which too often is a scene of turmoil. 


88 


Department of Education 


Furthermore, in the majority of districts, three men reasonably 
well qualified could be secured, but too often the majority fails t® 
elect them. In only 10 cases have I found it necessary to recom- 
mend the appointment of official trustees. It is altogether likely 
that before we can get satisfactory conditions, a few more will b® 
necessary during the coming years. 


Changes Necessary. 

The following are some of the changes that I consider must 
be made before the problem of Canadianisation is properly solved : 

1. Yearly schools — open throughout the winter months. 

2. Many more good teachers’ residences. 

3. Higher salaries to encourage married teachers to take up this work. At 
least SI, 500 a year with free house and fuel should be the aim for the present. 

4. A widespread organisation of the adult “Non-English” by our Cansdian 
leaders. The Rural Education Associations should materially assist in s< I ,ng 
this problem. 

5. Every trustee among these New Canadians should be able to re. ■' wile, 
and speak the English language with a fair degree of proficiency. In the u. only 
of districts there will be no difficulty in securing trustees with these qua :!».a;.ons. 

6. More night schools should be operated throughout the wintm months. 

7. The introduction of municipal school boards, which is likely to come ia 
the near future. 

8. The discouragement through education and if necessary legislation, of 
early marriages among some of the Non-English. 

9. Lastly the active co-operation and sympathy of every organisation and 
every true Canadian citizen in the province, in this national task of racial assimi- 
lation. 

In conclusion, Sir, I may state that I feel quite satisfied with 
the work of the past year. There will be many obstacles as we 
proceed. It will take time for some of these people — and some 
of our own people — to understand that we are working in the inter- 
ests of a united Canada, but we must hew to the line, acting with- 
out fear or favour, ever actuated by those principles of justice and 
humanity, for the preservation of which 60,000 of Canada’s noblest 
and bravest sons have laid down their lives. That this course of 
action will ultimately redound to the glory of all, we need not 
doubt. The children of these people, many of whom do not now 
understand us, will some day thank us. They are doing it now. 
Recently, I received a lengthy letter signed by 10 or 12 Polish and 
Ruthenian parents. The concluding sentence ran thus: “We wish 
to thank you for the strong action you have taken in our district, 
for only by doing so will you enable our children to become good 
Canadian citizens and take the places of those brave Canadians 
who gave up their lives in order that wemight have liberty.” 


The Teachers. 

Appeals were presented to various Normal School classes 
during the year with most gratifying results. Many more than 
could be placed, owing to lack of boarding facilities, volunteered 


Annual Report, 1919 


89 


to go into these settlements. Some of these teachers were mar- 
ried men and many had high qualifications. As it was, out of 566 
teachers in as many non-English schools only 67 were unqualified. 
Onlv 28 unqualified teachers were at work in 176 Ruthenian dis- 

in-o r' 


1 O 

KJ J-IAJ J L<J VV UA 


Milni. 


^ _ j i *70 

bilGtlS OillKA. AU. ± I O VJOl ua Oj UL UlOtllLtO 

Normal training. These teachers have in most cases done magni- 
ficient work and many of them intend remaining in the work 
for some time to come. Only a few cases of unfair treatment were 
experienced by teachers. On the other hand one girl reported that 
her board of Ruthenian trustees presented her with a cheque for 
$200 as a Christmas present. She was their first “ English ” teacher. 

I feel quite confident that though in some localities most un- 
satisfactory conditions prevail, these will in the next few years be 
remedied. It is largely a matter of telling these people what to do 
and how to do it. I purpose, in company with the inspectors, to 
personally visit as many as possible of the backward districts 
during the coming year. You cannot do much by correspondence. 
Too often only one or two can read your letters and they in some 
cases purposely misinterpret them. 

I desire to extend to you my appreciation of the freedom of 
action you have allowed me in the carrying out of my duties 
during the year. It is very gratifying to be able to report that no 
one has in any way interfered with me in my work. Such treatment, 
I assure you will be a strong incentive to greater effort during the 
•oming year. 


Your obedient servant, 


J. T. M. Anderson. 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my first report on 
the High Schools and Collegiate Institutes of the Province for 
the year ending December 31, 1919. 

During the year all the high schools and three of the collegiate 
institutes were visited twice while the six remaining collegiates 
were visited once. In addition the following public schools with 
one or more teachers giving full time to high school work were 
seen: Biggar, Canora, Carlyle, Carnduff, Craik, Davidson, Delisle, 
Grenfell, Govan, Hanley, Herbert, Kerrobert, Lumsden, Melville, 
Milestone, Nokomis, Radisson, Rosthern, Unity, Wadena, Watrous, 
Wolseley. By invitation Regina College was also inspected. 
Invitations have also been received to visit Moose Jaw College and 
St. Alban’s Ladies’ College at Prince Albert. In all I have paid 
66 visits to those schools doing high school work. At the great 
majority of these places I held a conference with the boards of 
trustees, and in a few cases gave public addresses in an endeavour 
to so present the place and need of a sound secondary education 


90 


Department of Education 


as to stimulate the interest of the people in this essential in the 
citizenship of the twentieth century. 

Several things have impressed themselves upon my mind 
during these visits: 

1. The problem of the adolescent — those who are or should 
be receiving a secondary education, their immense value to the 
state, the great possibilities to any state where this “greatest 
asset” is zealously guarded and developed. 

It is the inherent right of every child to receive the opportunity 
for the development of those latent potentialities of which he is 
possessed. This implies a sound elementary education and more. 
The time of youth — adolescence — is in some respects the most 
important period of life. Here ideals are born, choices are made; 
the future is in large measure decided. While it is true that from 
earliest infancy character is being formed, consciously and un- 
consciously, in the home, in the kindergarten and throughout the 
elementary school course by the employment of wise and sympa- 
thetic methods, by stimulating interest through effort, and by throw- 
ing the learner upon his own responsibility in the mastery of such 
problems as naturally come within his experience and within his 
grasp; yet it is also true that if the child’s school life closes with 
nothing more than the training as given in the elementary school 
grades he has become severed from one of the chief factors in char- 
acter direction as well as of efficient service, because the great 
ideals and purposes of life do not manifest themselves until the 
period of adolescence. Thus, if a large measure of responsibility 
for character education is to be placed upon the school, it is necessary 
that the youth find his rightful place in the school during the period 
when this moulding influence is most effective. It is impossible 
to estimate the loss to the individual and to the state, in noble 
living and in efficient service, of the lack of due attention to the 
proper training of the individual from the age of 14 till he assumes 
the responsibility of citizenship. When it is considered that of 
those who render service worthy of public recognition there are 
found only six in every million who have received no school educa- 
tion, only twenty-four in every million with the elementary school 
education, six hundred and twenty-two in every million who have 
received a .high school education and 5,768 in the million who have 
received a college education; and when it is also considered that on 
the average, the earning capacity of those who leave school at the 
completion of the elementary course reaches its maximum at the 
age of twenty-five while the earning capacity of those who com- 
plete the high school course continues to increase to the age of 
thirty-five, are we not forced to raise the question: Does the 
responsibility of the state cease until the individual is prepared to 
enter into full citizenship? 

The following quotation from a leading business man in an 
eastern city shows the changing attitude towards education by 
those engaged in business, industrial and financial enterprises: 

“Not so long ago it was considered that if a lad were studious 
at school he should finish the school course in order to enter college 
to study for a profession. Perhaps it was thought that education 


Annual Report, 1919 


91 


was of no great advantage in business, especially as employers 
rarely insisted on any educational standard. This idea is rapidly 
changing. It is now realised that, whether in the business of 
production or distribution, or finance, a liberal education is as 
necessary for the best success as it is in the profession. In the 
worid of business, modern competition necessitates a study of 
organisation, standardisation, and the minimising of waste. The 
problems arising in these call for highly trained minds, and for 
clear thinking. Therefore in choosing the staff that is intended 
one day to fill important positions, progressive business men prefer 
the youths most likely to have the capacity for developing trained 
minds, in other words, the youths with good school records.” 

The strength of a nation depends not so much upon the wealth 
of its resources in field, forest or mine, nor in the lofty heights to 
which a few have reached in bank account, or high mental attain- 
ments but in the physical fitness, general high intelligence and 
moral uprightness of its people. The period of adolescence with 
which our secondary education deals is the most important within 
the span of human life for the inculcating and fostering of these 
desirable qualities, and where these are found the extremes of poverty 
and wealth are less in evidence, and contentment reigns. 

2. The inadequacy of the provision that is made for secondary 
education. 

When we remember the age of our province, the pioneer 
conditions through which we have been passing, the rapid influx 
of population from all parts of the globe taxing to the full the powers 
of the government to provide facilities for primary education, and 
the strain of the last five years due to the great world conflict, 
Saskatchewan has no more reason to feel ashamed of her record 
educationally than she has of her splendid patriotic achievements. 
But while this is true, it is also true that the time is now ripe for a 
great advance. 

There are at present 9 collegiate institutes and 14 high 
schools regularly established. In addition there are probably 75 
public schools in which one, two and, in a few cases, three teachers 
are devoting their whole time to work above grade VII. This 
work is carried on in the public school with meagre equipment and 
inadequate staff. It is impossible for one or two teachers to effec- 
tively cover the work of grade VIII and three years of the high school 
course; it is also impossible to teach the science course without 
laboratory facilities for doing the work. Yet this is what is being 
attempted. Eleven of our high schools find accommodation in 
public school buildings. Four high schools have a staff of only 
two teachers each. The teaching conditions in these are not much 
superior to those found in the high school departments of the 
public schools. Relief is urgently needed. Many of the high 
school districts with a limited assessment find it difficult to add to 
their staffs so as the better to meet the demands of the people for 
such additions to the course of study as are provided by the Depart- 
ment, to say nothing of the large capital expenditure necessary to 
provide suitable accommodation and equipment for the successful 
prosecution of the work. The Provincial grants now paid are large 


92 


Department of Education 


— large in comparison with those paid in other provinces and in the 
various states of our neighbouring Republic. It does not seem that 
the problem will be solved by simply increasing the grants. 

3. The rapidly increasing demand for secondary education. 
A remarkable change in this connection has been manifest in the 
province during the year just closing. School boards are anxious 
to know how best to proceed and are longing to do more than they 
feel is possible under present conditions. Rural districts are also 
demanding for their youth educational advantages equal to those 
possessed ^by urban centres. They hesitate, during the restless, 
adolescent, formative period of life to send their boys and girls far 
from home, where the home ties are broken and where ideals of rural 
life are lost. Their demands are just and their hesitation com- 
mendable. To meet these just demands and to show respect to this 
commendable hesitation, facilities for securing a secondary educa- 
tion should be provided as near as is practicable to the homes of 
the people and should be of such a nature as to minister as fully as 
possible to the needs of the people of these homes. 

In the demand for educational advantages in advance of those 
furnished by the elementary school, Saskatchewan is only in line 
with other progressive lands. Space permits merely a reference 
to the Fisher Bill of England, the Scotch Education Act of 1918, 
the Smith-Towner Bill of the U.S.A., and the recent enactments 
of various states south of the international boundary to indicate 
the spirit of the age. 

4. The courses of study. 

The regulations provide for liberal options for the teachers’ 
course, while the general course permits the selection of such 
subjects as may be agreed upon by the principal and the parent, 
or guardian of the pupil. There is also a course for university 
matriculation. This latter course requires at least two foreign 
languages of which one must be either Latin or Greek for Arts; 
either French or German for Science, Engineering, Agriculture, 
Dentistry and Accounting; and Latin for Law, Medicine and Phar- 
macy. The great majority of the students, entering the university, 
even those who take the special honour work in Science, register 
in the Arts course. Thus, we find a number of our schools requiring 
practically all the pupils of the first and second years to take both 
Latin and French. Because probably five per cent, of the classes 
may enter the university which requires Latin for its Arts Matricu- 
lation, fully ninety-five per cent are spending from one-fifth to 
one-fourth of their time in doing that for which the majority have 
but little aptitude and less desire. The result does not tend to 
popularise either secondary or higher education. Abundant proof 
of this may be found in our high school and university graduates. 
The benefit received by the many from the study of Latin in our 
high schools and universities is purchased at altogether too great 
a cost in time and energy. This misdirection of time and energy 
will continue so long as the University demands a knowledge of 
Latin as a requirement for admission to and graduation from its 
Arts course. I hasten to remark that for those who possess an 
aptitude and desire for classical study it may be made an instru- 


Annual Report, 1919 


93 


ment of culture of rare value. It seems regrettable to the writer 
that larger use is not made in our schools of the general course. 

A beginning has been made at giving a course in health education 
through the addition of hygiene, physiology and physical culture 
to the list of required studies in the course for teachers. That real 
benefit may result from these subjects they should be taught by 
one thoroughly competent, not as isolated studies but in relation 
to the work and play life of the individual Physical examinations 
should be made, and where necessary, corrective excercises pre- 
scribed for the correction of functional and organic disorders. Till 
a supply of trained teachers is available for this important work, 
the interest and co-operation of the medical men and nurses of the 
district might be enlisted. Health education is moral education. 
The highest morality and the highest mental development are not 
compatible with physical decrepitude. 

5. Night Schools. 

These should be fostered in connection with our secondary as 
well as with our elementary schools. The highest proficiency is not 
attained during the years ordinarily spent in the school. For the 
ambitious ones, education never ceases and every opportunity is 
eagerly seized for advancement. “The heights by great men reached 
and kept were not attained by sudden flight; but they, while their 
companions slept, were toiling upward in the night.” The fact that 
night schools have not attained that popularity in Canada which 
they have in older lands is all the greater reason for their encourage- 
ment. Their value must be proved. Their nature must be 
decided by local conditions; but everywhere some attention might 
be given to such topics as will make for a better citizenship by pro- 
viding for either definite courses or popular lectures on government, 
elementary economics, literature or history, with opportunities for 
practise in public speaking — debates or otherwise. Regina Colle- 
giate Institute is to be highly commended for the wisdom and energy 
with which this problem has been attacked. The practical courses 
offered were planned to meet the needs of the people. Appreciation 
is shown by the registration in the night classes of more than 400 
students making diligent use of the facilities provided for their 
betterment. 

6. The teacher — the real dynamic of the school. Not 
magnificent buildings nor elaborate equipment alone, desirable as 
these may be, measure the worth of the institution, but the anima- 
ting force of teachers noble in purpose, sympathetic in treatment, 
inspiring in leadership and scholarly in attainments. From a 
fairly intimate acquaintance with the teachers in our high schools 
during 1919 I believe them to be, with very rare exceptions, men 
and women of good education, hard working, capable, zealous for 
the highest good of the students, possessed of high ideals of service 
and worthy of the fullest confidence of those whom they serve. 

That ambitious and capable young men possessing natural 
aptitude for teaching, may be enlisted and retained in greater 
numbers in the profession, it is necessary that permanency of tenure 
be secured, the social status of the profession be raised and 
the pecuniary rewards somewhat in keeping with the ability dis- 


94 


Department of Education 


played, the training required for the work and the returns derived 
from other professions and occupations. Nothing so chills the 
ardour or dampens the enthusiasm of the earnest teacher as to be 
forced to stand aside and see places of preferment constantly given 
to others of no greater ability and rendering no higher service, 
or to witness teachers of outstanding ability and splendid record 
summarily dismissed by a board without adequate reasons for their 
action. Cheap though well-meaning platitudes pronounced upon 
the occasion of his passing on to a new community, or of his pro- 
fessional demise, are no compensation. Further, the teacher needs 
emancipation so that wisely yet fearlessly he may express his 
convictions on any matter concerning the body politic. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. A. Snell. 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I beg to submit the following report of Regina Normal 
School for the year 1919. 

The aim of the institution is primarily to train teachers for 
the schools of Saskatchewan and to this end an endeavour is made 
to have the students-in-training become acquainted, as far as 
possible, with the life and conditions of the province. It is not 
sufficient that the teacher be conversant with school work only; 
the broader his knowledge, the better will he be able to fit the 
growing youths for the lives they have to live. School work should 
be closely linked up with other phases of life, moulding the citizenry 
of our country. It is the aim of the Normal School to place before 
the students high and sane ideals of life. They should be made 
familiar with theory, practice and equipment even in advanee of 
that to which they have been accustomed. 

The Normal School tries to cultivate the initiative of the teacher 
so that when new problems arise they may be attacked with energy 
and confidence. 

Owing to the epidemic of influenza in 1918, the fall classes had 
to be suspended then and completed in 1919. This, together with 
the very large number of Firsts, Seconds and Thirds, gave a class 
of almost six hundred for the spring session of 1919. For this num- 
ber our staff was augmented by inspectors of schools drawn from 
the field, as well as extra teachers in special subjects and this 
supplementary staff deserves every commendation. 

During the year, the term of the training session was lengthened 
to eight months which might be taken continuously or in sessions. 
Our fall term opened with 27 Firsts and 74 Seconds. Of this 
number, 25 of the former and 38 of the latter, chose the continuous 


Annual Report, 1919 


95 


eight months’ term. Many students-in-training taking the shorter 
term expressed the wish that they had chosen the continuous 
rather than the broken session. There can be no doubt that the 
longer session gives greater opportunity for equipping our 
teachers. 

The course of study is made as practical as possible. The 
work of the public school curriculum is the basis of our practice 
and demonstration. With the longer term attention will be 
directed towards the preparation of teachers for High School and 
Collegiate work. 

An important phase of training is the actual teaching of public 
school children. This is accomplished partly by the use of a model 
school of six grades in the Normal School building and further by 
the use of the class rooms of the city schools. It has been the cus- 
tom, through the courtesy of the city school boards for the teachers 
to observe for a short time the work done by the teachers of the 
grades and then for the students-in-training to teach a number of 
sample lessons in these classrooms. This form of practice work 
means but little observation and a limited amount of actual teaching 
under circumstances in which the student is working with a strange 
class and teaching lessons of which he does not see the true relation- 
ship or sequence. If our students could spend much more time in 
actual observation of continuous work under selected teachers, a 
truer grasp of management, arrangement and presentation of school 
work would result. Through the courtesy of the school boards of 
the city we were able to follow this plan to a limited extent and we 
found the students received a better grasp of actual teaching tha’n 
in former years. 

The youth of our students only emphasises the necessity for 
longer training. Many of the students attending Normal School 
have had very little training in certain special subjects, such as 
music, manual training and art, with the result that considerable 
time must be given to actual instruction of these subjects. In 
addition to the methods to be employed in teaching, it is suggested 
that it would be well if summer sessions could be conducted in these 
special subjects in connection with the Normal School. 

The staff is well balanced and well qualified, taking decided 
interest in all phases of teacher-training activity. In many schools 
and colleges, time and opportunity are given that members of the 
staff may undertake post graduate and research work in their 
various subjects. It is difficult to keep in touch with educational 
progress and at the same time carry on the classroom work in the 
Normal School. 

The staff this year was supplemented by a nurse from the 
Department of Education’s School Hygiene branch whose work 
consists of general examination of the students, visiting and caring 
for the sick, the teaching of hygiene and suggesting corrective 
exercises for observed defects. 

The problem of music was more seriously treated~this year, 
emphasis being placed not only on formal methods of teaching, 
but even more on encouraging a proper appreciation of music and 
the creation of a desire to sing. 


96 


Department of Education 


The physical training is, in the main, that outlined by the 
Strat.hcona Trust. This training, while good, does not seem alto- 
gether satisfactory or sufficient. The majority of our students are 
women, and on this account the Strathcona Trust syllabus might 
profitably be modified and amplified. 

During the year considerable repairs were started on the 
Normal School building, making the heating, lighting and general 
cleanliness more satisfactory. 

The school expresses its thanks for the series of good pictures 
presented by the Imperial Order of Daughters of the Empire. 

Our grounds have received considerable attention so far as 
the front is concerned, and further use is planned for the ground 
south of the building. It is hoped that these grounds can be used 
for constructive work for illustrating the teaching of agriculture. 

As far as possible the equipment of the Normal School should 
be complete, and if possible, a room where model equipment might 
be exhibited, would be helpful. 

During the year the staffs of Saskatoon and Regina Normal 
Schools were in conference and made recommendations to the 
Department. A further important conference held in Edmonton 
was attended by the Normal School principals of the four Western 
Provinces and a summary of its deliberations was transmitted to 
the Department. 

During the year the experiment was made of making an inter- 
change of staff between the Saskatoon and Regina Normal 
Schools, a member of the Saskatoon staff visiting Regina and taking 
up a course of lectures, while a member of the Regina staff did 
similar work at Saskatoon. The benefits of this interchange, 
together with the conferences held, do much to unify and in- 
tensify the object of our school training, as well as to relate the 
stronger qualities of each institution. 

The thanks of the Normal School are given to the teachers and 
school boards of the city and to the Departmental officials with 
whom it has had to deal. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

T. E. Perrett, 
Principal 


Annual Report, 1919 


97 


Saskatoon, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report on the 
Provincial Normal School at Saskatoon for the year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1919. 

Attendance . — The attendance during the spring and fait 
sessions is shown in the following table: 



First Class 

Second Class 

Third Class 

Total 


Men 

Women 

Total 

Men 

Women 

Total 

Men 

Women 

Total 

First 

Session 

12 

34 

46 

21 

153 

174 

16 

67 

83 

303 

Second 

Session 

4 

9 

13 

17 

53 

70 




83 

Totals. . . 

16 

43 

59 

38 

206 

244 

16 

67 

83 

386 


Note T . — Seventeen First Class and fifty-two Second Class students registered 
for the fall term of 1918, but, owing to the influenza epidemic, had to attend during 
January and February of 1919 to complete their course. These students are not 
included in the above statement. Therefore, 455 students actually attended during 

1919. 

Note II . — In addition to the above, nine First Class, eight Second Class and one 
Third Class students wrote extra-murally at this institution. 

The following table indicates the enrolment and academic 
standing of the students from Saskatchewan and the other Prov- 
inces of Canada, as well as from the British Isles and the United 
States : 


Origin 

First Class 

Second 

Class 

Third Class 

Total 

Province 
or Country 

| University 
| Graduates 

University 
i Undergraduates 
j (2 years) 

University 
Undergraduates 
(3 years) 

First Class 
Diploma or 
Equivalent 

Second Class 
Diploma or 
Equivalent 

Second Class 
Diploma or 
Equivalent 

Third Class 
Diploma or i 
Equivalent 

High School 
Diploma from 
U.S.A. 

Saskatchewan . 

3 

2 

5 

37 

186 

4 

55 


292 

Manitoba 

3 



1 

21 

4 

7 


36 

Ontario 

4 




12 


2 


18 

Quebec 





1 


3 


4 

Nova Scotia 




1 

8 




g 

P.E.I 




1 





1 

Newfoundland . . . 





1 




1 

Alberta 




1 

5 


2 


8 

British Columbia. 

1 








] 

Great Britain .... 





3 




3 

U.S.A 





7 



6 

13 

Totals 

11 

2 

5 

41 

244 

8 

69 

6 

386 


98 


Department of Education 


The graphs on the following page prepared by Mr. J. W. 
Hedley, M.A., of the Mathematical Department of the Normal 
School, indicates the maturity of the teachers in training at this 
institution since its inception in August, 1912, to the end of April, 
1919. 

During the period above specified the following number of 
students have been in attendance: Third Class, 1,105; Second Class 
835; First Class, 377 — a total of 2,317 students. The graphs 
show how the average ages varied from session to session. They 
also indicate that the war operated to decrease the average class 
age, but in general caused the average attendance age of the male 
students to increase. The striking immaturity of the average 
teacher in training is too manifest for comment. While the present 
somewhat exceptional conditions exist throughout the province, 
however, it is difficult to apply a satisfactory remedy. The schools 
must be manned and it is better that they should be manned by 
immature teachers than remain closed. This defect of immaturity, 
by no means peculiar to the teachers of Saskatchewan, is no doubt 
due largely to social causes over which, for the present at any rate, 
there can be but little effective administrative control. 

Accommodation . — It is scarcely necessary to emphasise the 
immediate need for the erection of a Normal School building. 
Since its inception in 1912 the Saskatoon Normal School has been 
something of a peripatetic institution. Owing to the valuable 
assistance so courteously rendered by the Public School. Separate 
School and Collegiate Institute Boards, as well as by the University 
authorities, accommodation for our growing classes has been ob- 
tained, frequently to the great inconvenience of the parties con- 
cerned The exceptionally large classes of the spring term of 1919 
were housed in four separate buildings, thus adding greatly to the 
difficulty of organisation and effective supervision. During the 
present session classes are being conducted in St. Mary’s Separate 
School and in temporary quarters in St. Thomas Presbyterian 
Church. According to present predictions, the year 1920 will be 
a iprosperous one in building circles in Saskatoon. Judging from 
press reports approximately two million dollars’ worth of construc- 
tion has already been proposed and the demand on the labour market 
promises to be exceptionally heavy. The desirability of making 
an early start with the erection of the new Normal School cannot 
therefore be too strongly emphasised. 

Staff . — Several changes have taken place in the personnel of 
the staff during the year. Dr. J. A. Snell, principal of this institu- 
tion since its establishment in 1912. was, on January 1, 1919, 
promoted to a wider sphere of duty as Inspector of High Schools, 
Collegiate Institutes and Normal Schools of the province. For- 
tunately, Dr. Snell’s new position will not entirely deprive the Nor- 
mal School of his sane judgment and wise supervision Mr. It. W. 
Asselstine, B.A., formerly Inspector of Schools, who had frequently 
rendered splendid assistance as a lecturer on the staff, was appointed 
to the position of vice principal. The institution was also fortunate 
in securing the services of Mr. J. W. Hedley, M.A., who has main- 
tained a splendid record during his post-graduate course at Chicago 


99 


Annual Report, 1919 
FIRST CLASS 



SECOND CLASS 



THIRD CLASS 



100 


Department of Education 


University. By special arrangement, the work in domestic science 
and manual training was ably conducted by the instructors on the 
Saskatoon Public School Staff. Prof. T. N. Willing of the Univer- 
sity conducted courses in nature study, while special lectures were 
also given by several other members of the Faculty. For this 
assistance the Normal School is deeply grateful. Mrs. Sherry has 
rendered splendid service as instructor in music, as also has Miss 
Cassie Willoughby, Reg. N., in the department of school hygiene. 
The other members of the staff conducted the work of the same 
departments as in former years. To the efficienc}'- and fidelity of 
the personnel of the entire staff the success of the institution has 
been chiefly due. 

Extension of the Session . — The lengthening of the course to 
thirty-three weeks’ duration was undoubtedly a step in the right 
direction. It is hoped that at no very distant date the session will 
be extended to cover a period of two years and embrace academic 
courses as well as the professional subjects. It is indeed difficult, 
and, in my opinion, unwise to divorce the academic and professional. 
Both are aspects of the same whole and the latter should evolve 
largely through the efficient presentation of the former. 

The lengthening of the session may result in a temporary 
scarcity of qualified teachers, but, in my opinion, the time factor 
is not the dominant element in the case. Temporary dislocation 
during the transition period would perhaps be inevitable no matter 
when the extension was effected. Our present attendance, however, 
in comparison with that of former sessions (omitting the exceptional 
and unwieldy classes of the spring term of 1919) is not such as to 
justify any serious alarm. Perhaps this may be explained to some 
extent by the division of the session into two terms of fifteen and 
eighteen weeks respectively, with the optional three-year interval 
intervening. Yet all our first class students and a small majority 
of the second class elected to take the continuous course of thirty- 
three weeks. In the very near future if would appear advisable to 
reduce the teaching interval between the first and second terms to 
a maximum period of one year. With respect to University grad- 
uates who wish to equip themselves both as public and high school 
teachers, the more efficient training rendered possible by the long 
session is especially desirable. 

In this connection an authoritative quotation is given from a 
book by Professor Bagley, one of the leading American educationists: 

Some people still believe that a teacher is born and not made, and yet a 
careful investigation of the efficiency of elementary teachers shows that, when 
such teachers were ranked by competent judges, specialised training stood out 
as the most important factor in general efficiency. In this same in- 
vestigation, the time honoured notion that a college education will, irrespec- 
tive of specialised training, adequately equip a teacher for the work was revealed 
a fallacy, for twenty-eight per cent of the Normal School graduates among the 
teachers were in the first and second ranks of efficiency as against seventeen per 
cent, of the college graduates; while in the two lowest grades only sixteen per cent, 
of the Normal School graduates are to be found as against forty-fcur per cent, 
of the college graduates. These investigations, I may add, were made by univer- 
sity professors and I am giving them here in a university classroom as a university 
representative. And, of course, I shall hasten to add that general scholarship 
is an important essential. Our mistake has been in assumirg sometimes that 
it is the only essential. (“Craftsmanship and Teaching,” p. 201.) 


Annual - Report, 1919 


101 


Practice Teaching . — Perhaps the great defect in the work of 
the Normal School in the past was found in the department of 
practice teaching. Owing to the shortness of the course this defect 
was bound to exist. With the extended term considerable im- 
provement is to be reasonably expected, but the defect cannot be 
fully remedied under existing conditions. The great difficulty is 
due to the lack of facilities for practice teaching under conditions 
that obtain in rural communities where over seventy-five per cent, 
of our graduates accept positions. Practically all the observation 
w'ork and practice teaching are now being conducted in highly 
graded urban schools, where each teacher is in charge of one or at 
most two grades. Problems of organisation, seat work, time table 
and similar matters met with in the graded school are essentially 
different from the corresponding problems obtaining in rural schools. 
Under present conditions it is difficult to give the teachers in training 
such concrete assistance and practical tests as will materially assist 
them in attacking the vital problems largely peculiar to rural 
school conditions. Several suggestions for the overcoming of this 
serious defect have been discussed at various conferences, but so 
far without any very concrete results accruing. When a practice 
school is established it may be possible to devise a system of grouping 
pupils from various grades so that for demonstration purposes, 
rural school conditions and problems may, to a partial extent, 
be duplicated. 

To the Public School, Separate School and Collegiate Institute 
Boards of Trustees in Saskatoon, we wish to make grateful acknowl- 
edgment for the assistance so generously rendered in permitting 
us to use the various city schools for practice teaching. To the 
teachers in all the schools of this city equal acknowledgment is 
due for their splendid co-operation in the work of teacher-training. 

Extension Work . — Not the least important feature of the work 
undertaken by the Normal School staff was the delivery of educa- 
tional addresses at various points in the province. Especially 
during the fall term, when educational conventions were being held 
in the various inspectorates, were the majority of the staff in almost 
constant requisition for this very important work. The benefits 
accruing to all concerned are too obvious to require elaboration. 
In a large number of cases educational addresses were also delivered 
to the general public who are evincing a somewhat more lively 
interest in the great national project of education. The importance 
of this phase of extension work can scarcely be overestimated. 
Increased facilities for the work of teacher-training are not the only 
vita needs of our educational system if it is to achieve its high 
destiny. While it appears true that administrative and other 
efforts must converge towards a substantial improvement in the 
financial, social and professional status of the teacher before the 
best results can be achieved in the field of sound educational reform, 
nevertheless there are certain important prerequisites. Govern- 
ments may “allure to brighter worlds” by giving direction to 
educational effort and providing facilities for educational improve- 
ment; but governments, as such, are not primarily responsible for 
social culture or social appreciation of mental and spiritual values. 


102 


Department of Education 


It is impossible directly to impart wisdom through legislation. 
A preliminary work must be done. The gospel of education should 
be preached throughout the length and breadth of the province. 
The public mind must be stirred and enlightened before there can 
be realised the vital attitude towards the true significance of educa- 
tion that will cause the social demand to approximate the real social 
need. The home must be reached as well as the school. “ Man 
needs must have the best when he knows it.” Knowledge is ante- 
cedent to intelligent interest and knowledge of the economic and 
cultural values of education should be diffused through every social 
agency that has for its object the promotion of intelligent citizenship. 
Public enlightenment must supplant the comparative incubus of 
public indifference before the best — not the cheapest type of 
teacher will be demanded. In this respect education and salvation 
are at least interdependent if not synonymous terms. Possibly 
the establishment of a purely, rather than a technical, educational 
extension department in connection with each Normal School may 
be a matter worthy of serious consideration in the near future. 

Moral Education and the Teacher.— At the present time, when 
a widespread and praiseworthy movement is on foot to develop a 
more enlightened type of citizenship through the infusion of a 
deeper moral and patriotic element in our educational systems, a 
few observations in this connection may not be out of place. The 
chief criticism usually levelled at our present educational system 
by representatives of reform is somewhat as follows: Modern 
education, it is alleged, tends to develop the intellect and memory, 
but neglects the moral factor, which is, after all, the real basis of 
citizenship. With the first part of this criticism I do not propose 
to deal. The importance of the moral factor in any educational 
system admittedly cannot be overestimated, but the remedy 
frequently suggested— a modification of the curriculum by placing 
additional stress on moral values through lessons in elementary 
ethics — would seem to be but a very inadequate solution. Such 
a modification — not unknown in many curricula — probably lays 
the emphasis on the wrong place. The direct teaching of moral 
precepts from a textbook, while important, may become quite as 
purely intellectual as the teaching of any other subject. All school 
subjects, e.g., literature, history and nature study, possess distinct 
moral values if rightly interpreted. The deepest moral truths may 
be indirectly inculcated in a simple, natural and impressive manner 
through the presentation, for example, of a choice piece of literature 
as well as by a lecture on elementary ethics. It is not any exaggera- 
tion, in my opinion, to state that the direct teaching of moral pre- 
cepts can have but little effect apart from the personality and 
living example of the teacher as well as the general moral tone of 
the school. The Herbartian psychology, with its emphasis on the 
moral force of ideas and the origin of the will in the dynamic nature 
of ideas that enter the “circle of thought,” proves nothing to the 
contrary. The teacher’s influence is the great moral dynamic and 
the teacher must be the living embodiment of the truths he would 
seek to impart. It would indeed appear obvious that the trained 
teacher of worthy character and high ideals is the vital factor in 


Annual Report, 1919 


103 


any educational system and that sound educational reform must 
start with the -improvement of the status of the teacher and the 
conditions under which he or she labours — not overlooking public 
enlightenment with respect to the national importance of the 
teaching profession. 

All social agencies must co-operate in the development of a 
morally higher type of citizenship if the best results are to be 
achieved. The school cannot shirk its grave responsibility in this 
connection, but other social agencies also have a vital function to 
perform. Moral training has been left largely to the home which 
to some extent has not fulfilled its mission. And if the home has 
partially collapsed in this respect, is the school to be held more 
guilty for the home’s shortcomings than the church? The school 
cannot take the place either of the home or church. Each of these 
institutions, along with the press and other public agencies, has 
a vital work of national importance to perform. All must co- 
operate in the great field of public education before the highest 
intellectual and moral values can be infused in the citizenship of 
tomorrow. Only by such concerted action and unselfish devotion 
to a high ideal may we hope to rise to the level of our potential 
greatness. In the inspiring words of H. G. Wells is this lofty and 
sane idealism aptly expressed: “Then shall education be the high- 
road which is salvation, leading to the organised unity of mankind.” 
For the realisation of such an ideal “can civilisation afford,” in 
the words of President Fisher, “not to spend the money?” 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

George M. Weir, 

Principal. 


Maple Creek, January 1, 1920. , 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit to you the following report 
on my work in the Maple Creek inspectorate for the year 1919. 

The territory comprised municipalities Nos. 110, 111, 139, 141, 
142, 171 and 172 and local improvement districts Nos. 81, 82, 112, 
140 and 170. On January 1 there were ninety-seven school dis- 
tricts and 112 departments. During the year seven new districts 
were erected, adding seven departments. Five of the new districts 
had not built schools before the end of the year, namely, Ranch 
Centre, Honora, Carnagh, Suffield and Bitter Lake. 

Basing the estimate of attendance on the record shown on the 
day of inspection, it must be considered fairly good. In graded 
schools out of 466 enrolled, 419 or almost 90 per cent, were present 
during inspection. Out of 1,764 enrolled in one-room schools 
1,468 or 83.2 per cent, were present. As inspections are seldom 
made during disagreeable weather, this statement is the most 


104 


Department of Education 


favourable possible. At other seasons of the year there is less 
regularity. When we consider the many schools ..that are closed 
for several months in the winter and where many older pupils are 
kept at home for harvest, the percentage for the year based on a 
possible attendance of 200 teaching days must on the whole be 
low. The School Attendance Act is giving good results and is 
gradually bringing about a change of attitude on the part of neglect- 
ful parents towards school attendance. I hear of some ignorant 
people who look upon the teacher who sends in the reports as the 
cause of their prosecution and hold a personal spite. A few words 
from the magistrate who hears the case would assist in making 
the truth clear. 

The chief obstacles in the way of school operation and admin- 
istration have been the lack of qualified teachers and the actual or 
anticipated lack of financial support because of successive crop 
failures. In the Gull Lake R.M. No. 139 the schools had funds 
supplied for the first six months only, consequently few rural schools 
in this area were in operation during the second term. When the 
municipal council fails through mismanagement or misfortune, 
the rural trustees are helpless. Schools in Keebleville R. M. No. 
171 were in a similar difficulty. The 1918 council spent a large 
sum in that year in a general scheme of road building, to be paid 
out of current revenue. When there was but little to sell in the 
fall and taxes did not come in, a large bank loan had to be carried 
into 1919 and this was a barrier to extensive borrowing for support 
of schools. Teachers in long term schools had to be paid by note 
in the autumn. When other parts of the province are offering cash, 
there is an increased difficulty in holding our capable teachers. 
Unless some scheme for supplying credit to the schools in the 
dried-out areas can be arranged at once, I do not see how many of 
these schools can be put into operation in 1920 until a crop for the 
year is assured. 

In talking over the situation with trustees it was very pleasant 
to find a general determination to keep the school open as long as 
possible. It was only natural that those who were facing large 
expenditures in maintaining their families during the winter, on 
the proceeds of former years, were reluctant to see further expenses, 
in the way of tax arrears, piling up against them for the future. 
After all, food, clothing and shelter are the first essentials, so many 
felt that school expenditure might well be cut off. When pro- 
visional teachers were employed or the only class to be had, I could 
not be at all urgent in asking that schools be kept open. 

Each year has its occurrences which show how desirable a 
larger unit of administration would be. Antagonism and spite 
among residents of a district sometimes make the life of a teacher 
miserable and lead to making the school and its control a means 
to an end not connected with education. A few districts are 
occupied by people who are concerned more in avoiding expense 
than in preparing their children for citizenship and in all such cases 
successful operation under local control is scarcely to be looked for. 
A municipal board should be composed of men with broader minds 
and better aims. 


Annual Report, 1919 


105 


I have had the satisfaction of seeing a decided improvement 
in most of the old style school buildings in spite of the prevailing 
hard times. The platforms have been removed, additional black- 
board has been added to the right of pupils and in some cases the 
desks have been arranged with more regard to health and comfort. 
Unless a complete system has been installed, the ventilation is poor 
and improvement is scarcely to be expected. The newer schools 
are generally well planned. 

I find greater difficulty in getting satisfactory alterations made 
to closets. This is largely due to failure to get trustees to under- 
stand just what is wanted. To express this on a report takes con- 
siderable space. When finances improve, I intend to insist on 
proper closets for every school. Even the new schools built in 
1918 are not properly equipped in this respect. Why are not plans 
for the outside closets included with those of the school building 
when submitted for approval? Then trustees would not get the 
idea that anything would do provided it did not cost much. 

There is no improvement in the water supply. At present the 
expense stands in the way. 

Of the ninety-three teachers inspected in one-roomed schools, 
six held First Class, thirty Second Class, twenty-nine Third Class 
and twenty-eight provisional certificates. Many schools were 
seriously delayed in the spring by the lack of teachers and vacancies 
occurring in the autumn were even more slowly filled. The following 
table expresses the quality of the work done by these teachers: 



No. of 
teachers 

Quality of work done 

Certificate held 

Poor 

Fair 

Good 

Excellent 

First 

6 


1 

1 

4 

Second 

30 

1 

7 

19 

3 

Third 

29 

3 

12 

11 

3 

Provisional 

28 

1 

16 

.10 

1 


Where schools lie near the railway, trustees have some oppor- 
tunity to choose a teacher and the salary paid generally bears some 
relation to the professional standing and experience of the teacher. 
In districts farther from the lines of communication, those who are 
latest in the field often draw the highest rate of pay regardless of 
their qualification or equipment. Too frequently, the heavy, 
difficult non-English school which requires the most able and best- 
trained teacher is found in charge of a novice and progress is often 
slow. Four districts have provided teachers’ homes, two of them 
quite complete and comfortable for one person. Only one is in a 
non-English district and it is in these that the need is greatest. 
With better times, I think the number will increase. 

With forty schools in which non-English-speaking pupils pre- 
dominate, I feel the need of teachers who have had some special 
training for this class of work. Quite often, I find teachers appalled 
and feeling helpless before the difficulties that face them. To train 
them by experience in our schools costs the schools much in re- 


106 


Department of Education 


tarded development. If the funds can be supplied, I would like to 
see a substantial bonus paid to every successful and earnest teacher 
in non-English schools. When we are carrying the heaviest end of 
educational expense in Canada placed on us by the activity of the 
Dominion Immigration Department, these funds should be supplied 
out of Federal revenues. Here is a legitimate field for a Federal 
grant for education. 

Among common subjects, I have been trying during the year 
to impress on teachers the value and need of abundant oral practice 
in composition before written work is attempted, insisting on 
definite clear cut sentences at all times. We tend to write as we 
speak. I see much written work that is largely a repetition and 
a drill of bad forms. I would reduce the quantity written, spend 
much more time in preparation by oral and board work and raise 
the standard of accuracy in the same proportion. 

Special subjects receive the minimum of attention in most 
schools. Paper folding, weaving with raffia, moulding with plas- 
ticine and simple sewing are generally done. Gardening has been a 
thankless task during the last two years. From my own experience 
in actual gardening in the open in this part of the province since 
1906, I would say that unless a garden is located in a low lying spot 
where moisture is near the surface, and protected from wind by a 
high board fence, gardening, during at least one-half the years, is 
a waste of time. These conditions can seldom be met in a school 
garden and sowing without reaping is a dull business. As I have 
observed gardens, they so seldom get proper cultivation that they 
never have a chance, especially when this work is done later than 
it should be. Most teachers do not know enough about the prac- 
tical operations to keep the cultivation on the level. Nine times 
out of ten I find a deep path shovelled out around fairly narrow 
beds so that the area which is seeded may have an excellent chance 
to thoroughly dry out. Carrots and radishes are frequently sown 
on the top of a ridge six inches high, where, if they chance to germ- 
inate. they later proceed to wither and fade away in the heat. 

Physical training is given good attention and much good work 
is done by teachers holding First and Second Class certificates. 
Third Class teachers do not usually do as well and the provisionally 
certificated teachers seldom attempt it. This work has a fixed and 
valuable place in our schools. 

There are no large districts in this inspectorate, but the question 
has received some discussion in Rural Municipality No. 141. 

I have found a five passenger car very satisfactory for my 
travelling, particularly when away from home for a week con- 
tinuously. Then I have the rear half filled with baggage and supp- 
lies and carry on my own affairs with a considerable measure of 
independence. The dry weather, which brings the farmer, and 
the rest of us eventually, to ruin, is very favourable for inspection 
as long as one can avoid the sand hill districts. I try to cover the 
remotest part of my territory as soon as I can reach it in the spring 
so as to allow as much time as possible before a second inspection 
in the autumn, which must be made not later than September. 
I can thus avoid being away from home at night in cold weather. 


Annual Report, 1919 


107 


During October and November I count on making second visits to 
schools reasonably near, but this year the very early cold weather 
prevented most of these second visits. 

I seldom find time to visit trustees following a morning in- 
spection and I very seldom see a dining table at noon. When so 
many teachers each year are strangers I find a brief inspection of 
but little value. One must spend some time in a school to get into 
sympathetic contact with both teacher and pupils. The most 
profitable part of the half-day is usually the discussion with the 
teacher, after the pupils have been dismissed, of what has been 
observed or illustrated. To visit trustees at noon would interfere 
with this programme so I do not attempt it except on matters of 
considerable importance. At night, when staying in the district, 
there is ample time to visit officials and by alternating morning and 
afternoon visits on the two inspections the ground can be approxi- 
mately covered. 

During January I assisted in Third Class Normal work in 
Benson School, Regina, but much to my regret, was called to Ontario 
in February because of my mother’s illness. I did not return to 
the province until the middle of March. A two weeks’ holiday in 
August and another hurried trip to Ontario in September com- 
pleted my periods of absence. Fortunately, the greater part of it 
was during the slack season in inspection, but I feel much indebted 
to the Minister for being allowed to leave so suddenly when duty 
called. 

I find my time during the year, not counting Saturdays, was 
spent as follows: Inspections and visits, 113 days; absent with leave, 
thirty-nine days; Normal teaching, twenty-one days; office work 
and professional reading, thirty days; holidays, fourteen days; 
placing teachers in schools, four days; school holidays in addition 
to midsummer, eighteen days; car repairs, five days and days not 
accounted for, seventeen. 

I made in all 171 inspections, inspecting 20 departments in 
graded schools twice; 46 one-room schools twice; one, three times 
and 36 rural schools once. I also made 46 visits to schools or dis- 
tricts, often taking as much time as an inspection. Eighty-seven 
one-room schools were in operation. Of these, four were not in- 
spected. Three had been closed before I reached them in the 
spring and were not open again or not until very late in the autumn. 
The fourth opened again on October 1, but the cold weather was a 
barrier to a long trip. Twelve districts had no school in operation. 
Of these, nine had no building until late in the year, two were 
short of funds and one has lost most of its school population. 

The distribution of pupils among the grades in both graded and 
ungraded schools may be of some interest. The 466 pupils in town 
and village schools were enrolled as follows in Grades I to VIII 
respectively: 135, 35, 75, 45, 60, 41, 11, and 58, with seven pupils 
doing High School work. Expressed in percentages, the numbers 
are roughly: 29, 7, 16, 10, 13, 9, 2, 12 and 2. The percentages of 
the 1,764 pupils in one-room schools enrolled in Grades I to VIII 
are respectively: 48, 13, 15, 10, 6, 4, 1.5 and 2.5. 


108 


Department of Education 


When we again have normal financial and crop conditions, 
suitable homes for teachers and a sufficient supply of teachers, 
I think there will be no difficulty in operating yearly schools. Lack 
of one or all of these conditions makes obstacles in the way. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. E. Brown. 


Edam, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W.M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report of 
the Turtleford- inspectorate and of my work therein during the 
latter part of the year, 1919. 

This inspectoral division comprised Rural Municipalities Nos. 
469, 497, 498, 499, 501, 529, and 531 and Local Improvement Dis- 
tricts Nos. 496, 526, 527, 528, 532, 556, 557, 558, 559, 561, 562, 
588, 589, 591 and 592. 

At the beginning of the year there were 67 rural school districts 
and four village districts. Seven new rural districts were organised 
during the year, and one department was added to the Turtleford 
school. On December 31 there were 78 school districts in this 
division. There were 67 departments in operation during the year. 
Twenty-nine were inspected during the first term by Mr. J. W. 
Hedley of the Saskatoon Normal School staff, who was engaged 
for 21 days in inspection work in this division. In all, 58 schools 
were inspected once and 26 twice. Had all the schools been in 
operation for the full year, all could have been inspected once. 
Of the 20 not inspected, one closed before I took charge of the 
inspectorate, seven others were visited and found closed, in two 
districts the children were conveyed to neighbouring schools, in 
one, the school was burnt in 1918, and the remaining nine districts 
were recently organised but not in operation. 

The 1,092 pupils inspected were graded as follows: 


Grades 

Junior 

Total 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

343 

156 

172 

173 

99 

76 

36 

32 

5 

1092 


The school buildings, with three or four exceptions, are of a 
satisfactory character. Of the 58 schools inspected, all but 12 
have provided stable accommodation. The supply of water in 
15 schools was found unsatisfactory. The outbuildings were 


Annual Report, 1919 


109 


often found in an uncleanly condition. In some districts a little 
more supervision on the part of the teacher would prove beneficial. 

Not much advancement has been made in beautifying the 
school grounds. Very few districts had school gardens, and owing 
to the dry weather, these were disappointing in appearance and 
results. 

Good fairs were held at Turtleford, Edam and Wolia for the 
schools of the Mervin, Turtle River and Parkdale municipalities 
respectively. 

Thirteen schools had the benefit of health inspection by Miss 
E. 0. Fuller, school nurse, but owing to the inclemency of the 
weather the work was not completed this fall. However, I hope 
that this inspectorate will be favoured by another health inspection 
this coming summer as the work cannot be too strongly emphasised 
in this northern district where hygienic conditions are often appall- 
ing and medical facilities almost non-existent. 

The teachers inspected held the following qualifications: 


First Class 

Second Class 

Third Class 

Provisional 

Total 

3 

17 

26 

14 

60 


The teachers as a whole were performing their duties in a 
conscientious manner. As a rule, the timetables were satisfactory 
and the records kept properly. The common subjects of the 
course were fairly well taught. However, there should be better 
supervision of all written work and more interest shown in agri- 
culture, nature study, gardening, household science, hygiene, 
physical training, drawing and singing. 

The efficiency of the schools of this inspectorate will improve 
considerably when better qualified teachers are employed and 
yearly schools established in every district. No effort should be 
spared in order to stimulate interest in these vital problems. In 
this connection, a movement among some of the teachers and 
trustees has resulted in the organisation of an association which 
will hold its first convention in the coming spring. A few of the 
more favoured teachers were able to attend the splendid con- 
vention of the Teachers’ and Trustees’ Association of North-western 
Saskatchewan held in North Battleford in October, but the isolated 
position of most of our teachers has cut them off in the past from 
the enjoyment of a discussion of professional problems. The 
value of conventions cannot be too much emphasised, owing to 
the number of teachers of low standing who have few chances of 
receiving the inspiration gained through contact with others in 
the profession. The isolation of our teachers is accountable for 
much of the indifference and lack of ambition often discovered 
in the rural school. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

L. J. Charbonneau. 


110 


Department of Education 


Saskatoon, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report on 
my work in the Saskatoon inspectorate for the year, 1919. 

This inspectorate includes the same area as in 1918, namely, 
the city of Saskatoon and the following rural municipalities : Nos. 
313, 314, 343, 344 and 374. 

At the beginning of the year, the inspectorate contained 75 
school districts. During the year, three school districts were 
organised in the Community Mennonite settlement south-west of 
Hague and one school district was disorganised, making a total 
of 77 school districts at the end of the year. During the year the 
number of departments increased from 196 to 210. 

The following schedules show the number of pupils in the 
rural and town schools on the day of inspection 


Rural Schools. 







Grades 




Total 


i 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. 

Form 

’Enrolled 

482 

159 

194 

220 

123 

100 

55 

25 

3 

1358 

Present 

382 

129 

165 

176 

99 

68 

51 

14 

2 

1083 




This gives an average of 79.62 per cent. This is slightly below 
the average for 1918 and while it is only an approximation, it indica- 
tes that in the rural schools the highest average that can be expected 
uncjer The School Attendance Act as it now stands will be about 
80 per cent, of the enrolment for each month. It is also shown 
in the schedule that 47.1 of the pupils are in Grades I and II and 
‘61.3 per cent, in the first three grades. 


Town Schools. 






Grades 



Jr. 

Mid. 



1 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Form 

Form 

Total 

Enrolled 

995 

424 

444 

409 

283 

167 

207 

192 

8 

1 

3140 

2781 

Present 

845 

385 

413 

361 

303 

144 

167 

153 

6 

1 





This gives an average for the departments inspected of 88.3 
per cent. The following schedule shows the percentage in attend- 
ance on the day of inspection during the three years the attendance 
law has been in operation. 


Annual- Report, 1919 111 


Attendance — Comparative Percentages. 


Year 

Rural schools 

Town schools 

Average 

1917 

68.1 % 

80.3 

79.62 

83.3% 

85.8 

88.3 

75.7 % 

83.05 

83.96 

1918 

1919 



In my report for 1918, I mentioned that trustees and parents 
were, with few exceptions, beginning to take a much greater interest 
in education. This interest has become much more marked during 
the present year. People in every part of my inspectorate are 
publicly stating that in the past teachers and those engaged in 
educational work have not been given adequate recognition,, 
financially and socially, for the services they are rendering the 
community and the State and school boards are now putting 
their views into practice as shown by the higher salaries they are 
giving their teachers. This interest is also shown in the desire 
for better school buildings. This year the trustees of Willow 
Lake school district built a comfortable residence for their teacher 
on the school grounds, Wurzburg school was remodelled and a 
basement and hot air furnace provided; Bradwell erected a modern 
two-roomed brick school and Odel school district a new frame 
school. The trustees of Lone Star, Pleasant Point and Mountain 
Lake school districts also intended to erect new schools but owing 
to crop failure they decided to postpone all building operations 
for the year. While this shows the general trend of public opinion 
towards education, yet much remains to be done in making the 
older type of school modern. Forty-two schools have windows 
on both sides and on account of this have no suitable space for 
additional blackboard. Twenty-three schools still use a stove 
and window ventilation and in 29 of the rural schools the toilets 
were found unsatisfactory and in poor condition. There is scarcely 
any attempt on the part of rural trustees to carry' out the recom- 
mendations of the Department regarding the erection of “sanitary 
toilets.” Twenty-one school districts have satisfactory wells, in 
18 districts the water is supplied, in three the pupils bring water 
or tea from their homes, in 18 the well water is unfit to drink and 
in four others there was no water. 

Throughout the year the supply of qualified teachers has been 
about equal to the demand. This may, perhaps, be accounted for 
by the higher salaries paid. 

Of the 171 teachers whose work was inspected, 31 held First 
Class, 111 Second Class, 23 Third Class and six provisional certi- 
ficates. As a rule the regularly qualified teachers are honestly 
endeavouring to the best of their ability, to do their duty to pupils 
and parents. Many of them are young and inexperienced and 
do not understand that in all educational processes, the teachers^ 
success depends to a great extent upon the ability to select material 
suited to the stage of development the child has reached, in arrang- 
ing it logically and presenting it in such a way that the child can 
interpret it; nor do they realise that mental growth is most rapid 


112 


Department of Education 


when the child is constantly required to recall its former experiences 
and use them in interpreting the new matter presented. It takes 
time v for teachers to understand and apply the psychological 
principles that form the bases of all true methods of teaching 
and to develop the right attitude towards the work and until 
there is greater permanency in the profession, we cannot hope 
for the best results. 

The progress of the pupils in the common subjects varies from 
school to school according to the interest the teacher takes in 
each of these subjects. In reading and literature, the pupils 
in the majority of schools have fair ability to gather and express 
the thought. Arithmetic is a subject that many teachers dislike 
and consequently do not teach well. It follows that the pupils 
take very little interest in it. In a number of schools the pupils 
in the higher grades are required to work the questions in the text 
and to follow the order of the text. The difficulties are not ex- 
plained in class — the teacher merely gives individual instruction. 
As a result, the standing of the pupils in each class in these schools 
varied greatly but in the lower grades the progress of the pupils 
was generally quite satisfactory. 

Composition and language work in the lower grades were well 
taught but in the higher grades more attention should be given 
to written work. 

In the special subjects, all but two of the schools in my inspec- 
torate did good work in physical training, nine provided a hot noon 
lunch and nearly all gave instruction in paper folding, cardboard 
modelling and raffia work. Agriculture was taught in connection 
with the school garden work. During the year 44 schools had 
fairly good gardens although it was a very unfavourable year for 
this work. Very successful school exhibitions were held at Cheviot, 
Brad well, Lost River and Warman. On November 6 and 7, the 
teachers and trustees held their annual convention in Princess 
School, Saskatoon. The register showed an attendance of 216. 
A very good programme was provided and judging by the interest 
shown in the subjects discussed, it was a decided success. 

There are no large school districts in my inspectorate. 

I used an automobile in carrying on my work of inspection 
and found it the most convenient and rapid mode of covering all 
the- territory in my inspectorate, with the exception of the southern 
half of Lost River municipality, which is situated in the Allan 
Hills. There is only one rough trail running north and south 
across these hills and in order to reach these schools, it is necessary 
to go to Hanley and come in from the southwest. 

During the summer and early autumn, I inspected the rural 
schools and later, when the weather was unfavourable for outside 
work, as many departments in the city as time would permit. 

During the year, the time spent on work other than inspection 
was as follows: Saskatoon Normal school, 84 days; conventions, 
nine days; grade VIII examinations, 29 days; vacation, 18 days; 
total 140 days. 

There were 64 schools of one department in operation and 
all of these were inspected once, 13 twice and one three times. 


Annual Report, 1919 


113 


In the seven town schools, there were 139 departments in opera- 
tion and 99 of these were inspected once. I did not have time 
to inspect the other 40 departments in the city. 

I have made it a practice throughout the year to see one 
of the school officials whenever I found them careless regarding 
their duties or tardy in making necessary repairs. Many trustees, 
teachers and ratepayers are frequently in the city, and, if they 
wish to consult me regarding school affairs, come to my house. I 
can also reach two-thirds of the trustees and teachers by telephone 
and very often use this method of keeping in touch with them. 
The school fair affords an excellent opportunity of meeting the 
parents and of encouraging school garden work. 

I have neither encouraged nor discouraged any of the com- 
munity enterprises for it seems to me that by extending the pupils’ 
activities over a wider field they might get very little out of any 
of their school work 

In conclusion, I may say that my work would be much more 
effective if it were possible to inspect every school in the inspec- 
torate at least twice a year. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. E. Coombes. 


Assiniboia, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report upon 
my work in the Assiniboia inspectorate for the year 1919. 

Territory . — My territory comprised eight municipalities, Nos. 
10, 11, 12, 40, 42, 70, 71 and 72. Owing to the configuration of 
Willow Bunch lake, three of these occupy the area usually assigned 
to four. Thus the eight municipalities form a square with the 
third meridian as western boundary. 

The following table shows the number of districts and depart- 
ments in my territory on January 1, and the increase in each 
during the year. 



Districts 

Departments 

Number on list January 1 

100 

115 

Increase during year 

3 

3 




Total at end of year 

103 

118 



There are five school districts that had no schools at the time 
of latest information. Of these one conveys to Assiniboia, two 
were organised during the year, one formerly organised failed to 
build, through the departure from the district of people with 


114 


Department of Education 


families and the other was delayed through the arbitration of the 
school site and difficulty regarding the title and the raising of a 
debenture loan. Three districts, organised prior to the year 1919, 
erected school buildings during the year, but only one of these was 
in operation. 

School Attendance . — The following table shows the number of 
pupils enrolled in forty-six rural schools and in six schools of more 
than one department together with the number and percentage of 
those present on the occasion of my visit. 


Number enrolled . . 
Number present. . . 
Percentage present 


Schools of one 
department 

Schools of more 
than one 
department 

911 

506 

783 

421 

85.9 

83 


This percentage is the best that I have found during my period 
of service. Each year since the enactment of The School Attendance 
Act has, in my experience, shown improvement. 


School Administration . — I find considerable variety in the 
amount of interest taken by school boards in school matters. A 
few have a real desire to keep their school efficient while a larger 
number show carelessness. Out of 46 rural school districts visited, 
I found 28 where there was evidence of something having been 
done since last visit towards the improvement or proper main- 
tenance of the school property. In the remaining eighteen the school 
boards seemed to be either indifferent or so taken up with their 
own work that they gave little time or thought to school affairs 
beyond that necessary for the securing of a teacher. 

Length of Operation . — The majority of boards in rural districts 
get their schools in operation too late in the spring time to keep 
them open 200 days. Many of them find that it takes longer 
to secure a teacher than they anticipate; especially if, as is fre- 
quently the case, they are unwilling to pay the salaries that teachers 
are asking. The districts that are far from the railroad are espe- 
cially handicapped for they are generally the poorest and not 
many qualified teachers are willing to go to them. The inspector 
would be in a better position to take up with school boards the 
question of fulfilling the requirements of the law if he had accurate 
information regarding the practice of each board. I have thought, 
that, if it were practicable to have on his list .the number of days 
each school was in operation the previous year, he could deal more 
effectively with delinquent boards. As it is he is liable to overlook 
some of the offenders. 


Buildings and Blackboard . — The buildings are generally kept 
in pretty fair repair. Too many of them are still of the old style 
with windows on both sides. Of 46 rural schools 17 were of this 
character. Where the school is of this type there is not only the 


Annual Report, 1919 


115 


resulting cross light in the classroom but the black-board space is 
almost sure to be inadequate. The fact that 15 of the 46 schools 
had less than 100 square feet of blackboard shows the close cor- 
respondence between the two defective features. Where the loca- 
tion of windows in buildings of the old type seem to warrant it 
I have made a practice of recommending to school boards that 
they close up two windows on the right of the pupils, and add a 
sufficient number on their left (or to their left and rear), to give 
adequate light to the class-room. This recommendation I found 
carried out in one of the schools visited. 

Heating. — The Waterbury furnace is the commonest means 
of heating the schoolroom. Thirty-three rural schools had either 
this or a basement hot air furance. Thirteen had stoves of various 
descriptions. 

Privies. — The privies are in nearly all cases far from reaching 
the standard set by the regulations of the Department. They 
are generally too small and too flimsily built at the outset; and 
the caretaker of the school, whether pupil, teacher or outsider, 
seldom thinks of their care as coining within the sphere of his 
duties. Of the 46 inspected, three were in a good condition, 33 
were in a fair condition and 10 in a poor condition. 

Water. — The water problem is a difficult one to solve in this 
part of the province. In the 46 districts visited, there were only 
seven school wells supplying water that was suitable for use. In 
22 cases, water was brought to the school either by a person hired 
by the board or by the children. In 10 schools, the children of each 
family brought their own. In seven there was no provision at all. 

Fencing and Trees. — In this part of the country, which is 
comparatively new, the number of unfenced school grounds is 
large. Only 20 of the 46 were properly enclosed. Shelter belts 
of trees had been planted in five districts but in four instances they 
had received insufficient cultivation. As a result of this neglect 
combined with the recent dry season their condition was pitiable. 

Teachers. — The following tables indicate the class of certificate 
held by the teachers whom I visited and the estimate placed on 
the work they were doing in their schools. 


Teachers in Schools of One Department. 



First 

Class 

Second 

Class 

Third 

Class 

Regular 

Third 

Class 

Cond’l 

Permit 

or 

Prov’l 

No 

Cert. 

Total 

Poor 


1 



1 


2 

Poor to fair 





1 

2 

3 

Fair 


3 

7 

2 

1 

1 

19 

Fair to good 

3 

3 

3 

2 

1 


12 

Good 

1 

5 

5 


3 


14 

Excellent 



1 




1 


4 

12 

16 

4 

7 

3 

46 


116 


Department of Education 


Teachers in Schools of More Than One Department. 



First 

Class 

Second 

Class 

Third 

Class 

Regular 

Third 

Class 

Cond’l 

Permit 

or 

Prov’l 

No 

Cert. 

Total 

Poor 







0 

Poor to fair 


1 





1 

Fair 


2 

2 




4 

Fair to good 



1 




1 

Good 

2 

10 





12 

Excellent 

2 

1 





3 


4 

14 

3 




21 


Of the teachers of rural schools who were graded lower than 
fair two were first or second year high school girls temporarily 
engaged. A third held a conditional Second Class certificate. 
A fourth had had model training in Ontario many years ago, while 
the last was a returned soldier who had had no training. 

Progress of Pupils. — In the rural schools, pupils are badly 
handicapped where the school year is short and the teacher only 
of a mediocre type. As a rule only the regular subjects of the 
course are taught. I estimated the general standing of the schools 
in these as follows: 

Standing of Rural Schools in Regular Subjects. 

Number of 
schools 


Poor to fair 7 

Fair 19 

Fair to good 11 

Good 9 


46 

Standing of Pupils in Schools of More Than One Department. 

Number of 
departments 


Poor to fair 2 

Fair 3 

Fair to good 10 

Good 6 


21 

Of the rural schools, 15 had school gardens. In spite of the 
dry weather, two of these were fairly good. Most of the others 
had failed through no fault of teacher or pupils. A few that had 
been fortunate in the time of planting were in a fair condition. 

Four of the teachers were doing something by way of providing 
a hot dish for the noon lunch. 

Physical training is taken by most of the teachers who have 
had Normal training in this province. While the teachers as a 
rule give their commands well, there is generally a lack of accuracy 
in the performance of the pupils. 


Annual Report, 1919 


117 


Practically nothing was done in manual training in any of 
the schools. None of the schools of more than one department 
have equipment for carrying on this kind of work systematically. 

Large Districts . — The Kea S.D. No. 3231 continues to convey 
its pupils to Assiniboia but this is not a large district. The only 
district of this character is Montague Lake S.D. No. 1409 which 
enlarged its limits three or four years ago with the expressed inten- 
tion of conveying its pupils to the school. This it has never done. 
The children drive in the conveyances of their parents. The build- 
ing was enlarged last summer to give better accommodation to the 
41 pupils who are enrolled. Though I advised the board to con- 
sider the building of an additional classroom, they decided for 
the present simply to increase the size of the old one by removing 
the partition between the class and cloakrooms. 

Work as Inspector . — For visiting the schools, I used a Ford 
car. It is more expensive than a horse and buggy but saves much 
time through speed. 

My time through the year was taken up largely in work be- 
yond the limits of my territory. I assisted the regular staff in 
the Regina Normal school until the end of April. On the fifteenth 
of July, I began an investigation into the operatiod of the schools in 
districts settled by people of French origin. This work occupied 
me for the rest of the year except for a few days in September, 
and the latter half of December. Inspector Norman MacMurchy 
of Regina completed the inspection of the schools in my territory. 

During the latter half of the year Nurse Morton did work 
that was much appreciated in the schools of three of the muni- 
cipalities of my inspectorate. 

During the 10 weeks that I was employed in my own field, 
I inspected 67 departments once and one department twice. In 
the French schools, I inspected 132 departments completely be- 
sides giving partial inspections to other schools which were visited 
but which proved not to belong properly to the class with which 
I was concerned. 

On. June 7, with the energetic and able co-operation of Mr. 
P. J. Stephens, principal of the Bengough school, I organised a 
Rural Education Association for the municipality of Bengough. 
Successful school fairs were held at Assiniboia, Ogema and Ben- 
gough. I attended the first two but was unable to be present at 
the last. 

A successful meeting of the Teachers’ Association of the inspec- 
torate was held in Assiniboia, September 25 and 26. Interesting 
papers and addresses were given by the local teachers. Inspector 
Scarrow and the teachers of the eastern portion of his inspectorate, 
which was in my territory in 1918, united with us for the conven- 
tion and contributed to the program and the discussions. Principal 
Perrett, of the Regina Normal School, and Mr. F. W. Bates, Direc- 
tor of Rural Education Associations, gave interesting and helpful 
addresses. 

To keep in touch with the trustees, I have made a practice 
of writing a circular letter to them each spring in which I call 


118 


Department of Education 


attention to such questions of administration as seem most import- 
ant. Then on the occasion of inspection, I try to see some member 
of the board and talk school matters over with him. 

The most important part of the inspector’s work, it seems to 
me, is to help the teacher to do more effective work, partly by sym- 
pathetic counsel and criticism and partly by example in the handling 
of a class. His visit should also be a stimulus to the pupils. If, 
as a result of his inspections, a keener interest in the school is 
aroused in parents and pupils and new insight and determination 
brought to the teacher for her work, his visits become a potent 
influence in the work of education. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

' Your obedient servant, 

R. D. Coutts. 


Kindersley, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report on the Kindersley inspectorate for the year 1919. 

Extent: The inspectorate is made up of the following munici- 
palities: Winslow No. 319, Milton No. 292, Elma No. 291, Kinders- 
ley No. 290, Hillsburg No. 289, Mantario No. 262, Royal Cana- 
dian No. 261, Newcombe No. 260 and Snipe Lake No. 259. 

Districts and Departments. — The following schedule gives 
details regarding the number of districts and departments in the 
inspectorate : 

Schools of One Department. 


In existence January 1, 1919 83 

Districts formed during 1919 10 

In operation during 1919 80 

Schools of More Than One Department. 

In existence January 1, 1919 7 

Departments in operation January 1, 1919 19 

Departments added during 1919 4 

Total number of departments 23 


Ten rural districts were formed during 1919. Owing to the 
lateness of organisation and the early winter only two schools 
were completed, namely, those in The Crimea S.D. No. 4195 and 
The Root S.D. No. 4206. Of the others, Alandale S.D. No. 4168, 
Clow S.D. No. 4181 and East Side S.D. No. 4190 are partly con- 
structed. South Loverna S.D. No. 4246 and Teepee S.D. No. 
4221 expect to start building operations early in the spring. The 
trustees of The Clay Loam S.D. No. 4260 are undecided as to whe- 


Annual Report, 1919 


119 


ther or not they will build in the spring. Norris S.D. No. 4218 
and Saltmead S.D. No. 4274 organised with a view to having the 
children conveyed elsewhere. Austum S.D. No. 3757 has been 
organised for some years, but has not built a school, as there are 
only a few children in the district and these are able to attend 
schools in neighbouring districts. 

School Attendance. — Eighty-seven school districts had schools 
in operation during the year. The total enrolment was 1,813 
and of these, 1,572 — 86.69 per cent. — were present on the day of 
the inspector’s visit. This is nearly three per cent, higher than 
last year. This is a fair average as several' schools were visited 
during inclement weather, which causes irregularity in attendance. 

Administration. — Where a self-sacrificing school board is 
devoting time and energy to making its school attractive and 
efficient by furnishing pleasant surroundings and engaging a capable 
teacher, it is deserving of the highest praise and there are many 
who have done excellent pioneer work. However good and 
efficient the board may be there appear to me to be conditions 
in an inspectorate such as this that call for a wider administration. 
I shall mention a few of these: (i) Inequality of taxation. In 
one municipality the school taxes per quarter section range from 
$11 to $45, with an average of $19 (approximate, in each case). 
(ii) In this inspectorate there is a large percentage of the land not 
in any school district and consequently not making any contribu- 
tion to the support of the schools. (Hi) Where so many new school 
districts will probably be formed during the next few years capable 
men and women with wide experience should have control and 
three such are by no means available in each new district organised. 

Lengthened School Year. — There is a tendency to lengthen the 
school year and to keep the school in operation during the winter, 
but this is by no means general. A strong opposition to keeping 
some country and village schools open during January, all or part 
of February and part of March, still exists. There are some 
difficulties in the way, such as severe climatic conditions, distances 
from school, difficulty in getting the room warmed early in the day 
and habit. There is no doubt that self-sacrifices and personal 
efforts will have to be made to conduct a successful yearly school, 
but some districts are doing it and these become strong advocates 
of the longer school year when once they have adopted it, so great 
are the advantages. Districts conducting yearly schools are 
agreed, generally, that the advantages of being able to retain the 
same teacher for a longer period and of giving the children holidays 
when the weather is too hot to do good work, amply pay for the 
sacrifices made. In addition to this, older pupils can attend during 
the winter while they are required at home during the summer. 

Buildings. — Many of the buildings are of the newer approved 
model, but a few are of the old type, with three or four windows 
on either side. These schools are comparatively new, also, and 
the school boards are slow to make alterations that will conform 
to the lighting requirements in the regulations of the Department. 


120 


Department of Education 


School Grounds . — The majority of school boards have taken 
an interest in the school grounds. Favourable sites have been 
chosen, the grounds have been fenced, preparations have been 
made for trees and a school garden and in a few instances, swings, 
slides and teeters have been provided. There are, however, some 
boards tTiat have done little if anything to make the grounds 
attractive. With regard to tree planting, I am forced to the 
conclusion that it has not proved a success in the great majority 
of cases. The ground is very well prepared in most cases, the 
trees are planted and then neglected. There are exceptions where 
the trees are well cared for and in such cases, even now although 
the trees are still small, they, add much to the appearance of the 
school site. Before much headway will be made towards success- 
ful tree growing, it will be necessary to have some one look after 
the trees at different periods during the year. I would suggest 
that each school having trees should be required to engage a com- 
petent person to take care of them. Neglected trees result in the 
majority dying and this causes other districts to hesitate before 
ordering trees and is a strong point against planting. 

Heating . — In 13 schools, the heating is not in accordance with 
the regulations of the Department. In these, there are the jacketed 
or unjacketed stoves which provide no system of ventilation. 

Water Supply . — One of the difficult problems school districts 
have to solve is how to provide an adequate supply of drinking 
water. In the majority of cases, children bring the drinking 
water. In some, one of the pupils was hired to bring a can of 
water distances varying from a quarter of a mile to three and one- 
half miles. In seven districts each child brought what he required. 
In two cases, water was brought in a barrel once a week. Ten 
schools had dug wells, but of this number six were unfit for use. 
In one case, water was brought daily and regularly by an adult. 
In three cases they have underground cisterns closely covered but 
provided with a man hole so that they may be cleaned. Each 
of these was provided with a pump and one had a chimney like 
structure which provided a chamber for the pump and a wall 
through which the water must filter. A supply of fresh water was 
drawn and put into the cistern as often as required. This last 
device appears to me to be the best means of solving the water 
supply problem. 

Toilets . — Each school should have inside toilets for winter 
use. During the autumn and early winter, I visited several rural 
schools and was able to see what conditions existed after cold 
weather came and snow fell. Of all the schools visited not one 
had toilets in a condition fit to be used. Doors had been left 
open or had blown open and the snow had drifted in. Very few 
toilets have been so constructed as to exclude gophers and flies. 

Teachers . — The following schedule gives particulars of the 
standing held by teachers inspected: 


Annual Report, 1919 121 


First Class 

Second Class 

Third Class 

Provisional 

Graduates 

Non- 

Grad- 

uates 

Grad- 

uates 

Non-Grad- 

uates 

Grad- 

uates 

Non-Grad- 

uates 

Graduates 

Non- 

Grad- 

uates 

9 

21 

1 

70 

2 

43 

1 

7 

30 

71 

45 

8 


The teachers as a whole are broadening their outlook and realising 
more fully that they are teaching boys and girls rather than mere 
subjects. Here and there still is to be found the other type or the 
misfits and in some cases lack of experience or over-anxiety to make 
progress defeats the purpose of true education. 

Progress of Pupils. — The progress made in the schools gener- 
ally was satisfactory. The frequent changing of teachers, due in a 
large measure to the closing of schools for the greater part of the 
winter, is probably the greatest obstacle in the way of continued 
progress. The oral answers to questions were much better than 
written ones. Careful supervision of all written work is essential. 
The busy teacher is able to judge not only the child’s know- 
ledge of the subject matter of any lesson, but also his writing, 
spelling and composition when he is required to write his answers. 
In a large measure at least, the progress of the pupils is proportional 
to the efficiency of the teacher. The longer term spent at Normal 
School will give our teachers a greater knowledge of practical 
methods in teaching and this will reflect itself in the progress of 
the children. 

Agriculture. — No work has been done in agriculture apart 
from that outlined in the course of study. Plans were partly made 
to have a special course in agriculture at Kindersley, the instructor 
and members of the present staff to work in conjunction that the 
school might receive the benefit of the instruction in agriculture 
and that the class might benefit by being able to receive instruction 
in subjects other than agriculture which they might wish to study. 
Arrangements could not be completed, however, and the work 
was left in abeyance. 

Manual Training. — Manual Training receives due considera- 
tion in the lower grades, but little or no work is done in the higher 
grades of the public schools. 

Household Science. — Arrangements were made to have a spe- 
cial class in Household Science at Kindersley early in 1920. All 
equipment has been provided and a class assured. 

Physical Training. — Emphasis has been placed on the benefits 
to be derived from physical drill. The exercises from the syllabus 
of physical exercises are generally taught. A contest in physical 
drill was held during the central fair at Kindersley at which several 


122 


Depaktment of Education 


classes competed for the shield offered by the Strathcona Trust. 
The badges were awarded to the pupils of the Wild Rose Valley 
school and the shield also went to that district. 

Schools Doing Continuation Work . — There is no school in the 
inspectorate classed as a collegiate institute or high school. The 
following schedule gives details regarding continuation work 
taught in public schools. 



Rural 

schools 

Village 

schools 

Town 

schools 

Total 

Number doing Junior Form work 

11 

7 

2 

20 

Number of Students in Junior Form 

16 

41 

39 

96 

Number doing Senior Form work 


2 

2 

4 

Number of Students in Senior Form 


7 

12 

19 


School Gardening and School Fairs . — There are obstacles in 
the way that prevent the products of the school garden measuring 
up with those of the home garden. These may be stated as follows: 
(i) closing of school for holidays at a time when the garden needs 
attention; (ii) difficulty in getting well summerfallowed ground 
for a school garden. In spite of these difficulties very many of 
the schools had creditable school gardens and the benefit derived 
leads one to believe that the time was well spent. The interest of 
the parents is being awakened and I think the time may not be far 
distant when a competent person will be engaged in each district 
whose duty it will be to keep the trees well cultivated, to keep a 
piece of ground summerfallowed for a school garden and look 
after the upkeep of the grounds and outbuildings. Closely allied 
with the work of the school garden is the school fair, although 
the latter has broadened out to include all school work. Very 
successful school fairs were held at the following centres: Brock, 
Eston, Glidden, Highbury, Bailey, Druid, Alsask, Flaxcombe 
and Kindersley. In addition to these local fairs, a central fair 
was held at Kindersley the day of the teachers’ convention. At 
nearly all of the centres the interest taken in the work of the children 
by parents and others was so marked that it lent to the day a tone 
that could be felt rather than expressed. Were the only benefits 
of school fairs the bringing of the people together and the creating 
of the general interest in school work, they would be well worth 
the time spent. But these were not all, for the nature of the 
exhibits displayed careful, thoughtful work and study that resulted 
in excellent products. I think the greatest weakness in this line 
of school work lies in the fact that many exhibits are made for 
the school fair shortly before it is held, rather than each day’s 
work being so well done that it is worthy of exhibition. To date 
no school fair has been held in the Mantario municipality, but when 
I was in that part of the inspectorate this fall, trustees requested 
to have two school fairs in that municipality next year. On account 
of the river the municipality is large. It is also divided by a ravine 
which makes it advisable to hold two fairs rather than one. 


Annual Report, 1919 


123 


Large Districts . — There are four large districts in this inspec- 
torate. The following schedule, based on the first inspection, 
gives details regarding these: 


Consolidated School Districts. 


• 

Minor 

Lake 

S.D. 

No. 1370 

D’Arcy 
S.D. No. 3016 

Flaxcombe 

S.D. 

No. 488 

Kincora 
S.D. No. 2726 

Area in sections 

43 

49H 

49 % 

66 

Number of pupils enrolled 

9 

67 

53 

27 

Percentage of attendance 

90 

84 

92 

84 

Number of teachers employed. . . . 

1 

2 

2 

1 

Certificates held by teachers 

Third 

Second and 
Third 

First 

(B.A.) 

and 

Second 

Second 

Conveyance used 

Car in 
summer 

Covered 
vans. Long 
holiday in 
winter 

Covered 

vans 

Cars in 
summer. 
Later vans. 
Long 
holiday in 
winter. 

Classification of pupils by grades . 

i, ii, hi, 

and VII. 

I to VIII 
inclusive 

i, ii, hi, 

V, VI, 
VIII and 
Jr. Form 

I to VI 
inclusive 


Note. — D’Arcy later added Jr. Form work and Flaxcombe added Middle Form 
work. Kincora district was enlarged during the year. 


In a rural district, I cannot see that there are any advantages 
✓ in having a large district, due to the following conditions: (i) The 
inspectorate is not sufficiently settled to require two teachers to 
conduct a school in a larger area, consequently there is not the 
benefit of a graded school and (ii) as a result of the larger area, 
children have to be conveyed long distances. In a village or town 
district the case is different. They have the advantage of a graded 
school and a means of obtaining a higher education is provided. 
In addition to the districts given in the schedule above, Eagle 
Lake school district has entered into an agreement with Netherhill 
district and they have consolidation in principle though not in name 
and to their mutual benefit. Saltmead, a new school district 
north of Brock, was organised that it might co-operate with Brock 
school district. This is commendable and should result in satis- 
faction to both, in that the advantages can be given at a common 
centre which each individually could not provide. The chief 
disadvantage — the distances children have to travel to and from 
school — is not as great as it seems, since it is surely preferable to 
have a child ride six or even seven miles in a comfortable van than 
to have him walk two or three miles on a stormy night. 

Work as Inspector . — I used a Ford car during the spring, sum- 
mer and early fall and found this means of conveyance very satis- 
factory, excepting during wet weather when the roads are very 
heavy on account of the character of the soil. The chief advant- 


124 


Department of Education 


ages in using a car are (i) more time can be spent in the classrooms, 
(it) if one school is found closed the inspector has time to go to 
another, (Hi) it affords opportunity for meeting more frequently 
boards of trustees and ratepayers, and (iv) in effect it brings the 
inspectorate closer to the inspector’s headquarters. In order that 
I might cover the entire inspectorate, I planned to inspect it in 
sections which I was able to carry out in part only, for causes arose 
at intervals that made it necessary to inspect in another part 
of the division. I had a map of the inspectorate and I marked on 
this the date I inspected each school so that I could see at a glance 
the inspections that had been made and the days on which they 
were made. In all, I have made 154 inspections, 102 first inspec- 
tions, 51 second inspections and one third inspection where a pro- 
visionally certificated teacher was engaged for two months. One 
school was not inspected. I visited it and found it closed on account 
of the teacher’s illness. I examined the grounds, buildings and the 
children’s work that was in the school. I examined the register 
and found it satisfactory. The enrolment was four. I made a 
report to the secretary of the school district. Winter conditions 
set in about the middle of October and as I could not run the car 
I hired horses and drove to a number of schools that I had not 
visited. This had its advantages in that it enabled me to see 
what winter conditions would be like in rural schools. 

Work Other Than Inspection. — During January, February 
and the first 14 days of March, I was teaching in the Third Class 
session of the Saskatoon Normal School and the following four 
days I assisted with the marking of the papers. I assisted with 
the practice teaching in the Normal School, Saskatoon, from March 
31 until April 18. During Easter week, I attended the Provincial 
Teachers’ Convention at Regina, that is, from April 21 to April 29, 
inclusive. Six days were spent in reading teachers’ essays and four 
were spent in assisting with the work of organisation of a school 
district. Two weeks were spent in connection with school fairs. 

General Comments on the Work of Inspection. — In so far as is 
possible, the inspector should visit some member or members of 
the school board or better still, the entire board. The recom- 
mendations made in the report will be better understood and the 
board more likely to put them into effect as desired, if the matter 
has been discussed with them. However, the inspector’s time is 
so fully occupied that it is difficult to find the time necessary to 
make such visits. I visited some member or members of the board 
wherever there was urgent need to do so and as many others as I 
could. In all, I met members of 49 school boards that I might 
discuss with them the recommendations I wished to make. I 
believe that needed reforms pertaining to schools will cqme most 
readily when meetings between boards and inspectors are held to 
discuss what is required. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. E. Cowie. 


Annual Report, 1919 


125 


Swift Current, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report of the Swift Current inspectorate for the year 
ended December 31, 1919. 

The Swift Current inspectorate included Rural Municipalities 
Nos. 106, 107, 136, 137, 166 and 167. From north to south the 
inspectorate extended 60 miles and from east to west 36 miles. 
Swift Current was more- centrally situated than in previous years. 

On January 1, 1919, there were 97 school districts, with a 
total of 122 departments. During the year, eight new districts 
were organised but no new departments were added to any of 
the older schools. 

The attendance at our schools shows a gradual improvement 
from year to year. Several features operate towards this result, 
among them being a more stable population, better roads and 
older and better organised schools. Through the enforcement of 
The School Attendance Act, I find children enrolled who would 
not otherwise be within our schools. In some cases the machinery 
may be a little slow in action, but the legislation as a whole is deserv- 
ing of special commendation. 

Only one-third of the rural schools are operated on a purely 
yearly basis. In the majority of the districts, however, the trustees 
endeavour to keep the school in operation for a period of nine 
months. In districts with schools of one department, the average 
distance that teachers board from the school is 1.64 miles. This 
tells its story of distances, , apart from the question of roads, an 
open country, the cost of fuel in the winter weather and the neces- 
sity of proper clothing for children in the colder weather. These 
last two are important features to be considered, especially after 
three successive crop failures in this part of the province. 

The school buildings are, with few exceptions, well-kept and 
in good repair. In the older buildings the system of lighting for 
the class room is mainly cross-lighting; in the newer buildings 
unilateral or from left and rear. A few buildings have been erected 
of late years with light from three sides. This is unnecessary and 
unwise. Only a few of the rural schools have basements. A large 
number of the class rooms have jacketed stoves, the Waterman- 
Waterbury type prevailing. The average rural school is well 
equipped, although more attention is necessary to the yearly 
renewal of supplies for the lower grades. The libraries in some 
schools are, as yet, small. 

Closets, particularly the boys’, are often uncleanly. In some 
districts, sanitary indoor closets have been installed. I am doubt- 
ful whether from the practical standpoint, the present regulations 
with respect to closets can be satisfactorily carried into effect. 

The water supply problem in this part of the country is difficult 
of solution. Various means are adoptet for supplying water to 
the schools, the school well — where there is one — not always proving 
satisfactory. 


126 


Department of Education 


In the greater number of the districts, the school grounds are 
fenced. Some trustees have shown considerable interest in im- 
proving the school grounds, but it is difficult to turn the bare prairie, 
in south-western Saskatchewan, into shelter belts, garden plots 
and rows of trees. Considerable encouragement has been lent 
along this line, but results are slow and somewhat discouraging. 

There was a better supply of teachers than in previous years 
with but few provisional certificates. The teachers as a body were 
doing good work, showing an interest in their pupils and in their 
school as a whole. 

The following statistics may prove of interest: 


- 

Average 

cost 

of board 
per month 

Average 

salary 

per 

annum 

Average 

salary 

of 

principals 

Average 

experience 

of 

teacher 

Schools of one department . . . 
All schools inspected 

$26. 90 

$1,045. 15 
*$1,032.04 

$1,447.50 

4. 79 years 
5.6 years 




*Not including principals. 


The average salary shows an increase over the year 1918, 
although it will be admitted it falls short of what we should expect 
in our profession. In view of conditions in a new province, which 
is essentially rural, I consider the average experience is commend- 
able. 

With respect to the work of the pupils, one feature impressed 
me very favourably, and that is the increasing number of schools 
in the inspectorate with Grade VIII pupils. This means that 
the secondary school education for the rural child is each year 
becoming a problem of greater importance. The question is: 
How can we provide to the rural child facilities for a high school 
education? Apart from the high schools in towns and cities, its 
solution may lie in the encouragement at suitable centres of two 
roomed and consolidated schools with special grants for high 
school work. 

There is but little to comment upon in the teaching of the 
various subjects. More attention is oftentimes necessary to the 
proper correlation of subjects and towards encouraging organisa- 
tion, neatness and thoroughness in the work of the pupils. The 
standard subjects, with the possible exception of writing, are receiv- 
ing good attention. The chief weakness in arithmetic is not a 
lack of time for the subject, but a lack of thoroughness and exact- 
ness in results. There is a tendency in reading and language work 
to merely hear the child read or to ask him to write apart from the 
training in appreciation or in the correct and adequate expression 
of thought. In geography and history, I have seen some excep- 
tionally good work coloured by the individuality and interest of 
the teacher, and some exceptionally poor work, where the subject 
lacked perspective and practical application. 


Annual Report, 1919 


127 


In this portion of the province, emphasis on school gardening 
is, in many cases, misplaced emphasis. In physical training, I 
am of the opinion that good marching exercises, motion songs and 
games might well take the place of the more formal exercises, too 
often carried out with poor results. About twenty rural schools 
have provided equipment for hot lunch and where the teacher is 
interested this becomes a feature of real training in the life of the 
school. 

In the inspectorate as at present organised, there are no large 
or consolidated school districts. In former years there were 
several. I find at certain centres a growing interest in consolida- 
tion and doubtless with time it will develop. 

During the year, I have discussed school matters personally 
with trustees or secretaries from over one-half of the districts. 
I consider the great majority of our trustees are interested in our 
schools. In some districts the educational spirit is quite mani- 
fest and parents and ratepayers respond readily to school activities 
of interest to the children. School picnics, school fairs, sport 
days, concerts, all reflect this tendency. A joint school fair and 
convention for the Sceptre and Swift Current inspectorates was 
held in Swift Current in the early part of October. There was a 
large attendance of teachers and there were some good exhibits of 
school work. Interesting and instructive addresses were given by 
Hon. W. M. Martin, Minister of Education, and by Colonel Perrett, 
Principal of the Provincial Normal School, Regina. 

This inspectorate is now practically all organised into school 
districts. Six districts were organised this year amongst the 
Old Colony Mennonites and in the spring, steps should be taken 
towards the erection of buildings and towards providing educa- 
tional facilities for all the children in the province. 

During the year, I acted as official trustee in three districts 
amongst the Old Colony Mennonites. Buildings were erected 
and equipped, including one residence, and teachers placed in 
these schools. The assimilation of these people will be a slow 
process but with a few families breaking away from time to time, 
this problem will gradually be solved. The leadership of their 
ministers and headmen tends to keep these people removed from 
modern advancement, while at the same time it gives to these 
leaders a great authority over the flock. 

During the year, 103 departments were inspected once, 21 
(mainly urban) twice and 19 not at all. The varied duties demanded 
of your inspector, including four months work in the Provincial 
Normal School, Regina, two weeks on the consulting committee 
of the Board of Sub-examiners, the reading of appeals and special 
duties as official trustee, prevented a complete inspection. Also, 
the early advent of cold weather curtailed travelling through the 
country. The usual means of conveyance was a Ford car which 
was found quite satisfactory. 

The concluding question in your prospectus for the Annual 
Report, is: How may the work of inspection be made more effec- 

tive?” I have given this matter careful thought and feel that 
the inspectoral work can be made more effective by the harmonising 


128 


Department of Education 


of the principles of a just economic basis and a just professional 
basis for the inspectoral staff , such that apart from the official duties, 
there will be time, energy and means for professional reading, quiet 
thinking and recreation necessary for the individual uplift. Under 
the present standards this ideal does not appear to be realised. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. S. Cram, 


Elrose, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration 
the following report upon my work in the Elrose inspectorate 
for the year 1919. 

My territory consisted of eight municipalities, Nos. 225, 226, 
228, 255, 256, 257, 258 and 285, with local improvement district No. 
227. This inspectorate is divided into practically two parts — 
the northern extremity being comprised of a level area of heavy, 
rich clay loam while the part south of the range of hills contains a 
much lighter soil. Parts of the interior are very rough, consisting 
of broken ranch lands, sand hills and long chains of sloughs. There 
are but three passable roads running north and south and only 
two east and west. This territory has poor railway facilities, the 
Elrose branch of the Canadian Northern Railway skirting the 
northern edge of the inspectorate. As a consequence a central 
location for one’s headquarters is out of the question. This neces- 
sitates extra travel and general inconvenience. 

On January 1, 1919, there were 101 school districts organised 
with 100 departments in operation, and during the year one school 
district was added. There are seven school districts in which no 
school is built, namely, Brilliant Star S.D. No. 1912, Minnie Lake 
S.D. No. 3340, Southdean S.D. No. 3448, High Point S.D. No. 
3992, Whitby S.D. No. 4098, Bonnie Doon S.D. No. 4132 and Monet 
S.D. No. 4169. Five of these districts have been operating under 
section 214 of The School Act. A reorganisation of the existing 
boundaries of the Southdean and High Point districts may be 
necessary to provide a sufficient number of children to warrant 
building a school. Sparse population, financial difficulties, the 
high cost of building material and the scarcity of labour are the 
chief reasons why buildings have not been erected in the five districts 
above-mentioned. 

School Attendance . — The following schedule shows the classi- 
fication of the pupils and the number present on the day of inspec- 
tion. 


Annual Report, 1919 


129 


Grades 

1 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. 

Form 

Total 

Enrolled.. . 

618 

239 

264 

289 

174 

116 

67 

75 

36 

1878 

Present 

543 

200 

232 

254 

145 

95 

51 

60 

31 

1611 


Percentage of attendance 85.8 


Approximately 33 per cent, of the total number of children 
enrolled are in Grade I and 59 per cent, of the total enrolment 
are not beyond Grade III, while only 1.9 per cent, have entered 
upon high school work. I am unable to report definitely any im- 
provement in attendance since the enactment of The School Attend- 
ance Act. It would appear from the regularity of attendance as 
indicated in the above schedule that there is a combination of 
good influences at work, not the least of which is the awakened 
interest in education on the part of many parents. They realise 
that in intelligent and widespread education lies the country’s 
surest protection against the dangers which at present threaten 
all communities. 

Local School Administration. — While admitting the many 
advantages of the local unit in administration during pioneer 
stages and giving it all due credit for work effectively accomplished, 
there is manifested, nevertheless, a strong desire for the larger 
municipal unit. I believe if the latter were adopted, it would be 
received very enthusiastically in this inspectorate. 

The following table indicates the months in which the various 
schools opened: 


Month of opening . 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Aoril 

May 

June 

Number of schools 

30 

5 

24 

6 

26 

4 


The greater number of the schools opened after the middle of 
March and approximately 30 per cent, of the whole number were 
closed until the second week in May. Some of these are the most 
desirable schools in the inspectorate, but being farthest removed 
from a railway, are consequently the least attractive to teachers. 
The sentiment in favour of a yearly school seems to be steadily 
increasing. I believe in a great number of cases the teachers, and 
not the school boards, are the chief obstacles to longer term schools. 

The school buildings, with the exception of three, are of the 
modern approved type. Four new buildings were constructed 
during the year. In the older buildings some defects exist to 
a greater or less degree — cross lighting, insufficient blackboard 
space, unsatisfactory seating accommodation, inadequate sani- 
tary facilities, etc. On the whole, however, lighting and heating 
are very satisfactory and I am pleased to report the increased 
attention being given hygienic conditions in these schools. The 
teachers more recently trained have grasped the importance of 


130 


Department of Education 


health work as an essential part of the school programme. School 
boards also have been asking for medical supervision, but so far 
no promises have been made. 

Teachers . — The following table gives an idea of the class of 
certificates held, teaching ability and salaries received: 



First 

Second 

Third 

Provisional 

Total 

Good 

18 

40 

15 

7 

80 

Fair 

2 

12 

6 

4 

24 

Poor 

1 

2 

2 

4 

9 

Total 

21 

54 

23 

15 

113 

Percentage of total 

18.6 

47.8 

20.3 

13.3 


Salaries 

81,200 

$1,080 

$1,000 

$1,000 



to 

and 

and 

and 



$1,500 

up 

up 

up 



The continual changing of teachers from one school to another 
is a very serious handicap to efficient work and general progress. 
Of the 64 teachers whose work was inspected in 1918, only 12 
returned to the same schools in 1919. Added to this are the too 
frequent changes during the school year. The increased academic 
and professional standing now being required will tend to remove 
this restlessness and to promote permanency, yet in the final an- 
alysis the real problem is an economic one. 

Suggestions re Teachers of Third Class Academic Standing . — 
Of the 23 third class teachers in the inspectorate, 15, or 65 per cent., 
were rated as good and these were with one exception holders of 
third class non-professional certificates. During 1920, many of 
these teachers, after remaining idle for the months of January, 
February, March and possibly April, will request an extension of 
their certificates. These requests may or may not be granted, but 
in any event, some of these teachers will have lost four months. 
For obvious reasons, it is difficult to persuade a teacher to leave 
her school in August that she may enter upon her second class work 
in a High School or Collegiate Institute. Too frequently a beginning 
made in January ends in failure and discouragement. Cannot 
some assistance be given to those teachers anxious to improve their 
academic standing? Is it not possible to organise a short course 
extending over the first four months of the year and conducted 
at central locations for the benefit of this class? The first course 
might be very similar to either Part I or Part II of the second class 
certificate. Admittance to such a course might be granted a teacher 
upon the recommendation of the inspector of schools in whose 
division she last taught. Upon the successful completion of the 
prescribed work, as reported upon by the inspectors in charge, a 
certificate covering the subjects of the course might be issued. 
Two sessions would, in all probability, enable the majority of 
those for whom the course is intended to qualify for second class 
standing. 


Annual Report, 1919 


131 


General Progress . — In the work of the common subjects, 
arithmetic, grammar, spelling, reading and geography, satisfactory 
results are being obtained. Composition, history, current events 
and civics are for the most part poorly taught. Nor is the work 
of the special subjects well or uniformly taught. In many cases, 
the teacher has a too fragmentary and meagre knowledge of these 
subjects and of their application. Physical training is receiving 
careful and systematic attention during school hours, but the lack 
of appreciation for or enthusiasm in games is deplorable, to say the 
least. More emphasis ought to be placed on this phase of school 
life during the teacher’s professional training. 

Large Districts . — There are three consolidated schools in the 
inspectorate, namely, Hughton, Ardath and Conquest. The last 
two were organised during the year and consist of districts formerly 
known as Romworth S.D. No. 1297, Warminster S.D. No. 1564, 
Layfield S.D. No. 1850, Ardath S.D. No. 2863, Conquest S.D. 
No. 3139 and Violet Hill S.D. No. 2347. As increased accom- 
modation is required in both centres, no attempt has been made 
to operate a van system. The smaller schools are carrying on as 
prior to consolidation. Hughton S.D. No. 2496, organised in 1914, 
contains 50 sections, 16 of which are operated by one company. 
This produces a condition that makes the successful operation 
of a school difficult. This school had been conducted for some 
time on a rural school basis except that a conveying allowance was 
granted. Many felt that their children were not getting the 
advantages of consolidation and urged that high school facilities 
be provided. Accordingly in March, with a total attendance 
less than 35, it was decided to open a second room. A second 
teacher, a university graduate, was engaged at a salary of $1,400 
per annum. She is still in charge of the senior room. The work 
of the primary grades is conducted by a teacher of first class standing 

The following schedule will indicate the success of the new 
plan as compared with the mediocrity of the former niggardly 
system : 


Grades 

Date of visit Sept. 27, 1918 

Date of visit Nov. 18,1919 

Enrolled 

Present 

Enrolled 

Present 

I 

11 

5 

12 

12 

II 

4 

4 

3 

2 

Ill 

3 

2 

4 

4 

IV 

5 

2 

5 

5 

V 

3 

1 

3 

2 

VI 





VII 



7 

7 

VIII . . . 

1 


1 

1 

Pt. I Third 



4 

4 

Pt. II Third 



4 

4 

Total 

27 

14 

43 

41 

Percentage of attendance . . . . 


51.8 


95.3 


132 


Department of Education 


A dozen or more pupils have resumed their school ^work after 
absences of from one to three years. It is also gratifying to notice 
the increased regularity of attendance. Private rigs are used by 
the children while the roads are passable and the weather is not 
too severe. During the winter months accommodation is provided 
in the village. 

Work as Inspector . — During the first four months of the year 
I assisted with the First and Second Class work in Saskatoon Nor- 
mal School. During the first week in May, I commenced the work 
of inspection using a car almost continuously until the latter part 
of October. Outside this regular work, considerable time was 
devoted to conferences, meetings of ratepayers to discuss con- 
solidation, better school facilities, etc., organisation meetings for 
school exhibitions, a school convention, attending school exhibi- 
tions and group meetings of teachers. In all I travelled 2,541 
miles by railway and 4,311 miles by automobile. Some time was 
spent in marking essays for the teachers’ reading course. 

School exhibitions were held at Sunkist, Greenan, Hughton, 
Macrorie and Conquest. At each place an evening meeting was 
held and was particularly well attended. Forty-five schools of 
one department were inspected twice, one school three times and 
six schools of two departments were inspected on two occasions. 
Forty-two schools of one department were inspected once only. 
Had it not been for the early winter, I should have been able to 
visit all the schools in the inspectorate a second time. 

On the occasion of my visit to a school district I endeavoured 
to interview at least one trustee and frequently I had the pleasure 
of meeting the board. 

The teachers of the Elrose inspectorate held a very successful 
convention in Conquest on September 24 and 25. Mrs. R. W. 
Asselstine, Mr. R. W. Asselstine, vice principal of the Saskatoon 
Normal School and Mrs. Feeny of Regina, were present and gave 
valuable assistance. 

During the year, considerable interest was aroused in con- 
solidation. At present there are four centres — Elrose, Forgan, 
Bounty and Birsay — actively working towards better school 
facilities by means of consolidation. In conclusion, I wish to state 
that the educational work, in my opinion, is making very substan- 
tial progress and the outlook is encouraging. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


T. M. Creighton. 


Annual Report, 1919 


133 


Radisson, January 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report on the Radisson inspector- 
ate for the year ended December 31, 1919, as follows: 

This district stretches from the north branch of the Saskat- 
chewan river on the south to Big River on the north, a distance of 
about 106 miles, and varies in width from 18 to 60 miles. It com- 
prises an area of 3,240 square miles and includes the following 
rural municipalities: Nos. 405, 434, 435, 464, 465, 466, 495, parts of 
406 and 436, also local improvement districts Nos. 525, 555, 585, 
586 and 587. The inspectorate contained on January 1, 1919, 
98 districts with 119 departments in operation. Two additional 
departments were opened during the year and three new districts 
were erected. One of these districts opened school immediately 
in temporary quarters, while the other two being formed late in 
the year did not attempt operation. 

I found in many cases the attendance fairly good, while in a 
few instances, for various reasons, it was far too low. There has 
been, however, a substantial improvement in attendance since 
The School Attendance Act came into force. The following sched- 
ule shows the attendance in the various grades and also suggests 
the necessity of raising the age limit for compulsory attendance. 
I would suggest that pupils be required to complete the work 
prescribed for Grade VII before leaving school. 

Grades. 



, 

n 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. Fm 
Fm. 

Mid. 

Fm. 

Sr. 

Fm. 

Total 

Enrolled. . . 

1281 

437 

488 

341 

238 

108 

63 

70 

27 

5 

1 

3059 

Present. . . . 

1001 

368 

388 

285 

194 

83 

50 

59 

27 

5 

1 

2461 


Percentage of attendance 80.45 


The administration of the schools in this inspectorate is gener- 
ally unsatisfactory. Those schools which have been in operation 
for a period of years present the greatest problems. The school 
boards seem to consider their duties completed when a teacher 
has been engaged. Other matters, such as school gardens, tree 
planting and beautifying the grounds, generally receive but scant 
attention. To many boards beauty carries no message. The 
trustees’ convention which should be suggestive and instructive 
in all these matters, appears to be of little value. Either the 
delegates are impervious to suggestion or are incapable of giving 
expression to the ideas assimilated. Many of them are quite 
satisfied that the school should remain year after year the most 
neglected centre in the community when the very reverse should 


134 


Department of Education 


be true. Generally speaking, school boards will acknowledge the 
necessity of a warm room but the term "sanitation” is foreign. 
I am pleased to be. able to say, however, that in the case of recently 
erected buildings where an architect’s plans have been secured, 
the regulations respecting lighting, heating and sanitation have been 
observed. The water supply in most schools is unsatisfactory. 
In many cases, the wells would be satisfactory if cleaned out at 
regular intervals. I have little use for the sanitary fountain or 
the tank with a tap, as these vessels are either out of repair or 
the supply of water in them is low and unfit for use. I know of 
no instance where an adequate supply of fresh water is kept on 
hand when such supply is furnished from a distance. The argu- 
ment of the board that no well has been sunk because water could 
not be secured, has no weight when there is a good well at every 
farm house in the district. The school is without a supply of water 
through the indifference or penuriou^ness of the board. On several 
occasions, I have told boards that their first duty is to carry out the 
Regulations of the Department and if they find themselves unable 
or unwilling to do this, their second duty is to resign. 

The supply of qualified teachers was not equal to the demand 
so that a number of permits had to be issued. I am pleased to 
note, however, that the number of permits issued during 1919 was 
much smaller than in 1918 and would have been still smaller if 
teachers’ residences were more plentiful. The following schedule 
shows the standing of the teachers in this inspectorate: 


First Class 

Second Class 

Third Class 

Permit 

No standing 

Total 

18 

60 

32 

17 

5 

132 


The properly qualified teachers are generally doing good work 
and so are some of those holding provisional certificates. The 
most unsatisfactory work is done by provisionally certificated 
teachers from Quebec. Their academic standing is low; their 
knowledge of English very limited and their methods, if any, quite 
antiquated. The salaries paid in the non-English schools are higher 
than in the purely English district, so that as soon as suitable hous- 
ing accommodation can be provided in these districts they will 
generally be in the hands of qualified teachers. The question 
of teachers’ residences in this inspectorate will be pushed during 
1920. 

I found quite satisfactory progress being made in all the com- 
mon subjects except primary reading and spelling. Teachers 
do not make sufficient use of the blackboard in reading, but start 
their classes directly with the text, with the result that the child, 
with no vocabulary or practice in expression, becomes a mere 
"word namer.” The child has no interest in the lesson apart from 
naming the words in succession till the paragraph is completed. 
It would be well for the Normal Schools to emphasise this point 
quite strongly, for the habit of word naming once acquired is 
with difficulty overcome. Spelling is seldom taught but in many 


Annual Report, 1919 


135 


cases the lesson consists of a list of meaningless words given to 
the child who proceeds to memorise the combination of letters 
forming the word. Agriculture and physical training are being 
duly recognised, but manual training and household science receive 
but scant attention. Good work is being done in school gardening 
where school boards can be induced to prepare the grounds. The 
noon lunch is being well received wherever it has been introduced. 
Here again, the chief difficulty is to induce the board to make the 
necessary initial outlay. 

There are no large districts in this inspectorate, but a number 
of schools are already taxed to the limit for accommodation and 
will have to be remodelled into two-roomed buildings with two 
teachers in charge. Some of the boards have indicated a willing- 
ness to improve in this respect while in other cases pressure will 
have to be exerted in order to secure the desired result. 

I used a car as a means of conveyance and found it quite 
satisfactory especially when long distances had to be covered. The 
car enabled me to return home very frequently in the evening and 
thus take advantage of home life as well as give attention to cor- 
respondence and other matters of importance. I usually locate 
for a short period in some centre of the inspectorate, inspect all 
schools within reach and then move to another point. I find this 
quite satisfactory as it saves much travelling and enables me to 
become familiar with conditions in the various sections of the in- 
spectorate. One difficulty in working this field arises from the 
awkward shape of the territory with no central point from which 
to work. The district is touched by three railways which are 
practically useless for inspection purposes. One line just touches 
the south end of the inspectorate, another crosses it just north of 
the properly organised portion, but this line is of little value, as 
connection with it can only be made at North Battleford or Prince 
Albert and it gives only a tri-weekly service. A third line running 
from Shellbrook to Big River touches my division on the extreme 
north. This line also gives but a tri-weekly service and, as some 
of the schools are thirty-five miles from if and must be reached 
by horse and rig, the railway is of little assistance. 

Three months were spent in connection with Normal School 
work in Prince Albert, one month reading teachers’ essays and 
considerable time attending to school exhibitions and organisation 
work in the more remote portions of the inspectorate. We had a 
number of very successful school picnics in different parts of the 
division as well as four school fairs. I find these very valuable as 
affording opportunities for meeting boards and ratepayers. They 
also afford opportunities for the people of non-English communities 
to get out, meet their neighbours and become interested in the 
games and amusements incident to these gatherings. All of the 
schools in this inspectorate were inspected once, except in the case 
of one school — St. Pascal — which was not opened as there were 
so few children in the district. A total of 119 departments were 
inspected once and 63 the second time. Fourteen visits were 
made when the schools were closed. With the ground work 
of organisation well under way more time can be given to inspection 


136 


Department of, Education 


work. 1 keep in touch with the trustees and ratepayers by means 
of school fairs, picnics, conferences with boards and secretaries and 
special visits to individual members of the board. This takes up 
a great deal of the inspector’s time but seems to be the only way to 
secure the necessary reforms. Yearly schools, better attendance 
and school gardens are advocated and encouraged by personal 
interviews with school boards and teachers, as well as by means of 
regular reports and special letters to trustees. The results in some 
cases are gratifying, while in others the seed falls by the wayside. 
Possibly this may be expected in any inspectorate in which non- 
English problem looms so large. The following schedule indicates 
the nature of this problem in this portion of the province, the 
nationality of the pupils enrolled being given. 


Nationality enrolled 

British 1,000 

Ruthenian 810 

Russian 393 

French 389 

German 239 

Swedish 127 

Austrian 39 

Belgian 5 

Polish 5 

Negro 4 


Total 3,011 


In conclusion I may say that a large part of the/inspector’s 
time is employed in attending to matters of school administration. 
He frequently has to travel many miles to find out why the school 
is not in operation, why there is no supply of water provided, 
either for drinking or washing purposes, or why no fuel has been 
ordered long after the cold weather has commenced. These and 
kindred matters will be given due attention when boards have a 
proper appreciation of the importance of their work — when they 
are trustees not merely of funds, but trustees of the present and 
future well being of the child and consequently of the future of our 
country. A changed view point on the part of the school boards 
is necessary, but, as it is easier to change the view point of one than 
of a dozen boards, I favour the introduction of the municipality as 
the unit of school administration. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


W. J. Drimmie. 


Annual Report, 1919 


137 


Elbow, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I beg to submit the following report of my activities as 
inspector of schools for the year 1919. 

Extent of Inspectorate. — The Elbow inspectorate consists of the 
following municipalities: Rudy No. 284, Loreburn No. 254, Maple 
Bush No. 224, Huron No. 223, Eyebrow No. 193, Enfield No. 194 
and part of Vermillion No. 195 The approximate area of this 
territory is 1,950 square miles. 

On January 1, 1919, there were 96 school districts in the 
inspectorate, with 111 departments in operation. During the 
year no new districts were erected, but two departments were added, 
one in Glenhill S.D. No. 2581 and one in Riverhurst S.D. No. 3836. 
In two districts, Faulkton No. 3593 and Erskine No. 2073, the 
schools were closed during the year because of insufficient children. 
There are now 96 districts with 113 departments in operation. 
There are no districts without school houses. There are, however, 
two parcels of unorganised territory, one west of Elbow and one 
north-west of Hawarden. These may be added to existing districts 
or made into separate districts. 

Enrolment and Attendance of Pupils. — The following schedule 
will show particulars regarding the enrolment and attendance of 
pupils. 


Rural Schools. 


Grade 

Number 

enrolled 

Percentage 
of total 
enrolment 

Number 

present 

Percentage 

present 

I 

525 

33.72 

433 

82.66 

II 

200 

12.85 

172 

86. 

Ill 

244 

15.67 

208 

81.14 

IV 

239 

15.35 

187 

78.24 

V 

133 

8.54 

116 

87.21 

VI 

95 

6 . 1 

77 

81.05 

VII 

05 

4 18 

56 

34 

86 15 

VIII 

40 

2.95 

73.91 

First year High School 

Second year High School / 

10 

.64 

5 

50. 

Totals 

1,557 


1,289 

82.78 


138 


Department of Education 


Village and Town Schools. 


Grade 

Number 

enrolled 

Percentage 
of total 
enrolment 

Number 

present 

Percentage 

present 

I 

237 

28. 21 

214 

90.29 

II 

115 

13.69 

107 

93.04 

Ill 

84 

10. 

77 

91.68 

IV 

109 

12.97 

102 

93.57 

V 

85 

10. 12 

81 

95.29 

VI 

53 

6.31 

47 

88.69 

VII 

45 

5.36 

42 

93.33 

VIII 

54 

6.43 

48 

88.88 

First year High School \ 

Second year High School / 

43 

5. 12 

40 

93.02 

Third year High School 

13 

1.55 

13 

100. 

Fourth year High School 

2 

.24 

2 

100. 

Totals 

840 


773 

92.26 


All Schools in Inspectorate. 


Grade 

Number 

enrolled 

Percentage 
of total 
enrolment 

Number 

present 

Percentage 

present 

I 

762 

31.79 

648 

85.03 

II 

315 

13.25 

279 

88.57 

Ill 

328 

13.29 

285 

83.84 

IV 

348 

14.53 

289 

83.04 

V 

218 

9.09 

197 

90.36 

VI 

148 

6. 18 

124 

83.78 

VII 

110 

4.68 

98 

89.09 

VIII 

100 

4. 28 

82 

82. 

First year High School \ 

Second year High School / 

53 

2. 24 

45 

84.9 

Third year High School 

13 

.55 

13 

100. 

Fourth year High School 

2 

. 12 

2 

100. 

Totals 

2,397 


2,062 

86.02 


From the above it will be seen that over 31 per cent, of the 
pupils are in Grade I, over 45 per cent, are below Grade III, over 
58 per cent, are below Grade IY, and over 72 per cent, are below 
Grade V. The percentage of pupils enrolled steadily decreases 
from Grade I until in Grade VIII it is only 4.28 per cent, of the 
whole. This condition shows an unfortunate retarding of the 
pupils of from one to two years. With the natural increase in the 
school population, a longer school term and a tendency to lengthen 
the school life of the child, a much better showing should be made 
in the future. It is difficult to secure statistics to show the degree 
of improvement attained through the enforcement of The School 
Attendance Act. The letters sent out by the Chief Attendance 
Officer have undoubtedly caused parents to consider the education 
of their children more seriously. Teachers report that the pupils 


Annuae Report, 1919 


139 


are attending school more regularly. Every one who mentions the 
subject at all has a good word to say for The School Attendance 
Act. 

Local School Administration . — In some districts school affairs 
are efficiently managed. One of the finest rural school buildings 
I^have seen in the province has recently been erected in Eden Valley 
S.D. No. 1494. Here the people abandoned a school which is 
superior to some that are still in operation. The spirit exhibited 
in this district may be seen in various places where the people are 
undoubtedly anxious to secure good educational facilities. But, 
in far too many instances, lack of interest and carelessness are 
evident in the management of school affairs. For instance, fourteen 
visits were made to school districts only to find the schools closed. 
The secretaries had failed to send notification as required' This 
meant much useless driving and waste of time. Some trustees 
have yet to learn that an inspector’s time is at least as valuable as 
their own. 

In regard to securing improvements there is too much pro- 
crastination. For example, in twenty-one districts the school 
grounds are not over one acre in area, in thirty-one they are not 
fenced, in fifteen some trees have been planted, in six the trees are 
in poor condition, in eight there is some playground apparatus, 
such as a swing or teeter, twenty-two have some provision for 
athletics, fifty-two schools are scrubbed less than once a 
month, fifty two are scrubbed once or twice a year, twenty-six 
toilets were very unsanitary, in fifty-two others sanitary 
conditions were fair only, twenty-one schools have antiquated 
platforms in the class rooms, twenty-seven were without water 
filters or tanks, while many others lacked towels, soap and 
other sanitary conveniences. Ten rural and village districts had 
no stables. 

The question of a wholesome water supply is a serious one in 
certain parts of the inspectorate. Very few schools wells are a 
success. In several districts good wells are situated short distances 
from the school houses, but in the majority of cases they are not 
within easy reach. Some schools have either the misnamed 
sanitary fountain or water coolers with taps at the bottom. In 
others the open pail, jug, jar or bottle is still to be seen. Where 
good wells cannot be secured or where there is no other source of 
supply near the school, the best arrangement seems to be an under- 
ground cistern with cement bottom and sides having a brick partition 
across the centre. The water is hauled in tanks and placed in one 
chamber of the cistern, from which it filters to the other and is then 
pumped to the surface. The fountain type of water container 
often found in schools is not sanitary except when full or nearly 
full of water. Otherwise there is not enough pressure to force the 
water more than an inch or so above the bubbler. This leads the 
children to press their lips against the bubbler, with the result that 
all the evils connected with the common cup are perpetuated. 
These sanitary fountains should be omitted from the authorised 
list of equipment, because they are practically useless unless con- 
nected with a waterworks system. Too many schools are without 


140 


Department of Education 


a water supply of any kind. This is a matter which requires more 
attention from boards of trustees. 

In regard to the interior equipment of schools the following 
figures are instructive. In eleven schools the seats were not 
fastened to the floor or to wood strips, in eleven others they were 
unsatisfactory for various reasons. In eleven schools the teachers’ 
desk were not satisfactory, forty-nine schools had no weights, 
thirty-nine had no measures, sixty-six had no scales, fifty-eight 
had no charts of any kind, eight had no wall clocks, in twenty- 
one the clocks were out of repair, forty-three had no waste baskets, 
two had no bells, two were without globes, in three the globes 
were out of repair, twenty-two had no pianos or organs, eight had 
no bookcases, twelve had unsatisfactory blackboards and only 
twenty-six had any pictures on the walls. We may not expect to 
see every school perfectly equipped, but the above facts point to 
the necessity of greater attention being given to the improvement 
of the school environment. 

Very little thought has been given to the beautification of the 
school grounds. An effort has been made to secure a good fence 
about every school, as well as a belt of trees and a school garden 
A number of fences were built during the year and others have 
been promised at an early date. People generally fail to realise 
the effect of a pleasing environment on the characters of the children, 
or the vital necessity of proper hygienic conditions. When these 
are more fully appreciated we may expect to see the bare, bald and 
uninviting school site made more attractive by shrubs, trees, 
grass plots, etc. 

There is a tendency to operate the schools for as long a term 
as possible. No doubt the absence of good roads, severity of 
winter weather and the distances to be walked or driven make it 
difficult to maintain a school for 200 days or more. This is, how- 
ever, partially overcome by taking a long vacation in the winter 
and reducing the summer holidays to one or two weeks. I believe 
that in most instances the people desire to keep the school in 
operation for as long a term as possible. 

New schools are being built in Glenside, Eyebrow and Central 
Butte. A new building will be erected in the spring at Bridgeford 
and possibly at Hawarden and Strongfield. The schools at Eyebrow 7 
and Central Butte will provide for four departments each and those 
at Glenside and Bridgeford for two departments each. An addition 
was built to the Riverhurst school which will afford ample accommo- 
dation for present requirements. 

Teachers . — The following schedule shows details regarding 
the number of teachers in the inspectorate, their standing and 
where and when they received their professional standing. 


Annual Report, 1919 


141 


Certificate held 

Male 

Female 

Total 

When trained 

1919 

1918 

1917 

1916 

1915 

Previ- 

ously 

Not 

trained 

First 

4 

19 

23 

4 

7 

2 

1 


9 


Second 

4 

56 

60 

13 

7 

7 

7 

8 

18 


Third 

3 

37 

40 

9 

6 

6 

3 

3 

13 


Provisional 

1 

5 

6 

1 



1 

1 

2 

1 

Total 

12 

117 

129 

27 

20 

15 

12 

12 

42 

1 







Where trained 





Certificate held 












Total 

Sask. 

Alta. 

Man. 

Ont. 

Que. 

N. B. 

N. S. 

P.E.I 

Gt. 

Brit. 

U.S. 

Not 

trained 



First 

14 

1 


3 


1 

2 


1 

1 


23 

Second 

37 


4 

9 

2 

1 

5 

1 

1 


60 

Third 

24 


2 

5 

1 

3 

4 


1 


40 

Provisional 

1 


1 

2 





1 

1 

6 













76 

1 

7 

19 

3 

5 

11 

1 

1 

4 

1 

129 


Out of a total of 129 teachers only six had provisional certificates 
and of the latter, one was without professional training. That is, 
only one school in the inspectorate was in charge of an untrained 
teacher. It is further observed that 17.82 per cent, of the teachers 
held First Class certificates, 46.51 per cent, had Second Class 
standing, 31 per cent, had Third Class standing and 4.67 per cent, 
had provisional certificates. It may be noted also that 58.91 per 
cent, were trained in Saskatchewan. 

The rate at which the ranks of the profession are being depleted 
is strikingly illustrated by the fact that 66.66 per cent, of the 
teachers were trained within the last five years. The more lucrative 
attractions of other professional or business life, the distances of 
boarding houses from the schools, poor boarding accommodation 
and the uninviting environment of some rural districts all con- 
tribute to draw teachers into other avenues of activity. When 
teachers receive as much remuneration as they may obtain else- 
where, when the social life of the country is such that teachers can 
find it congenial and when the rural districts enjoy more of the 
advantages of urban centres, we may expect to find the profession 
more permanent. When this occurs there will also be a tendency 
for teachers to treat their work more seriously than some are inclined 
to do at present. True, there is a goodly percentage of teachers 
who devote themselves unselfishly to the educational interests of 
the district. But, on the other hand, far too many either lack the 
training and ability or are not sufficiently interested to apply 
themselves with that diligence and devotion which alone insure 
success. A shocking amount of time is wasted through defective 


142 


Department of Education 


organisation, lack of proper correlation of subjects, weak methods 
of instruction, insufficient knowledge of the branches taught and 
general inefficiency. While the quality of the work in the class- 
room seems to be steadily improving, the standard is still far below 
what might be reasonably expected. Moreover, with adequate 
salaries and a larger supply of teachers we can demand that our 
teachers treat their occupation more as a profession and less as a 
mechanical routine. Instead of merely hearing lessons we may 
expect to see lessons taught with an interest and vitality that will 
be reflected in increased intellectual and moral development of the 
pupils. It is hoped that the lengthening of the Normal School 
term may hasten such a change. 

It has been noticed that some teachers are seldom at school 
many minutes before the time of assembling the pupils. This 
means that there is little or no time to place work upon the black- 
board or arrange many of the numerous details of the day’s activities 
which may require attention, unless this is done the previous 
evening after the pupils have left the school, which is seldom the 
case. A teacher should regard it as a duty to be at school early. 
To make this more common than at present it is recommended 
that The School Act be so amended as to require teachers to be on 
hand at least fifteen minutes before the time of opening school in 
the morning and at least five minutes before the time of opening 
in the afternoon. 

Progress of Pupils . — In the town and village schools the pupils 
are making fairly satisfactory progress, but in the rural districts 
their standing is very inferior. Particular attention is drawn to 
the attainments in reading, history, geography, civics, grammar, 
arithmetic and some of the special subjects. A great deal of mere 
wordnaming passes for reading, to say nothing of persistent 
mispronunciation of words and stumbling over the lessons in a 
painful fashion. Very few pupils can be said to know much history. 
They may get a smattering of historical facts, but these are not 
interpreted with reference to modern life and hence are of little use. 
They also know little about such geographical data as the physical 
features, climate, resources, transportation systems, imports and 
exports of the country or the characteristics of the people. One 
reason for this condition is found in the authorised text in geography. 
This book has been roundly condemned by teachers as inadequate 
fo^ school purposes, yet it is retained as a text. In fact, I have 
never heard much in its favour. The same may be said of the text 
injjCanadian history, which is too difficult for public school pupils. 
Concerning civics it may be said that the pupils know practically 
nothing. In nineteen schools this subject was not taught at all. 
In seven others it was taught occasionally or incidentally. It was 
impossible to find that any foundation had been laid in the work. 
Some pupils showed ignorance in regard to such points as the name 
of the King of Great Britain, the Governor General of Canada, 
Premier of Saskatchewan or the most elementary notions about our 
system of government. Considering the vital necessity of training 
the pupils in the duties and responsibilities of citizenship, especially 
where we are surrounded by factions which advocate false theories 


Annual Report, 1919 


143 


of government, it is lamentable and may even be suicidal, to allow 
pupils to grow up in ignorance of their country’s affairs. The 
reference text in this subject is not written in such a way as to 
coincide with the plan usually followed in teaching it. Instead of 
progressing from the Imperial Government to the local units of 
administration the order should be reversed. The book should 
outline a complete course in the subject, with suggestions and 
helps regarding its presentation to the pupils 

In grammar insufficient emphasis is placed upon the develop- 
ment of reasoning power. In arithmetic the same is true, with 
the added defect of inability to calculate rapidly or correctly. 
There is too much memory work and not enough thought. 

The following schedule will furnish statistics regarding the 
number of classrooms where the special subjects are taught, as 
well as several other particulars. 



Household Science includes sewing, knitting, crocheting, 
patching, darning and preparing the noon lunch. Manual training 
consists of paper folding, cutting and tearing, modelling and raphia 
work. Music consists largely of rote singing. 

Large Districts . — There were no large districts in operation 
during the year. One such district was organised at Bridgeford 
and one was approved by the ratepayers of Hawarden vicinity, 
although this district has not been formally erected yet. The 
question of consolidation is one which is being widely discussed by 
people in the rural districts. Many object to sending their children 
to the secondary institutions in the cities on account of the expense 
involved and also because of the lack of parental supervision. The 
majority of the people desire for their children the benefits of higher 
education as soon as they are ready for it and are willing to pay a 
comparatively heavy tax to obtain it. 

Rural Education - Associations and School Fair Work . — An 
attempt has been made to promote community interests by organ- 
ising the inspectorate for school garden and school fair purposes. 
Last spring rural education associations were formed in the 
municipalities of Enfield, Maple Bush, Huron, Eyebrow, Loreburn, 
and Rudy. These organisations were to have the general over- 
sight of the activities in each municipality, to form a link between 
the individual schools and to work in conjunction with the rural 
agricultural committee which was the chief executive in charge of 
the whole inspectorate. In these rural education associations 


144 


Department of Education 


were included men and women from various occupations, including 
farmers, merchants, bankers, secretaries of municipalities and 
clergymen as well as teachers. It was the aim, also, to work in 
harmony with other societies which had the advancement of the 
interests of the local community in view, including agricultural 
societies, grain growers, homemakers’ clubs, etc. A prize list, 
containing rules and regulations to govern school fairs, classification 
of exhibits and other information, was issued to teachers and others 
interested in agricultural work. In the fall school fairs were held 
at the following points: Brownlee, Eyebrow, Tugaske, Elbow, 
Loreburn, Hawarden, Outlook, Glenside, Wingello S.D. No. 2361 
and a central fair at Elbow. At each of these fairs the number of 
exhibits varied from 200 to 800. The showing was considered very 
satisfactory and aroused no little interest among those who saw 
the exhibits. They were a surprise to many who did not know 
before of the variety of work taught in the schools. Later in the 
fall a number of rural education associations undertook to further 
community work by arranging for literary societies, debating clubs 
and community clubs. By this means it was planned to keep 
the organisations together and at the same time provide for mental 
recreations which should have good results both in improving the 
individual and in making for better community life. One of these 
societies is meeting every two weeks and is carrying on the work 
with four committees having charge of the literary, debating, 
social and musical departments respectively. There is a wide field 
for this kind of work and good results are anticipated from the 
efforts being made. 

Work as Inspector . — To reach the various schools I use a Ford 
runabout. Usually the town and village schools are visited first 
by train, then when the roads dry up the car is used. I find that 
a car is much more convenient in every way than a team of horses. 
Sloughs, mud holes and breakdowns cause some delay at times, 
but this loss was more than made up by being able to cover the 
country more quickly than would be possible with a team. There 
is also the added difficulty of obtaining suitable accommodation in 
certain sections of the country. In such a case one can drive home 
or to the nearest town without undue delay. 

I plan to cover the entire territory once before beginning a 
second round. When two inspections of each school are not possible 
a second visit is made to schools where there has been a recent 
change of teachers, where I wish to see again the work of some 
particular teacher or where it is desirable to learn what progress 
is being made in providing some urgent improvement in the school 
plant. 

From January 1 until Easter week I was engaged in the 
Saskatoon Normal School assisting with the Second and First 
Class work. During Easter week I attended the Inspector’s con- 
vention and the annual convention of the Saskatchewan Educa^ 
tion Association. Other extra work included several meetings at 
Riverhurst to arbitrate respecting certain proposed changes in the 
boundaries of that school district, meetings to arrange school fair 
work, organisation of rural education associations, several meetings 


Annual- Report, 1919 


145 


of ratepayers to discuss consolidation of schools at Hawarden and 
Lake Valley, attending school fairs and assisting in judging the 
exhibits, arranging for the local annual convention of teachers, 
planning school fair work for 1920, revision of prize list, etc., 
publicity work connected with school fairs, correspondence and 
general office work. The latter item includes more than 400 
letters written during the year on Departmental business. 

During the year every school in operation was inspected. 
Details are as follows: Rural schools inspected once, 83; twice, 14; 
town or village schools inspected once, 11; twice, 11; departments 
inspected once, 30; twice, 28; departments inspected three times, 
one; total number of inspections, 156. The number of visits to 
districts whereno inspection was made was 14. 

The shape of the inspectorate makes it impossible to work to 
the best advantage. It extends from the southern boundary of 
the Dundurn Forest Reserve to Brownlee and from Lake Valley to 
Riverhurst. Since it is long and narrow, being but seven to ten 
miles wide at Elbow, much time is occupied in reaching schools 
which are situated any appreciable distance from the centre. In 
addition to this a ridge of sand hills crosses the country from east 
to west just north of the Qu’Appelle Valley. The surface of the 
country is such that the only convenient road south from Elbow is 
one between that village and the Saskatchewan river and even this 
road is a poor one. If the boundaries of the inspectorate could be 
so arranged as to give it a more rectangular shape much time and 
effort could be saved. 

I can see no useful purpose in making the inspectoral boundaries 
coincide with those of rural municipalities. For instance, there 
are a number of schools tributary to Elbow which I do not visit 
because they are in the municipality east of the village. Another 
man must drive thirty miles or more to see schools which I could 
reach by driving less than half the distance. Moreover, I have to 
pass several of these schools in order to reach four others in the 
northern end of Huron rural municipality, namely, Eildon, 
Pilgrim, Ames and Beacon, districts which could all be easily reached 
from another centre. If the boundaries of inspectorates were 
arranged with reference to the accessibility of the schools rather 
than following the municipal boundaries our duties could be more 
easily performed, and time spent on the road could be used in the 
classrooms. 

General Comments . — At present the school grant is paid on the 
basis of the number of days the school is in operation, the qualifica- 
tions of the teacher, the size of the district, the length of time it 
has been organised and the provision made for pupils above grade 
VII. Under such a system the school doing good work receives no 
more grant than the one doing very unsatisfactory work. By 
simply keeping the school open, even though the teacher may be a 
mere tyro and the equipment the worst possible the grant may be 
earned. This plan does not seem to encourage the district where 
the people are anxious to provide the best possible equipment and 
make the physical environment healthful and attractive. Both 
classes of schools are placed on the same level as far as the grant is 


146 


Department of Education 


concerned. This scarcely seems equitable. If schools were divided 
into classes according to their cleanliness, hygienic conditions and 
standard of excellence attained and if these qualities were made to 
count for something in determining the amount of grant, trustees 
might be more expeditious in improving the school premises. In 
other words, the schools should be scheduled according to some 
standard and made to reach a certain degree of excellence before, 
being permitted to share in the money to be used for educational 
purposes. It might be necessary to increase the yearly grant to 
schools, but it would be worth while. Even on the present basis 
it might be well to consider ways and means to increase the amount 
of money available for school grants. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Howard A. Everts. 


Wilkie, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

have the honour to submit herewith the annual report 
of the Wilkie inspectoral division for the year 1919.. 

The teiritory in this division was composed of rural munici- 
palities Nos. 409, 378, 379, 380, 348 and 349 and in addition, 
twenty-nine schools distributed among rural municipalities Nos. 
410, 408, 381 and 439. 

At the beginning of the year there were 97 school districts 
in this area, containing 107 departments. Five new districts 
of one department each were added during the year. There 
are five school districts where no school building is yet erected. 
In the case of the Farmer S.D. No. 421 and the Moose Park S.D. 
No. 2802, the number of children in the districts has not been 
sufficient to warrant the building of school houses. The 
Norwich S.D. No. 3745 was organised, and is still operating, under 
section 13, subsection (14), of The School Act. The Rosebrier S D 
No. 4105, the Rhyl S.D: No. 4265 and the Local Centre S.D. No. 
4270 were erected this year and have not yet built schools 

The amendment to section 4 (d) of The School Attendance Act, 
^ w J Ch ^ WaS mac ^ e a PPbcable to pupils living two and one-half 
and three and one-half miles from school, was a move in the right 
direction. I should be glad to see this section further amended to 
make the Act applicable to all children in the province irrespective 
of their distance from a school house. In this case there should be 
available from some source a grant to cover a part of the cost of 
conveyance for those pupils living very far away. The state cannot 
afford to let children grow up without education, no matter where 
they live and no matter what the cost may be. My observation 
would lead me to believe that The School Attendance Act has 
reached the second stage of its usefulness. Hitherto the chief 


Annual Report, 1919 


147 


benefit of the Act seemed to be to improve the attendance of those 
whose non-attendance was due largely to a certain amount of in- 
difference to or lack of appreciation of the educational facilities 
provided. This year, however, the Act appears to be reaching 
those parents who for any reason are openly opposed to sending 
their children to school. I have found the work of the provincial 
police in this connection very efficient. Section 6 (2) apparently 
requires amendment. Perhaps limiting exemption to pupils above 
a certain standard of education would help. I fancy also that if 
some responsible authority were given power to cancel exemptions 
when not wisely granted, it might have a wholesome effect in leading 
trustee boards to act more cautiously when granting such exemptions. 
Most boards show due discretion in this matter, only a small minority 
abusing the authority given them. I am of the opinion that The 
School Attendance Act is a very beneficial measure and that it is 
appreciated as such by the public. 

There is an improvement in the local administration of schools, 
although much is still wanting along this line. Boards are realising 
more fully the need for longer school terms and an increasing 
number are facing the problem of keeping their school open the 
whole year. This latter course appears to be the only practical 
way of making the school year longer. Those schools that remain 
open the whole year secure practically all the teachers available at 
the beginning of the year. The others have such difficulty in getting 
teachers that many of them do not succeed until a month or two 
after the date decided upon for opening the school. I do not 
know of a case in which a board has actually tried to keep its 
school open and has made proper provision for cold weather, 
where the result of the experiment has not warranted its repetition. 
Many schools have remained open with a fair attendance during 
November and December, both of which were severe winter months, 
and yet maintain that it is not practicable to keep their schools 
open “during the winter.” I am satisfied that a much larger 
proportion of our schools could be run successsully during the 
whole year under more efficient administration, that is, if trustees, 
parents and teachers had but the courage to undertake carrying 
on the school the whole year. I know of a case where a rural school 
was kept open through a hard winter with as good an attendance 
of both large and small pupils as during the summer. Over twenty 
pupils attended and they lived the usual distances from school. 
Some small pupils did not miss a day from school all winter. This 
was largely due to the teacher. 

Some of the difficulties in the way of the winter school are — 
poorly built schools, inadequate heating plants, no storm windows, 
no adequate provision made for fire-lighting, poorly built stables 
unfit for horses to stand in through the day, stormy weather, some 
pupils too young to drive alone and their parents unwilling to drive 
them. Most of these difficulties can be overcome directly by 
efficient administration and as a result, some of the other difficulties 
would be overcome indirectly. 

I need not repeat what I have said in previous reports in support 
of municipal administration of schools. I shall only add here that 


148 


Department op Education 


I am quite convinced that the more efficient administration referred 
to above would develop much more rapidly and to a much higher 
state of efficiency if we had municipal school boards. I am also 
of the opinion that public sentiment in favour of the change is 
steadily growing. 

School boards are more sensitive than formerly to deficiencies 
in their school buildings. In a few cases this sensitiveness has 
produced actual improvements, such as a new floor, an enlarged 
entrance to provide toilet rooms, etc., painting, storm windows, 
eavestroughs and in the case of the Scotstown S.D. No. 2467, a 
splendid new building. A few new school districts have built this 
year and their buildings are quite creditable. Most of the older 
buildings have cross lights but it does not seem wise to insist on 
extensive alterations to rectify this if other conditions as to size, 
etc., are acceptable. It is found that the distribution of light can 
be substantially improved by proper tinting of walls and ceiling 
and the use of translucent adjustable blinds. The Waterman- 
Waterbury jacketed furnace is found in a large number of the 
schools and on the whole these schools are heated and ventilated 
much better than the other schools. 

There seems to be a general willingness on the part of boards 
to provide the two acres of school ground, also to fence and cultivate 
same. The cultivation receives poor attention, however, It seems 
strange that in farming communities it should be so difficult to get 
a little cultivation properly and regularly done for the school. It 
is very rarely that I find a school ground in a satisfactory state of 
cultivation. Where there is cultivation, a crop of weeds is usually 
growing. Tree planting has been attempted by a large proportion 
of the schools, but with poor success. I am of the opinion that 
inadequate cultivation is the chief cause of failure, although climatic 
conditions during the year have also been poor. Occasionally the 
results seem to baffle even those in the vicinity who have had 
consideiable success from their own planting. School gardens have 
not been a general success this year. Indeed, many were considered 
by teacher, pupils and trustees to be total failures. In these cases 
of course they were failures, although they need not have been. 
The garden that does not grow things can be made just as vital a 
problem as any other garden. The problem is different — it is the 
problem of how to make that garden productive, with all the minor 
problems involved therein. The chief benefit of a garden is not 
g a thered f rom it, but the educational results accom- 
p is ed by means of it. One of the most successful gardens I saw 
tms year was in a district where most people thought a garden 
could not be grown owing to lack of moisture. This garden received 
one good soaking during the summer by artificial means and the 
rest was done by cultivation. 

Trustee boards are, I think, generally willing to provide fair 
equipment, sanitary and otherwise, where they are sure that the 
teac er will make good use of it. Teachers are improving in this 
respect, but there are some grounds for the fear on the part of 
boards that equipment would not be used were it provided, because 
requently teachers have simply allowed it to deteriorate and made 


Annual -Repoet, 1919 


149 


no use of it. Some boards, of course, assume a wrong attitude 
entirely toward equipping their school. Again, there are many 
cases where the trustees are willing to get what is wanted, but the 
long delay in procuring things is very trying to their patience and 
detrimental to the school. 

With respect to sanitary conditions in the school generally, 
I have been very much gratified with the many cases of decided 
improvement this year and the many other cases where serious 
attempts at sanitation were being made. Generally speaking, 
where the teacher was capable along this line, conditions were 
acceptably good. Sometimes I found the teacher to be the chief 
offender. The sentiment throughout the schools generally is such 
that with the assistance and co-operation of the school nurse most 
teachers can do good work along the line of health education if 
they have the proper viewpoint and enthusiasm for the work. An 
important factor in bringing about improved sanitary conditions 
in the schools here has been the splendid work done by members of 
the very efficient staff of the school hygiene branch of the Depart- 
ment. The courses on school hygiene in the Normal Schools 
appear to be proving effective. Teachers who have had their 
Normal training in Saskatchewan during the last couple of years 
are fairly well acquainted with what is necessary. Many of them 
are not able to accomplish much improvement during the one year 
or less that they are in the school, but a number of teachers have 
that practical type of ability that gets things done in spite of ob- 
stacles. This kind of leadership on the part of the teacher almost 
invariably brings gratifying results. 

I cannot say that any progress has been made towards a 
solution of the problem of water supply. The matter is, however, 
receiving somewhat more careful attention in that boards usually 
arrange to have drinking water brought to the school daily where 
this can be done conveniently. Occasionally a well proves satis- 
factory, but so seldom, that I am not making a practice of recom- 
mending the digging of school wells. It is possible that the solution 
of the problem may lie in the direction of filtering the rain water 
from the roof. In my opinion it would be much appreciated if 
the Department were to cause a scientific study to be made of this 
water supply problem and issue a report on the result of its findings 
for the information and direction of school boards. I suppose that 
thousands of dollars are spent annually in the digging of wells that 
prove to be of little use for school purposes. Water is urgently 
needed for cleaning purposes as well as for drinking. It is not 
conducive to cleanliness when pupils and teachers are constantly 
under the necessity of economising in water. I am of the opinion 
that both the present health and the health habits of a large pro- 
portion of our school children are being injuriously affected by the 
want of an abundance of wholesome water at the school for drinking, 
washing and cleaning. 

Of the 108 teachers in this inspectorate, 18 were male and 
90 female; eight married and 100 unmarried. The following table 
indicates the class of certificate held: 


150 


Department of Education 


First Class 

Second Class 

Third Class 

■ Provisional 

Total 

13 

52 

38 | 

5 

108 


Of the teachers holding provisional certificates, three had no 
professional training and two had a certain amount of training in 
the United States. Seven of the 38 teachers holding Third Class 
certificates had had their certificates extended. The following 
table shows where teachers received their professional training: 


Sask. 

Ont. 

Que. 

Man. 

Alta. 

P.E.I. 

N.S. 

N.B. 

Br. Isles 

U.S.A. 

70 

12 

1 

4 

3 

4 

3 

2 

3 

3 


After the close of the Normal Schools on April 30, I made 
no recommendations for provisional certificates, because I was able 
to secure a qualified teacher for every position that I was asked to 
fill. Some boards were most persistent in their requests for these 
recommendations, preferring to engage an uncertificated girl whom 
they knew, rather than one with a certificate whom they did not 
know. I find that boards generally are not familiar with the prin- 
ciple upon which the Department’s policy as to the granting of 
provisional certificates is based, namely, that such certificates are 
to be granted only in case a board is unable to secure a teacher 
with a certificate. Boards occasionally decide that they are not 
able to get qualified teachers, before they have made the attempt. 
I take the ground that trustees should not expect provisional 
certificates to be granted until they have found that neither the 
inspector nor the Exchange is able to secure them a teacher" at 
whatever salary is being generally paid. Perhaps the most con- 
spicuous case of this mistaken attitude of boards regarding pro- 
visional certificates was a certain board which placed in charge of 
its school a student who had been refused a recommendation for 
a certificate, engaging to pay her at the rate of $70 per month, 
while certificated teachers were available at the salary being paid 
by most of the surrounding rural schools, namely, $100 per month. 
In the case of another board I declined to recommend a certain 
student as lequested and submitted names of four certificated 
teachers who were wanting schools. Rather than make any 
attempt to secure one of these teachers this board travelled thirty- 
five miles to insist on its request for a recommendation being granted. 
If anything can be done to make clear to trustee boards the Depart- 
ment s policy in this matter of granting provisional certificates, 
it will save a good deal of trouble and confusion. During February 
and March it was impossible to secure certificated teachers or indeed 
sufficient teachers of any kind to take charge of the schools and 
during this period provisional certificates Were recommended 
wherever possible. Four out of the five teachers thus recommended 
did as good work as was expected. The usual salary paid in the 


Annual Report, 1919 


151 


rural schools of this inspectorate during 1919 was $1,200. Salary 
does not appear to be paid on the basis of service rendered, but on 
the basis of necessity. This appears to me to be a vicious principle. 
One occasionally hears a trustee say, “We would have given that 
teacher such-and-such a salary to keep her, but she didn’t give us 
a chance.” I have heard this said by a trustee regarding a teacher 
who was in the employ of his board for two years. Surely two 
years is sufficient “chance” to offer a teacher what the board knew 
her services were worth. Two other cases of this nature coming 
under my notice during the year may be mentioned. An excellent 
teacher who had taught in a certain school giving splendid satis- 
faction to all concerned applied for the same position a third year. 
A salary of $950 was agreed upon but the teacher was told that the 
board might be able to raise it to $1,000 after she came back. She 
received the offer of a position which suited her much better and 
accepted it. The board then paid $950 to a teacher to fill her place. 
This board was evidently endeavouring to secure services for less 
than it knew those services to be commanding generally. This 
action would not be so serious were it typical of only the poorer 
classes of boards, but this board is composed of some men who 
would be regarded as decidedly above the average in business in- 
telligence and moral enlightenment. Yet this action seems to me 
to be poor business and worse morality. The other case I wish 
to mention is a rural school where the teacher held a first class 
certificate and did very excellent work for two successive years in 
the same school, work of such a high type that I have rarely found 
it equalled in any rural school. I discovered that this teacher was 
in such demand that unless he received an increase of $300, bringing 
his salary up to $1,500, we should lose him. I made a special case 
of this and laid the matter before the ratepayers at a public meeting 
in the school. But we lost the teacher. This teacher was a graduate 
in arts, had demonstrated his fitness for the position, was giving 
the best satisfaction to everyone concerned, the community was 
exceptionally prosperous and every condition seemed to call for 
the retaining of the same man in charge of the school. Adjoining 
this district was one which has been changing teachers two or three 
times each year and paying the same salary of $1,200 to teachers 
holding provisional, Third and Second Class certificates, without 
distinction. 

In marked contrast to cases of this kind I shall refer to another 
school where a teacher was engaged for a salary of $900. As soon 
as the board found out that this teacher was making a good success 
of the school they were ethical enough to raise her salary to what 
they believed she should receive. They voluntarily increased it to 
$1,200. To my mind this was the honest thing to do. I am of the 
opinion that the ethical position of any board which accepts the 
services of a teacher at a salary lower than they know those services 
can command, is indefensible. 

The practical outcome of this pernicious policy is that generally 
experience and efficiency receive very little tangible recognition. 
The inexperienced teacher with a Third Class or even a provisional 
certificate gets about the same remuneration as the experienced 


152 


Department of Education 


high grade teacher. Is it any wonder that teachers do not remain 
in the profession? Can people of ability and ambition be expected 
to remain in any profession or line of activity where their remunera- 
tion remains practically stationary from the first? Yet in the 
majority of the schools in Saskatchewan today this is the situation. 
Not only does this treatment of teachers result in their leaving the 
profession, but it offers no adequate inducement to improvement 
on the part of teachers. There is a tremendous amount of 
potential teaching ability lying dormant among the teachers of 
this province, that would be developed into active efficiency were 
there the proper inducement in the way of increased pay for in- 
creased efficiency. 

It appears to me that it would have been better business 
economy in the first case referred to above to have paid the teacher 
of proved efficiency and who was familiar with the whole situation, 
SI, 000 than to pay even $900 to a new teacher; and likewise in the 
second case it would have been more profitable to pay the teacher 
$1,500 for his third year than to engage a new teacher even for 
$1,000, and that the only one of the three boards mentioned above 
whose policy was based on sound business principles was the last 
mentioned. I am further of the opinion that every rural school 
board should adopt a scale of salaries for its teacher, with an in- 
crease of $100 per year in the case of satisfactory service to induce 
teachers (1) to remain in the same school, (2) to remain in the pro- 
fession and (3) to increase their efficiency by courses of reading 
and training. At the present time I do not know of a school 
board in this inspectorate that has adopted any regular salary 
scale, although the one board referred to above has evidently 
adopted the principle. Neither the principle nor the scale, how- 
ever, can have its best effect unless teachers know that it is in opera- 
tion, so that they may govern themselves accordingly. 

Speaking of the work of the average teacher as I have met 
teachers during the year, I am of the opinion that her work is as 
good as can be expected under the circumstances. Some of these 
circumstances that limit the achievement of the teacher are (1) 
she is not mature enough in years, (2) she is not mature enough in 
development and experience, (3) her professional training is in- 
adequate, (4) the conditions under which pupils and teacher have 
to work are unsanitary, in varying degrees, although as I have 
said elsewhere in this report improvement in this respect is taking 
place, (5) the equipment for teaching, such as library books, hand- 
work material, physical and chemical apparatus, etc., is insufficient, 
(6) there is much difficulty in getting equipment under the present 
trustee board system and (7) the relation of the school board to 
the teacher is a despotic one, not necessarily in its attitude toward 
or treatment of the teacher, but in its constitution and organisation, 
that is, the teacher is without representation on the board of 
management which engages her and to whom she is in large measure 
responsible. Teachers would be more contented, interested and 
efficient if the principle of representation for the employee on 
management boards, which is now so widely accepted in industrial 
relations, were adopted in .school administration. Teachers’ 


Annual Report, 1919 


153 


•councils would partially overcome this difficulty. If we had 
municipal school boards such councils would be feasible through- 
out the province. I believe they would prove of great benefit 
to all phases of educational activity and that their organ- 
isation would tend to raise the status of the whole teaching pro- 
fession and improve the quality of our education. It is gratifying 
to note that more teachers are adjusting themselves and adapting 
their work more fully to local community conditions and are assum- 
ing more definite leadership in the important work of cultivating 
public interest in social and educational improvement. In doing 
this, teachers are assisting in a fundamental way to overcome the 
very handicaps under which they themselves, both individually 
and as a body, are working. Others than teachers also are doing 
very effective work along this line. One important result of our 
school fairs and rural education associations is that they are dis- 
covering and developing community leaders in social and educa- 
tional activities. All teachers are not leaders but all can render 
valuable assistance and I seldom find a teacher who is not glad to 
do so. It seems to me also that there is considerable significance 
in this fact — that the teachers who are leaders here are leaders in 
their profession. 

I regret that teachers do not do more professional reading and 
reading on current topics as dealt with in newspapers, magazines 
and books. If teachers would “keep abreast of the times” as 
every successful lawyer, doctor, minister and other professional 
man or woman must do, they would be surprised to find what a 
source of satisfaction, inspiration and power it would prove to them. 
It is a very rare teacher indeed who does this and yet falls short of 
success in her whole work as a teacher. I should like to see the 
Department’s list of library books for schools considerably aug- 
mented and a section of it given to professional reading matter, 
so that this would be available for teachers in the school libraries. 
A teacher should also be allowed to have her favourite school maga- 
zine included as library material. An annual supplement to the 
authorised list of library books would seem to be necessary also, 
in order that the latest books might be available and that books 
now out of print would not appear on the list. 

One of the greatest difficulties the rural school teacher has to 
contend with is the matter of a boarding house. Here again, we 
encounter the need for a larger unit of administration so that 
homes could be provided for teachers. This would tend to produce 
teachers for homes, i.e., permanent married teachers. At present, 
we have neither one nor the other of these desirable features. I 
have a rural board willing to build a three-roomed cottage for a 
teacher and pay him $1,500 if they can secure a good teacher who 
is likely to remain with them, but such a teacher does not seem to 
be available at present. The provision of rural homes for teachers 
seems to me to be a matter needing attention. 

The progress of pupils is better in the primary than in the 
higher grades. This difference seems to be partly due to the fact 
that teachers are frequently not sufficiently familiar with the work 
of the higher grades, and partly because teachers are generally 


154 


Department of Education 


more natural in their attitude toward, and their methods with, 
the younger pupils. History and geography seem to receive the 
poorest treatment of all the subjects. I have sought to secure 
improvement in the subjects of study by emphasising one or two 
each year, rather than all at the same time. Thus, far more em- 
phasis has been given to literature, composition and primary 
arithmetic and their correlation to nature study and the varied 
forms of expression, such as hand work, art and music. Better 
work is found, therefore, in these phases of activity than in others. 
It is the intention to emphasise the other subjects in due course. 

As regards the special subjects, agriculture and manual training 
are receiving little attention, as such, although nature study, 
school gardening and hand work in the primary grades reach over 
into these fields. Teachers and pupils are trying to make the school 
garden a success, but as yet without very encouraging results. I 
fancy these results cannot become general until two important 
conditions are fulfilled: (1) that teachers are better trained for this 
particular work, and (2) that trustees make more adequate provision 
for gardens at the schools. Perhaps the only effective way to get 
at the second of these conditions is to fulfil the first. I have come 
to the conclusion that something more effective is needed than we 
have at present to train teachers for rural school work. The 
average teacher in the rural school, as I have met her, is unable to 
use the material at hand for educational purposes, although it is 
the best material in the world for such purposes. The rural com- 
munity is practically a closed book to many, teachers in its natural 
and social as well as its industrial aspect. How can this be other- 
wise when we take our girls and boys away from the country homes 
and rural life to give them their higher education and teacher 
training amidst city conditions. The work of the vast majority of 
teachers in this province must always be teaching in rural schools. 
I do not see how we can ever hope to train the majority of our 
teachers effectively for these rural schools apart from rural high 
schools and rural training schools. Here again we meet the need 
for municipal school boards, but I think we meet also the need for 
Federal support for special training for rural teachers. I am aware 
that some of the training at present given in our Normal Schools, 
as for example that in agriculture and household science, is sup- 
ported by Federal grant, but this is such a small part of what is 
needed that it scarcely touches the problem, although I am sure 
that those doing this work are making the most that is possible out 
of it under present limitations. But this Federal support of educa- 
tion needs to be enormously increased, to bear a large share of the 
cost Oi rural teacher training. We should have a provincial rural 
teacher training school including a farm, situated in rural territory, 
where graduates from our public schools, who wished to take up 
teaching as a life work, would be admitted to both high school and 
normal school training. Such a method of selection could be 
adopted that practically every teacher graduating from this school 
after from four to six years’ training, would be not only a rural expert 
but a rural enthusiast. The success of such a school should soon 
bring others of its kind into existence. With a rural teaching staff, 


Annual Report, 1919 


155 


such as these teachers would be, I believe that Saskatchewan 
rural school education and rural school administration would soon 
be on a surprisingly higher level. I believe that most of our present 
rural school problems would reach solutions not only more readily, 
but much more satisfactorily, in the presence of an army of teachers 
of this calibre, than will be possible otherwise. If the Dominion 
Government is justified, in the interests of the fundamental in- 
dustry of this country, in maintaining experimental farms and if 
the principle already adopted of Federal support to education is a 
good one, it seems to me that some effective scheme of rural teacher 
training should also become a Federal responsibility so far as financial 
support is concerned. I am strongly of the opinion that none of 
the money at present being expended by the Federal government 
for the improvement of social, educational or industrial conditions 
would bring in richer returns for the investment than money thus 
spent to put rural education where it belongs and -where it must 
be put before this country can begin to realise the most from its 
human resources. 

Physical exercises from the prescribed syllabus are given daily 
in almost all schools. Teachers generally do not realise the value 
of organised play, athletic contests and scientific care of and atten- 
tion to the physical needs and conditions, but a start has been made 
along these lines. 

During the year, household science has received what might 
be called a good introduction into the inspectorate. The reception 
given it was quite cordial. Several schools took advantage of the 
liberal government grant to instal equipment. A number of schools 
introduced the hot lunch and also have given sewing a definite 
place on the time-table. Successful short courses in household 
science were held in December at Wilkie and Unity. 

There are no large districts in the Wilkie inspectorate. Several 
attempts have been made to form such, but the present administra- 
tive machinery and school law seem to make the procedure for 
organising a large district rather difficult. A policy such as is 
outlined by Dr. Foght in Chapter VIII of his report would doubtless 
soon increase considerably the number of consolidated schools, 
but it is doubtful whether consolidation of schools can give its best 
results in Saskatchewan without municipal school boards. 

The conveyance used by your inspector in his work is a car. 
In territory such as this, no other mode of travel seems wise. The 
area is almost entirely open prairie and the roads are suitable for a 
car. This being the case, every part of the inspectorate is much 
more easily accessible by car than by team. When using a car, 
also, the inspector is more accessible to teachers, officials and the 
Department through mail, telephone, telegraph and interviews, 
because he returns much more frequently to the inspectoral centre. 
If inspectoral work were of such a primitive nature that it consisted 
almost entirely of official visits to schools, the situation regarding 
conveyance would be different. In addition to the actual inspec- 
tions and the interviewing of trustees incident thereto, your in- 
spector made 47 visits to schools and attended 41 educational meet- 
ings of various kinds, 24 of which were public meetings at which 


156 


Department of Education 


educational matters were considered. This work was carried on in 
response to your “Memorandum for Inspectors of Schools,” dated 
December 5, 1918. My work of inspection was organised as far as 
possible in relation to the work of a more public, nature referred to 
above. Some of the difficulties encountered were — (1) schools being 
closed for vacation or single holidays without notifying the inspector, 
(2) early closing of schools for the year; there appears to be no 
provision made whereby the inspector is to be advised of the date 
of school closing, and (3) demands made by work other than 
inspection. My time during the year was spent as follows: 

Days 


Normal School work 50 

Correspondence 27 

Conventions, conferences, educational meetings, school 

fairs, committee meetings, etc 56 

Annual report for 1918 13 

Illness 10 

Inspection, including reports on same 95 

Travel 12 

Office work 29 

Time lost through car trouble, illness in family, gardening 

and other incidental work requiring attention at home 5 

Professional reading 5 

Departmental examination work 3 


I inspected ninety departments once and sixteen departments 
twice. Four of the schools in operation during the year were not 
inspected owing to their early and unexpected closing. The blocking 
of the roads by snow in October retarded the work of getting to 
schools to such an extent that my plans for reaching these four 
schools miscarried. One of them was closed owing to the 
teacher’s illness when I visited it on November 10 and it was 
closed for the year at the end of November. In the case of another 
my first attempt failed on account of bad roads and it also closed 
at the end of November, before I succeeded in reaching it. The 
other two closed suddenly near the end of October owing to scarlet 
fever and did not re-open. 

A successful teachers’ convention was held at Wilkie on Sep- 
tember 25 and 26. The presence of Miss Jean Hay of the 
Regina Normal School and Mr. A. S. Rose of the Saskatoon Normal 
School was a large factor in making this convention a most helpful 
one. 

School fairs were held at Unity, Gallivan, Wilkie, Kelfield and 
Springwater, and were in every case very successful, more so even 
than in previous years. School officials’ associations were organised 
at Unity and Wilkie. 

There appears to be a gradual increase of public interest in, 
and responsibility for, public schools and their improvement on 
the part of citizens generally. This is fundamental to any permanent 
betterment of educational administration or distinct advance in 
educational achievement. Consequently, anything which fosters 
this public interest and responsibility is of vital importance from a 
practical educational standpoint. As far as I have been able to 
observe the effects of school fairs, boys’ and girls’ clubs, rural 
education associations and other local organisations which actively 
engage the energies of local citizens in co-operation with social 


Annual Report, 1919 , 157 

and educational work of a public nature, I am convinced that this 
fostering of interest and responsibility is one thing for which such 
movements must be given considerable credit. Indeed, these 
results appear to be more easily discerned than the purely scholastic 
ones for the reason that they are more immediate and express 
themselves in more tangible form. All this appears to point to 
the conclusion that in order for the inspector to secure the best 
results from his work inside the classroom, he needs to do an equal 
amount of work outside the classroom. Were it not that your 
Department has reduced the inspectoral area by half during the 
past three years, it would have been impossible for your inspector 
to give effective attention to this outside work. As it was, about 
half as much time was given to this as to actual inspection work. 
Even yet, however, it is found impossible to work both fields 
completely and it is found necessary to divide time between them 
in proportion to the urgency of their demands. This is another 
respect in which municipal school boards would be of advantage. 
At present the inspector is the only educational official common to 
groups of schools and therefore local organisations of a voluntary 
nature have to look to him for much information and guidance. 
Much of this responsibility could be assumed with advantage by 
municipal school boards or their officials, thus leaving the inspector 
free to give fuller attention to the more professional phases of his work. 

In conclusion, I wish to refer to a much felt need on the part 
of myself as an inspector, and I fancy that this need is one that is 
commonly felt by members of the staff, that is, that some definite 
provision be made for professional study or research work by 
inspectors. I have already referred in this report to the necessity 
for teachers giving attention to this matter. It is just as important 
for the inspector, who, however, is under this handicap as compared 
with the teacher, that, whereas the teacher has two months in the 
year free from official duties there are only three weeks provided for 
injthe case of the inspector. There is no professional man who is 
able to do his best work unless he is able also to keep in close touch 
with the results of research work in his profession. In the case of a 
lawyer, this practice of keeping himself familiar with the most 
recent developments affecting his work is a part of his daily practice, 
but it is not so with an inspector whose work tends to absorb him 
in organisation, administrative and supervisory details. I notice 
that Dr. Foght mentions this matter on page 38 of his report. I 
know of no one thing more likely to increase the effectiveness of 
the work of inspection than the carrying out of Dr. Foght’s recom- 
mendation “to grant all inspectors a regular sabbatical year at 
full pay for professional study or shorter and more frequent leaves 
of absence for similar purposes.” He states as his conviction that 
this “would unquestionably improve the inspectoral efficiency in 
Saskatchewan and in the end prove an excellent government 
investment.” 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


J. H. Gallaway. 


158 


Department of Education 


Rouleau, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report as follows on my work 
in the Milestone inspectorate for the year, 1919. 

This district is rectangular in shape and last year comprised 
six municipalities, Nos. 98, 99, 100, 128, 129 and 130. On January 
1, 1919, there were 98 school districts on my list and one was added 
during the year. One of the graded schools added a department, 
making the total number of departments in the inspectorate 120. 
Cantire S.D. No. 4220 did not complete building operations in 
time to open school before Christmas. I inspected 70 rural schools 
once and 18 twice. Twenty-two departments of graded schools 
were inspected twice and the balance once. Kronau S.D. No. 
428 which was closed for repairs at the time of my visit was the 
only school in operation during the year that I was unable to 
report on. Altogether, 159 inspections and 22 visits were made. 

Three districts had unsatisfactory school houses. In each 
instance, the local officials were aware of the need of better facili- 
ties and this, reinforced as it is by a strong body of public senti- 
ment favouring expenditure for improyements, augurs well for 
something definite and concrete being done in the near future. 

Thirty schools had unsatisfactory toilets. From the stand- 
point of decency and sanitation, the toilet facilities of quite a 
number of our country schools are bad. Country schools must 
teach the truths of sanitation and they must also set the example 
of building sanitary closets and of keeping them in good condition. 
Teachers and trustees too often have to be reminded that the 
most rigid supervision is required to prevent these outbuildings 
from becoming insanitary and loathsome. “The place in the 
community to which children come to gain preparation and strength 
for life and its duties should not prove to be a hot bed for the seeds 
of disease and death.” I am pleased to report, however, that an 
increasing number of districts are seeing the wisdom of installing 
sanitary indoor privies. 

Twenty-seven schools had unsatisfactory seating. Very often 
desks are poorly arranged and in too many instances are not fast- 
ened either to the floor or to wooden strips. The single adjustable 
desk is not found in many of the rural schools of this district. 
Many of the old double desks remain and even when new ones are pur- 
chased they are frequently not of the adjustable type. Pupils 
were quite often found sitting in seats so high that their feet did 
not reach the floor. 

In 24 districts, the water supply was inadequate. This prob- 
lem is difficult of solution and I have nothing new to suggest. Where 
a supply of water is obtainable, the only sanitary and convenient 
arrangement appears to be some form of drinking fountain. In 
practice these fountains are not always kept in sanitary condition, 
not being thoroughly and properly cleaned often enough. In 
a few schools a broken fountain stands in the corner and an open 
pail is injise. Individual drinking cups are scarcely satisfactory 


Annual Report, 1919 


159 


because neither the teacher nor the pupils, however careful they 
may be, can be sure that exchanges are not made and that the 
cups are kept in a clean condition. 

Ten schools had unsatisfactory heating arrangements, 17 had 
no library record, and 18 had no record of free texts. 

The School Attendance Act has been the means of improving 
the attendance very considerably. The following figures shown 
by 102 inspections in rural schools will indicate in a measure the 
excellent results attending this very timely piece of legislation: 


Enrolment 1973 

Present 1631 - nearly 83 per cent. 


As reported before, many of the schools in this division are 
of the old type so far as lighting, heating and conveniences are 
concerned. It is beginning, however, to dawn on the public mind 
that it is economic waste of the worst kind to spend annually 
thousands of dollars in money for schools and thousands more in 
the time of teachers and children and then fail of the best results 
because of bad construction and poor equipment of school houses 
and the newer schools are being built with some reference to archi- 
tectural appearance, to the local needs, to the principles of sanita- 
tion and the health requirements of growing boys and girls. If, 
for instance, the spirit that animated the people of The Beautiful 
Plains S.D. No 699 were abroad in the land, the building problem 
would soon be solved. They recently abandoned their old school 
and erected a one-roomed solid brick building that for design, 
construction, equipment and appliances easily outclasses any 
other rural school in this division. 

Very few “time-servers” or deliberate shirkers were discovered 
among the teachers, but on the contrary, there was generally ex- 
hibited an eagerness to do effective work in the classroom and to 
give acceptable service to the community. Of the teachers whose 
work I reported on, 25 held First Class certificates, 78 Second 
Class, 35 Third Class, one provisional and three had no certificates 
at the time of my visit. Most of the teachers having First or 
Second Class standing did very satisfactory work. Several of the 
Third Class teachers had very good native ability, but a person 
whose knowledge of the facts and processes of learning is meagre 
and sterile, cannot bring to any community, especially to a rural 
community, the lively interest and enthusiasm which will thoroughly 
commend her work. 

My reports for the past two or three years refer to some diffi- 
culties the pupils experience in making progress in the common 
subjects and to some weaknesses in teachers’ methods. I have 
nothing further to add in this report. 

The yearly school, closed for six or seven weeks during the 
summer, scarcely ever has a successful school garden and many 
teachers are encouraging home gardens instead. The work in 
physical training is fairly well done in quite a large number of 
schools. Practically nothing has been done in manual training 
(bench and tool work), in this division and household science, even 


I 


160 Department of Education 

of the most elementary kind, is not as systematically provided 
for as it should be. The school lunch is gaining in popular 
favour. 

There are no consolidated schools in this division although the 
matter has been given some consideration at two or three centres 
and the decided advantages of this scheme are being strongly urged 
by the progressive element in these communities. The public 
is beginning to realise that the one-teacher school even under the 
best conditions, cannot fully solve the problem of modern educa- 
tion in the country. Broadly speaking, the poorest schools and 
the teachers of lowest qualifications, are found in the rural districts 
and a remedy must and will be found. 

In July, Mrs. Shaw commenced her duties as school nurse in 
this inspectorate. By training, experience and temperament, she 
is well equipped for this important work and on every hand was 
heard strong commendation of the Department’s progressive 
policy, as shown by its attidude toward this phase of modern 
education. I cannot speak too highly of the excellent work done 
by Mrs. Shaw during the past six months and from personal obser- 
vation and definite knowledge of the facts, can state that much 
good has already been accomplished. Teachers and parents alike 
keenly appreciated her suggestions and were pleased to act on 
her recommendations. The public will demand that this work 
be continued and extended. 

Rural education associations were organised at half a dozen 
points early in the year, but I fear that in some cases their activities 
were Scarcely extensive enough to justify their existence. An 
effort will be made during the coming year to keep in touch with 
these organisations and, if deemed advisable, to offer suggestion 
re their possibilities for effective service in their respective com- 
munities. “The public school is the only institution in which all 
are interested and through which all may co-operate. The school 
house door must swing open freely for all who would work for the 
public good, and the school house must invite to its shelter all who 
seek for a larger vision in anything and everything that may con- 
tribute to the community welfare. Above the door of every 
school house in this land some such legend as the following should 
be inscribed and through the work of patrons and teacher, its 
sentiment be woven into the fibre of the people: ‘This building is 
dedicated to the service of this community and to the common 
cause of a better life for all.’ ” 

A successful teachers’ convention was held at Rouleau on 
October 14 and 15. Among those who gave addresses were Hon. 
W. M. Martin, Minister of Education, Dr. J. A. Snell, Inspector 
of High Schools, Mr. F. M. Quance of the Regina Normal School, 
Miss K. B. Coleman, Supervisor of Art in the Regina public 
schools, and Mrs. Shaw, school nurse. About 60 teachers were in 
attendance. 

School fairs were held at Rouleau, Avonlea, Briercrest, Truax 
and Lang under the auspices of the local R.E.A. At each centre, 
considerable interest was shown, the attendance was fairly good 
and the exhibits were of a high order. 


Annual Report, 1919 


161 


During January, February and part of March, I was engaged 
in Normal School work at Weyburn and part of the month of July 
was spent at Moose Jaw in connection with Grade VIII examination 
work. 


I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

G. N. Griffin. 


Weyburn, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit to you the following report 
on my work for the year 1919. 

The Radville inspectorate is comprised of the following muni- 
cipalities, Nos. 7, 8, 9, 37, 38, 39 and 69. This area is in the shape' 
of an L with the base lying along the international boundary. The 
south-western portion is hilly with some of the territory sparsely 
settled; the north-eastern portion is prairie with the whole organised 
into school districts and extending between these two divisions is 
a “burnt-out” area with very little productiveness. This latter 
division at one time was settled and school districts were erected, 
but many of the farms have been abandoned recently and thus 
the schools are either closed or in operation with a very small 
number of children in attendance. The northern and north- 
eastern sections are well supplied with railways but the southern 
and south-western have none. 

At the beginning of the year, there were 100 school districts 
in the inspectorate and four more were added during the year. 
Of the schools in these districts, 96 had one room, two had two 
rooms, one had three and one had four. Goodwater S.D. No. 
805 and Amulet S.D. No. 2706 each added a new department, 
thus making them two-roomed schools. The Rheims S.D. No. 
4073, organised in 1918, has no school but arrangements have been 
made whereby the children are conveyed to the town of Radville 
where they attend the public school. Maxim S.D. No. 3657 and 
Hardy S.D. No. 4233 are each using a church as temporary quarters 
while Coaldale S.D. No. 4094 was granted permission to use a 
temporary building during 1919. 

The following schools were not in operation during the year: 
Goose Lake S.D. No. 1061, Long Creek Valley S.D. No. 1581, 
Conley S.D. No. 1805, Mayville S.D. No. 1823, Farville S.D. 
No. 3744 and Diamond Coulee S.D. No. 3935. The number of 
children in all of these districts was so small that the boards were 
not justified in engaging a teacher and except in the last named 
district, the children were attending neighbouring schools. 


162 


Department of Education 


The regularity in attendance of school children is increasing 
each year. The following table shows the percentage of children 
present on the day of inspection during the past three years. 


Year 

Percentage of total enrolment present on day of inspection 

Town and village 

Rural 

1917 

* 

72.78 

1918 

83.3 

77.08 

1919 

81.31 

80.01 


‘Town and village schools were not inspected in 1917. 


During the early spring the attendance in rural schools was 
better than in the busy harvest season. Scarcity of farm labour 
and a desire on the part of farmers to keep down expenses were 
the reasons advanced for keeping their children out of school at 
this time of year. 

There does not seem to be any general desire among the 
people in this part of the province for the larger unit of adminis- 
tration. In the majority of cases, the trustees show an active 
interest in the welfare of the school. During the past year, I found 
the people expressing a desire to have the school open for a longer 
period of the year than has been the practice. The summer school 
will soon be rarely found and the only reason why schools will 
not be in operation for the maximum number of days will be the 
inability to secure teachers or the small school population in the 
sparsely settled districts. 

The new buildings erected during the past two or three years 
are for the most part well built and modern in their lighting, 
heating and ventilation. Improvements in the buildings of several 
districts have been made and plans for better buildings in others 
are ready but owing to the poor crops in a large part of this inspec- 
torate for the past three years, any expenditure which is not abso- 
lutely necessary has been postponed. In my reports to boards 
during the past year, I have pointed out the necessity of careful 
supervision regarding the sanitary conditions rather than the 
alteration in their buildings. A great amount of sickness among 
children in several districts during the summer and fall months is 
convincing proof that more attention should be given to the water 
supply and the general sanitation of our schools. This can be 
accomplished only by sympathetic co-operation between the boards, 
teaehers and Departmental officials. 

During the early months of the year before the supply of 
teachers from the First and Second Class Normal School sessions 
became available, many schools did not open because of failure 
to secure qualified teachers. In a number of cases unqualified 
teachers were engaged and the dilemma was whether to keep 
the schools closed until after the first of May or grant provisional 
certificates to those teachers in charge. Before the end of the 


Annual. Report, 1919 


163 


year, however, very few of these teachers were in charge and 
nearly all the schools secured teachers who had received some pro- 
fessional training. The work in the classrooms ranged from fail 
average to good with the exception of that done by teachers with 
low academic standing and no training. The following table gives 
the standing and certificates of the teachers in this inspectorate . 


Class of certificate held 

Standard of work done 

Total number 
of teachers 

Good 

Fair 

Poor 

First 

9 

2 

1 

12 

Second 

26 

15 

3 

44 

Third 

12 

25 

5 

42 

Permit 

0 

3 

8 

11 


47 

45 

17 

109 


In yearly schools, where teachers of average and good ability 
had been in charge, the pupils were as far advanced as could be 
expected, but in schools where teachers with little or no training 
had been engaged, the pupils fell below the required standard. In 
these schools, it was not uncommon to find children with average 
ability two and often three years older than children in the same 
grades in our better schools. The table below shows the comparison 
between town and village schools and rural schools in this respect, 
and also shows the large percentage of pupils in the junior grades. 


Grades 

Rural schools 

Town and village schools 

Number 

enrolled 

Percentage 
of total 
enrolment 

Number 

present 

Number 

enrolled 

Percentage 
of total 
enrolment 

Number 

present 

I 

507 

35.5 

398 

175 

29.6 

125 

II 

190 

13.3 

158 

75 

12.7 

58 

Ill 

207 

14.5 

164 

70 

11.9 

55 

IV 

225 

15.7 

189 

86 

14.6 

72 

V 

125 

8.7 

100 

64 

10.8 

44 

VI 

90 

6.5 

77 

48 

8.1 

32 

VII 

43 

3. 

31 

3 

.5 

2 

VIII 

40 

2.8 

36 

42 

7.1 

33 

Junior Form. . 

2 

.15 

2 

24 

4. 

15 

Middle Form.. 




3 

.5 

3 

Totals 

1,429 


1,155 

590 


439 


The methods of teaching the various subjects, varied accord- 
ing to the experience and ability of the teachers. Arithmetic 
in many cases lacked motivation and too often was given more 
prominence than it deserved with the result that other important 
subjects received too little attention. Reading in the junior 


164 


Department of Education 


grades, became in the hands of careless and inexperienced teachers, 
merely a word naming contest and literature lessons quite frequently 
consisted of reading the selection and taking the meanings of diffi- 
cult words. History and geography were as a rule poorly taught. 
In the former, teachers lacked knowledge of the subject and their 
aim was often obscure while in the latter the aim seemed to be the 
acquiring of facts without emphasising the rational side sufficiently. 
Spelling on the whole, came up to the standard according to tests 
made, in all the school-s, with the “Measurement of Spelling Ability” 
chart. Agriculture received attention in many schools, but school 
gardening during the past year proved a failure on account of the 
dry weather. Physical training was taken in all the schools with 
the exception of three or four. 

There are no consolidated schools in my inspectorate, although 
during the past year at Khedive, Radville and Tribune, consider- 
able interest was shown by meetings being held at each of these 
centres for the purpose of getting information regarding consoli- 
dation and discussing the advisability of organising the districts 
into a larger area. Except at Khedive, where a vote of the rate- 
payers showed the majority in favour of consolidation, no steps 
have been taken to organise the large districts. 

Schools which could be reached by using the railways, were 
visited early in the spring and late in the fall when the roads were 
unsuitable for cars. When visiting the rural schools, I made the 
principal town or village in the municipality a centre for a week or 
two and usually returned each night to the town for lodging. In 
this way, I was able to meet many of the trustees of the surrounding 
schools. From January to March, I was engaged in Normal School 
work at Weyburn. From the time the Normal School closed until 
the end of the year, I was continuously engaged in inspecting and 
in other work connected with the schools in my inspectorate. In 
the. fall, I attended school fairs at Radville, Tribune, Ceylon and 
Goodwater. In each of these places, the work of the pupils was 
very creditable and considerable interest was shown by the people 
of the district. In Radville and Ceylon, contests among the 
school children in oratory, singing and spelling were conducted at 
the annual meeting of the rural education association. At both of 
these meetings, valuable assistance was given by Mr. F. W. Bates, 
Director of Rural Education Associations. A joint convention 
of the teachers of the Radville and Weyburn inspectorates was 
held at Weyburn on October 30 and 31. Over 75 per cent, of 
the teachers from both inspectorates were in attendance. In 
addition to several excellent papers given by teachers, inspiring 
and instructive addresses were given by Mr. A. H. Ball, Deputy 
Minister of Education, Professor W. W. Swanson, University of 
Saskatchewan, Miss Jean Browne, Director of School Hygiene, 
and Miss Jean Hay of the Regina Normal School. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


W. S. Groomes. 


Annual Report, 1919 


165 


Tisdale, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I beg to submit the following report of the Tisdale 
Inspectorate for the year ending December 31, 1919. 

This inspectorate includes 11 fully organised municipalities, 
namely, Nos. 301, 331, 333, 334, 397, 426, 456, 457, 486 and 487. 
In addition to these, there is much unorganised territory extending 
eastward along the Prince Albert line of the Canadian National 
Railway to the Manitoba border. The inspectorate w T as formed 
during the year and for the purpose of giving a report of the work 
done, I have deemed it advisable to divide it into two sections, 
namely, the Tisdale and Preeceville sections. 

The Tisdale section is one of the latest parts of the province 
to receive extensive settlement. The people are almost entirely 
of English, American or French nationality. At present, only 35 
schools serve the needs of education here but, with the great influx 
of settlers to the Ravine Rank country and along the North Saskat- 
chewan river generally, many new school districts are certain of 
erection in the near future. 

The Preeceville section presents a distinct contrast by way of 
nationality. Of the 70 school districts in that portion of the inspec- 
torate, only four showed a majority of pupils of Anglo-Saxon parent- 
age, the remainder being a composition of the following nationalities: 
German, Russian-German, Russian, Austrian,' French, Polish, 
Dutch, Jewish and Chinese. 

At the beginning of the year, there were 105 school districts 
on the list, 102 of one department and three of two departments. 
During the year, eight new districts were erected and two depart- 
ments added. There were in all, 99 schools in operation. Ninety- 
two districts were visited and a total of 104 inspections made. Village 
schools with the exception of one, were visited or inspected twice, 
while nine schools of one department were visited a second time,, 
matters of particular importance to the ratepayers requiring the 
assistance of the inspector. In explanation of my inability to 
visit certain districts, I desire to state that, in addition to the 
territory being new to me, weather conditions in the northern 
part of the province were most unfavourable to the work of inspec- 
tion. The excessive rainfall made it impossible to reach remote 
points and with the early setting in of winter, many schools were 
closed earlier than usual. 

In 15 districts there were unsatisfactory school houses. Since 
my inspection and report to the trustees, one district has erected 
a new building, one has added a new room and three have decided 
on rebuilding during the year 1920. In other districts, improve- 
ments are pending. In 16 districts, the blackboards were insuffi- 
cient or unsatisfactory. In five districts -the seating accommo- 
dation was insufficient. In 51 districts, the water supply was 
unsatisfactory. I found, however, that a considerable number of 
wells had been sunk during the year but few pumps were put in 
or were in working order. In 10 districts, ice had been stored 


166 


Department of Education 


but the supply was not sufficient for the entire term that the school 
was in operation. In many cases, water was carried from the near- 
est farm, but this was by no means satisfactory as in some cases 
the supply was not generous or the water was not good. In 52 
districts, there was no stable. This in several cases, accounted 
for the early closing of the school for the year. The weather 
during the months of October and November was so severe that 
the parents of children driving to school objected to having their 
horses stand out. In eight districts, the heating arrangements were 
unsatisfactory. A Waterman-Waterbury system gave fair satis- 
faction, but in cases where ordinary stoves were used, some were 
too small and others were out of order. In 31 districts there was 
no library record and in 20 there was no record of free text books. 
In no district did I find unauthorised text books used. In three 
districts a language other than English was being taught, namely, 
Goyer S.D. No. 3276, Marseillaise S.D. No. 3327 and Barrierville 
S.D. No. 3015. In each case it was taught by the regular teacher. 

School Attendance . — The following summary will indicate the 
enrolment and attendance according to grades in rural and village 
schools: 


Grades 

Rural 

Village 

Enrolment 

Attendance 

Enrolment 

Attendance 

I 

800 

644 

171 

141 

II 

251 

207 

87 

72 

Ill 

238 

191 

78 

66 

IV 

192 

150 

82 

67 

V 

111 

80 

50 

44 

VI 

66 

54 

47 

32 

VII 

38 

18 

25 

22 

VIII 

30 

20 

18 

15 

Totals 

1,726 

1,364 

558 

'459 

Percentage of attendance .... 


79. 026 


82. 277 


i y 

The work above Grade VIII was not very extensively carried 
on during the year. In rural schools, five pupils were taking Part 
I of Third Class work. In village schools, the enrolment of pupils 
above Grade VIII was 17. The respective percentages of attend- 
ance were 60 and 100. The School Attendance Act, in my opinion, 
is working out very satisfactorily, its operation tending to promote 
uniformity of attendance. 

Local School Administration . — The Tisdale inspectorate is, as 
I have pointed out, one of the latest parts of the province to receive 
extensive settlement. In both divisions, there was a disposition 
to conform to the requirements of the Department. The result 
has been a better class of school building, more complete equip- 
ment and improved accommodation. A failing, however, seemed 
to prevail in school districts generally and that was neglecting 
to make provision for the colder months of the year. Storm 


Annual Report, 1919 


167 


windows, storm doors, a warm stable and a comfortable teacherage 
are, in my opinion, very essential in the rural districts of this inspec- 
torate since the winter season is a long one in the northern part of 
the province. School attendance could be improved considerably 
if a little pressure were brought to bear in these particulars. I am, 
however, pleased to be able to report that boards of trustees were 
desirous of extending the school year where summer schools were 
in operation, but under the present conditions — frequent changes 
and dearth of teachers and insufficient accommodation — this was 
impracticable. The solution, in part, lies in urging upon the 
boards of trustees the necessity of the erection of approved teachers’ 
residences in school districts remote from the line of railway. 

Medical Inspection . — Medical inspection of schools was under- 
taken in the rural municipality of St. Philips No. 301. Fifteen rooms 
were visited and a somewhat lengthy report submitted to the 
council by Dr. Gibson of Pelly. From a copy of the report received 
it would appear that the work was most creditably carried out 
and will have good results. 

Teachers . — The supply of fully qualified teachers has by no 
means been commensurate with the demand. In this particular 
inspectorate, the schools are chiefly rural. Frequent change of 
teachers is one of the greatest difficulties with which boards of 
trustees have to contend. The qualified teacher naturally seeks 
a position in close proximity to a town or village and consequently 
boards have been under the necessity of engaging parties of pro- 
visional standing. Where a fully qualified teacher was in charge, I 
found that fairly satisfactory work was being done. Their methods 
were generally approved, but in districts where a provisionally 
certificated teacher was employed, there were only a few cases 
where I was able to report favourably. Permit teachers have not 
given satisfaction generally and in some cases it was only a matter 
of keeping the school open. 

In order to safeguard boards of trustees in remote districts, 
I would suggest that some provision be made whereby they would 
be enabled to bind a teacher beyond the usual month’s notice so 
that his services (if his work has been approved), might be retained 
until at least the first of December. It is certainly unfortunate 
that boards should be forced to part with their teacher in October 
or November when his services are most needed and when it is very 
difficult to secure another. 

Salaries generally have improved during the past year, ranging 
from $900 to $1,400 in rural schools, while the principal of a town 
school received considerably more. 

The following chart shows the qualifications of the teachers 
in the Tisdale inspectorate: 



Provisional 

Third 

Second 

First 

Total 

Ruxal 

24 

32 

44 

5 

105 

Village 


3 

7 

2 

12 

Total 

24 

35 

51 

7 

117 


168 


Department of Education 


General Progress of Pupils . — The quality of the work done in 
any school varies largely with the efficiency of the teacher. In 
the common subjects generally pupils did on the whole satisfactory 
work. In the special subjects such as agriculture, manual training, 
household science, physical training and school gardening, only 
a moderate effort was put forth to meet the requirements of the 
Department. No manual training or household science of a spe- 
cific nature was undertaken. School gardening as a feature of 
school work made good progress during the year and the outlook 
is very promising. 

My Work as Inspector. General Comment . — - The convey- 
ance used for the greater part of the inspectoral work was an auto- 
mobile but occasionally a livery or the railroad was resorted to. 
As the territory is at present divided, considerable time was lost 
in travelling from one part to the other. I found latterly that the 
territory could only be worked satisfactorily by keeping up two 
cars. 

In order to satisfy both parts of the inspectorate two conven- 
tions were participated in. The Tisdale convention was held 
under my own jurisdiction, while through the courtesy of Inspector 
Merrill of the Canora inspectorate, the teachers of the southern 
portion were given the privilege of joining in a union convention 
at Kamsack. Both conventions were well attended and it was 
the general consenus of opinion that the time was well spent. dn 
addition two school fairs were held, one at Tisdale at the time of 
the convention and the other at Sturgis. These also were success- 
ful and largely attended. School fairs generally have a special 
educative value for our New-Canadian people in that they demon- 
strate the variety that is infused into our school programme. 

In the course of my inspection, I endeavoured to keep in 
touch with the trustees and ratepayers. I made a point of meeting 
at least two of the trustees in each district on the occasion of my 
visit, when matters of interest to the school and district were dis- 
cussed. In addition to much correspondence with trustees, several 
special visits to districts were necessary on matters more urgent. 

In conclusion, there is one thing that I desire to point out, 
and that is, since the territory was divided into two parts, I found 
it impossible to carry on the work with despatch when matters of 
special importance were referred to me by the Department. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

F. W. Harrison. 


i 


Annual Report, 1919 


169 


Moose Jaw January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report upon 
my work in the Moose Jaw inspectorate for the year, 1919. 

This inspectorate includes the following municipalities: Pense 
No. 160, Moose Jaw No. 161, Marquis No. 191 and Dufferin No. 
190. There were 69 school districts with 140 departments in this 
inspectorate at the beginning of the year and during the year nine 
new departments were opened. 

The School Attendance Act has been quite effective in keeping 
the attendance more regular and the careless and indifferent parents 
are making greater efforts to meet the conditions of the Act. The 
school age should, in my opinion, be raised to 16 years. 

School administration has been fairly effective, but I feel that 
the growing needs of education require municipal school boards to 
direct the work. These school boards would soon solve the yearly 
school problem, select and place more suitable teachers, make the 
required repairs more satisfactorily, purchase the supplies more 
economically and arrange which schools could effectively take up 
high school work. 

The equipment is well provided for by the trustees and when 
teachers have taken good care of what has been supplied and have 
created a need for additional equipment, the trustees immediately 
order the equipment required. The school grounds have been 
improved during the last two or three years and I hope to see our 
teachers take a greater interest in this important part of the school. 
The school buildings are fairly satisfactory and when new buildings 
are erected every effort is put forth to secure the best that can be 
built. The heating, lighting and sanitation are receiving more 
attention and are fairly satisfactory. The outside toilets present 
the greatest problem in the rural schools and I hope to see this 
difficulty overcome in the near future. The water supply in many 
districts still remains a difficult problem and one that must be 
solved at once to protect our children. After studying this prob- 
lem, I am convinced that the only solution is for each school to 
purchase a large water tank and have a fresh supply of good water 
furnished once or twice a week. The tank can be placed under a 
suitable shed for protection. Cisterns do not solve the problem, 
because it is very difficult to get them cleaned when they require 
it. The school well is generally satisfactory when the water is 
used continually but otherwise it is not satisfactory. It must be 
observed that in order to secure healthy, happy and progressive 
pupils, there must be an adequate supply of fresh and pure water 
on the school premises. 

The supply of teachers in this inspectorate has been satis- 
factory and no school board has failed to secure a fully qualified 
teacher when the Teachers’ Exchange has been authorised to obtain 
a certain type of teacher. Often school boards do not attempt to 
secure a teacher until the last moment. The teachers’ work has 
been more effective and for the most part more adaptable than in 


170 


Department of Education 


former years. In this inspectorate, the school boards are asking 
for teachers with second and first class certificates and I think the 
work has improved as a result of more mature teachers. Physical 
training is often thought of as a mere incident and hence the work 
does not impress the pupils. The teachers often do not attempt 
to teach organised play at the intermissions and the pupils are 
deprived of the best means of stimulating good healthy work. The 
teachers’ salaries range from $1,000 to $1,400 a year for first and 
second class teachers and from $900 to $1,000 for third class 
teachers. I feel that greater efforts should be put forth to retain 
the teachers for longer periods. The agreements should be con- 
tinuous and the salaries based upon a rising scale. 

The work in arithmetic still consumes too much of the school 
time and the quick oral arithmetic is often neglected. Reading 
is still confined to the texts and little encouragement is given to 
pupils to read articles of interest to the community in the news- 
papers, or standard works to develop the pupils’ love for actual 
things in everyday work. In geography, the sole basis of the 
work is the text. Few teachers realise the importance of the work 
in every day’s activities. The work in spelling has improved to 
some extent and more attempts are made to have the pupils spell 
accurately. History is being better taught and the pupils are 
beginning to realise it is a record of man’s activities. In writing, 
drawing and music much of the work is quite incidental and hence 
these subjects fail to impress the pupils as they should. School 
gardening is often attempted but the frequent change of teachers, 
the long vacations and the prevalence of gophers make it uncertain 
of results. I feel that the decorative gardening should be attempted 
at the schools and the more serious work at the homes of the pupils. 
Household science in the rural schools is not very well taught. A 
school lunch is often attempted during part of the year only and 
this accounts for the opposition met with in many school districts. 
The work should be made more practical, more interesting and 
more continuous to have the effect so much desired in this work. 
In the city of Moose Jaw, the work is well taught and appreciated 
by the pupils. Neither school agriculture nor manual training 
is attempted to any extent in the rural schools. In the city of 
Moose Jaw the work has been quite successful. 

There are no large school districts in this inspectorate. The 
idea has been placed before the people several times but they doubt 
its feasibility. I think when the question is raised the inspector 
should be assisted by several representatives from districts where 
the idea is being successfully carried out. 

I use an automobile in my work and find that it is quite satis- 
factory. More time is at the disposal of the inspector for inspec- 
tion of schools and visits to trustees. Some difficulty was met in 
securing the necessary repairs. During the year, I plan my work 
every week with regard to the type of school to be inspected, char- 
acter of the roads and the time of the year. I spent two and one- 
half months at the Third Class Normal session, three weeks at 
the Grade VIII examination work and had five weeks’ leave of 
absence owing to illness. I have inspected 148 departments once 


Annual Report, 1919 


171 


and 71 departments twice. In order to secure co-operation in my 
work, I attempt to interest the people and the trustees in the work 
of education at the time of my visits and I find little difficulty in 
keeping in touch with the people of the districts. When the 
inspectorates become more settled, the inspector will become better 
acquainted with the people in his division. 

The inspector’s work is becoming more varied and such de- 
mands are being made upon his time as the people take more interest 
in education, that the routine work often becomes quite burden- 
some. If it were possible to have some clerical help at times the 
inspector would be able to devote more of his time to educational 
work in his district. 

In conclusion, I feel that the parents are taking a deeper 
interest in education and this has stimulated the work in the various 
schools. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. T. Hawkings. 


Wynyard, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit to you the following report 
upon my work in the Wynyard inspectorate for the year 1919. 

Extent of Inspectorate. — On the first of January, 1919, the 
inspectorate contained nine municipalities in which were 115 organ- 
ised school districts. In June the rural municipality of Insinger 
No. 275, in which were 16 organised districts, was transferred to 
the Yorkton inspectorate, leaving the following municipalities: 
Nos. 276, 277, 278, 306, 307, 308, 309 and 339. These are almost 
entirely organised into school districts. One new rural school 
district and four additional village departments were added during 
the year. One school remained closed during the year as only one 
child of school age was found residing in the district and arrange- 
ments were made for attendance in another district. 

School Attendance. — A summary of attendance figures based 
upon reports of inspections show the following results: 


(a) In schools of one department — 

Number enrolled 2,885 

Number present on day of inspection 2,016 

Percentage present 70. (Approximate) 

( b ) In schools oj more than one department — 

Number enrolled 527 

Number present on day of inspection 486 

Percentage present 92. (Approximate) 


The above figures, however, are not in my opinion a true 
criterion of conditions in general. An examination of the records 


172 


Department of Education 


in all schools indicated that normally the attendance in 90 per cent, 
of the schools would exceed 80 per cent, of the enrolment. This 
year, however, we have experienced a succession of epidemics with 
the result that throughout the year some form of contagious disease 
was present in some portion of the district. With the exception 
of four or five isolated districts and a few individual families, I 
found The School Attendance Act operating with good results and 
the year just ended saw the real beginning of a demonstration 
of its effectiveness, resulting from the fact that labour conditions 
have improved and that the public in general have accepted com- 
pulsory school attendance as meriting the support of all true and 
alert citizens. 

Some individual cases were noted, however, where the letter 
but not the spirit of the law was observed. Cases were known to 
me where parents received a warning from the Attendance Officer, 
sent their children to school only long enough to have their presence 
reported and then kept them out until another warning was received. 
This condition could be remedied by so amending the Act that 
prosecutions could be undertaken when repeated warnings are 
required regardless of the fact that each warning may be tempor- 
arily 'heeded. 

School Administration . — The past year has witnessed sur- 
prising improvements in school administration due to the fact 
that labour conditions have improved and that with the ending 
of the war, closer attention has been given to local needs. There 
are, however, too many short-term schools and this condition must 
be removed as soon as possible. Three causes contribute to this, 
namely, (a) scarcity of teachers in the early months of the year; 
(b) poorly constructed buildings and (c) the state of mind of the 
people who have become habituated to the short-term schools and 
look upon anything else as being impossible. This is especially 
the case in a number of the non-English districts. 

The two last named causes will gradually be eliminated by 
persistent vigilance by the Department and its inspectors, while 
the first presents the most perplexing problem which will only be 
solved when the entire status of the teaching profession has been 
adjusted and its conditions improved to such an extent that security 
and permanency may be more fully established. 

As previously reported, there is a gradual and steady im- 
provement as regards the upkeep of buildings, grounds and equip- 
ment. Preparations are under way for many new buildings to 
be erected this year. In most schools, the regulation equipment 
is provided and boards of trustees on the whole seem willing to 
add anything thereto which they feel convinced will prove of 
advantage to the pupils. Grounds are being improved, but in 
many cases, the necessary suggestions are lacking and while school 
boards are anxious to effect improvements too little assistance has 
been given for definite plans to be framed and carried out. 

One of the great difficulties in the way of effective administra- 
tion is the general discontent with the conditions which result 
from rural school districts being too large. This was dealt with in 
my report for the year 1918, and I shall only add that the problem 


Annual Report, 1919 


173 


becomes more acute each year. A month of the inspector’s time 
devoted solely to an investigation of conditions and to attempts 
to find solutions would not be misspent and would bring to a head 
active interest in a problem which today is hampering many of 
our best efforts. 

Teachers — In the improvement of the general efficiency of 
our school system, the training and selection of teachers is the 
most important consideration. During the war, great difficulty 
was experienced in supplying well qualified teachers for the out- 
lying portions of this inspectorate. The result was that the choice 
often lay between closing the school or permitting teachers with 
inadequate training to take charge. Last year, however, brought 
about sweeping changes and the following comparisons with the 
records of 1918, show striking results: 


Class of certificate held 

1918 

1919 

Second Class or higher 

per cent. 
<32 

per cent. 
54 

Third Class 

37 

37 

Soldiers’ 

3 

Provisional 

3i 

6 



Considerable vigilance and repeated communications with 
boards of trustees were required to bring about this result. An 
impression prevailed that the supply of qualified teachers was 
inadequate and in many cases, teachers were found through my 
own personal efforts. This constant propaganda will furthermore, 
continue to bear fruit in future and during the coming year, I anti- 
cipate more marked results. 

This inspectorate has, on the whole, been fortunate in the 
type of teachers attracted. The following schedule shows that 
the majority of teachers are efficient and that, other things being 
equal, training is the great factor in shaping the success of a teacher. 


Rating of Teachers Whose Work was Inspected. 


Certificate held 

Excel- 

lent 

Very 

good 

Good 

Fair 

Unsatis- 

factory 

Total 

First Class 

5 

2 

4 

2 


13 

Second Class 

7 

14 

22 

11 

4 

58 

Third Class 

Soldiers' — No certificate 

2 

3 

20 

18 

6 

49 

held previously 


1 

1 

1 


3 

Provisional 

i 

1 


4 

2 

8 

Totals 

15 

21 

47 

36 

12 

131 


Records were kept of salaries paid in different districts and 
the average for rural teachers was found to be $87 per school 
month and for town and village grade teachers, $78 per school 


174 


Department of Education 


month. This shows a considerable advance over the previous year 
and the favourable crop conditions in this district will tend to 
further improve conditions. The great difficulty, however, lies 
in the fact that in many districts the remuneration is offered merely 
for the services of a teacher, regardless of qualifications and pros- 
pective merits of services to be rendered. The teachers established 
in the profession accept openings early in the year, while the tran- 
sient element is offered positions in the spring when the available 
supply is well nigh exhausted and school boards in their desperation 
offer the highest salaries to any teacher. This is one of the un- 
desirable by-products of the short-term school. The following 
figures clearly show the injustice of this state of affairs: 


Rural Teachers’ Salaries, Based on the Records of Inspectorate. 


Certificate held 

Minimum 
per month 

Maximum 
per month 


$90. 00 
70.00 

70.00 

85.00 

$110.00 

108.50 

120.00 

116.66 

Sp.mn d Class 

Third Class 

Provisional 



Progress of Pupils. — To summarise one’s impressions in regard 
to the general progress of the pupils presents a difficult task. Two 
outstanding facts, may, however, be mentioned at the outset, 
namely, (a) that with better teachers the progress is approaching 
more definite standards and the year’s work leaves definite results 
and ( b ) that serious drawbacks were encountered this year on 
account of the time lost during the last months of 1918 and the 
first months of 1919, due to the epidemic of influenza. Let me say, 
however, that the shortcomings found here are common to the 
province as a whole. Frequent changes of teachers occasion con- 
fusion and waste of effort. Short terms cause a tendency to rush 
through the work outlined in the curriculum. Fear of adverse 
criticism in inexperienced teachers causes a deadening formalism 
inwall teaching and the tendency to investigate, to experiment and 
to find methods and solutions based on the particular needs of 
their individual pupils is, in many cases, wanting. On the whole, 
it may be said that the needed reform in rural teaching is increased 
attention to the child, its individuality, the awakening of its self- 
activity and the releasing of its initiative instead of the common 
rigid concern for the subject taught. 

On the progress in individual subjects, I beg to submit the 
following general observations: 

(o) Common Subjects. — Arithmetic, geography and spelling 
are, generally speaking, well taught. In these subjects, the course 
is clear, the objects definite and success can be easily tested. Litera- 
ture and history are not so successfully taught. In literature, the 
attention is chiefly given to the mechanics of the subject and too 
little to the spirit of selections read or individual appreciation. 


Annual Report, 1919 


175 


Reference texts and selections outside the prescribed texts are rarely 
used to advantage and the results are too apparent that in rare 
cases only is fondness for literature and a real desire for reading 
developed. The same weakness appears in the attitude to history. 
Historical facts may be thoroughly presented and carefully absorbed 
by the pupils but in many cases only as detached facts. The great 
spiritual and moral truths are overlooked as well as the oppor- 
tunity afforded by the study to create a spirit of healthy citizenship. 
Grammar and language, important as they are, still remain the 
subjects where' progress is most haphazard. The many factors 
which contribute to this are so well known that review of these is 
unnecessary. The greatest failing is that the study of language 
is too often disassociated from life and too much effort wasted in 
memorising laws of grammar without any practical application 
of such laws. More opportunities should be given the pupils for 
free and untrammelled expression of their own thoughts and 
discussion of their daily experiences. 

(6) Special Subjects . — School gardening, household science and 
physical training are meeting with increased attention each year 
and considering that we are now really witnessing a beginning, 
the results may be termed very gratifying. In manual training, 
little progress has been made, although the school fairs are now 
beginning to awaken the interest of the public in this subject. 
Seventy-five per cent, of the districts have gardens. A few are 
highly successful and serve a definite purpose in the educational 
programme. A greater number of districts have gardens where 
very fair samples of flowers and vegetables grow, but there it ends. 
No use is made of the garden as an instrument for educating the 
child. A still greater number have gardens to comply with the 
letter of our course of studies. These gardens possess neither 
beauty nor usefulness and are justifiable only inasmuch as they may 
be a stepping stone to better things. Unless, however, the rank 
and file of teachers receive fuller instruction in the science of plant 
growth, and the importance of agriculture in our educational 
system, I cannot but sympathise with the scepticism which such 
amateur efforts arouse in many of the practical farmers. Physical 
training is used to good advantage in the majority of schools. 
Where such is not the case it is a decided menace. In two cases, 
teachers were advised not to give drill, as the methods used were 
obviously harmful for the physical development of the pupils and 
only a thorough course of training could have remedied the teachers’ 
defective grasp of the principles involved. Household science is 
receiving its merited attention and the effects are particularly 
beneficial in the non-English districts. Thirty-nine districts in 
this inspectorate have provided equipment for noon lunches. This, 
aside from providing added comforts for the pupils, renders possible 
a great deal of incidental instruction in household science, hygiene 
and manners. 

Consolidated Districts . — Of consolidated districts there are none 
in this inspectorate. There is, however, a growing interest in 
consolidation and I anticipate that in the very near future, definite 
steps will be taken to bring this about. 


176 


Department of Education 


Work of Inspection . — For my work I have used a Ford car, 
although the early winter rendered necessary the hiring of a team 
to carry on essential work. My practice was to spend three 
successive days in outlying portions of the inspectorate and the 
remaining two days of each week in nearby schools in order to be in 
close touch at all times with all portions of the inspectorate. This 
routine, however, was very frequently abandoned owing to an 
unusual amount of illness in the family and in my own case. All 
districts were visited once, many twice, some as often as five times, 
where special conditions called for assistance. Six schools were 
never inspected, being closed for various reasons when the regular 
visits were made and return visits could not be arranged in the case 
of those which reopened. Eighty-three departments were inspected 
once, twenty-four departments twice and five departments three 
times, making a total of one hundred and forty-six inspections. 

Whenever possible, I attempted to get in touch with trustees 
either on my regular visits or otherwise making special visits for 
the purpose. I find that therein lies one of the important phases 
of an inspector’s work. The personal contact with trustees and 
ratepayers renders it possible to learn their point of view and to 
create an understanding of our own and the most beneficial results 
are obtained in that way. Teachers have also co-operated splen- 
didly with me by reporting situations to me where I could exert an 
influence for improvement and through this means many difficulties 
were averted. Especially was this the case in connection with 
supply of equipment and encouraging longer school terms. A 
number of communications were sent to school boards where plans 
for closing the school early were reported to me and the results, 
in most cases, were very satisfactory. The prevailing tendency 
throughout the inspectorate is toward yearly schools. 

Aside from inspection, the following work of the year might 
also be mentioned: 

(a) Ten weeks’ teaching at the Third Class session of the 
Saskatoon Normal School. 

( b ) Reading teachers’ essays based on the prescribed reading 
course. 

(c) Assisting in the organisation of seven school fairs, involving 
attendance at a number of meetings, preparing prize lists and 
programmes and attending all as a judge of school exhibits. 

( d ) Attending twenty-nine meetings of boards of trustees and 
eleven meetings of ratepayers. 

(e) Addressing nineteen public gatherings on educational 
problems. 

(/) Assisting in the inspection of the Wynyard High School. 

( g ) Organising and attending the convention of teachers of 
the inspectorate and a number of other miscellaneous meetings 
with a bearing on the work. 

Plans were drawn up at our convention of teachers for the 
organisation of rural education associations at central points in the 
inspectorate and the work is now progressing with the co-operation 


Annual Report, 1919 


177 


of teachers and other citizens. All this work, I feel convinced, is 
bearing rich fruit throughout this district. The people are interested 
in education as they have never been before, due to the splendid 
efforts of the teachers in bringing the public in touch with the work 
of the schools. 

1 have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

B. Hjalmarson. 


Kinistino, January 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour herewith to present my report for the 
year 1919. In doing so I am following with reasonable closeness 
the outline offered by the Department. 

My territory covered rural municipalities Nos. 428, 429, 430, 
458, 459, 460 and the territory lying between R.M. No. 458 and the 
Saskatchewan river. 

On January 1, 1918, I had on my list eighty-six school districts 
and 101 departments. Since then, two districts and three depart- 
ments have been added. One of these districts, Meskanaw, did 
not succeed in getting school built in 1919. The school will be 
built early in the coming spring. 

School attendance has improved in regularity and in the number 
of children enrolled. This was very satisfactory this year. The 
teachers generally speak well of the good effect of The School 
Attendance Act. 

The time during which schools are kept open during the year 
is increasing. Inability to secure teachers prevented a certain 
number of schools from being open as long as they would otherwise 
have been. I notice a growing desire on the part of the people to 
have a yearly school and to secure and retain the services of a well 
qualified teacher. 

There has been little change in school buildings during the year. 
Too many buildings are lighted from both sides. In a number of 
cases there is not sufficient room for blackboard. More interest is 
gradually growing in the neatness and cleanliness of the school- 
room. This is possibly also true in regard to outhouses, but not to 
so marked an extent. The presence of more women on the trustee 
board will improve this side of the work. A number of districts 
find difficulty in securing anyone who is willing to clean the school. 
This might be overcome by a number of districts uniting in engaging 
a man to take charge of that work or the municipality might engage 
a man. Heating is mostly effected by stoves or a Waterbury plant. 
The latter is usually well spoken of. Central Park S.D. No. 1331 
this year built a new school with full basement and a furnace in the 
basement. This seems to me the ideal towards which we should 


178 


Depaktment of Education 


aim. If the debenture term for frame buildings were extended over 
twenty years there would be no increased hardship felt by any 
district if it were made compulsory that all new schools should have 
full basement. Why cannot this be done? 

It was found necessary to recommend quite a few extensions 
of provisional certificates in 1919. A number of these were for 
short periods until a qualified teacher could be secured. Some 
outlying districts have difficulty in securing and retaining a qualified 
teacher. Possibly the great reason for this is the lack of a suitable 
and convenient boarding place. In such cases, I have recommended 
the building of a teacher’s house. A nice little cottage with a 
suitable garden plot would be an attraction to many. The standing 
of the teachers in rural schools was as follows: First Class, ten per 
cent.; Second Class, 46.25 per cent.; Third Class, 32.5 per cent, and 
Provisionals, 11.25 per cent. 

I am pleased to say that I have met with a good many capable 
teachers this year, teachers who had some definite ideas as to what 
they wanted to do and how they were going to do it, teachers who 
were imbued with the scientific spirit, who had the observant eye 
and the inquiring mind and that philosophic temperament that led 
them on to feel and to search for the relationship of things. They 
were not merely teaching history, geography, arithmetic, etc. 
They were utilising all these things to the making of a man and that 
man a good citizen. Here is the Saskatchewan problem — how to 
produce teachers like these. When shall we attack it in a scientific 
way? I have said so much about the “growing” of a teacher in 
previous reports that I think I may refrain from saying more. here. 
It is a matter, however, upon which I feel so strongly that I must 
mention it. Some day I hope to see the question investigated. 

The course of studies is generally conscientiously followed. In 
arithmetic, the field of work covered is fairly satisfactory, but the 
training in thinking and in expression is too often neglected. This 
is most especially true where the greater portion of the work is done 
from the text book. Mental arithmetic is not appreciated as it 
should be. Neat and exact statements are the exception. Pupils 
are not good critics and they are not self-critical. Expression 
generally is not what it should be. Apparently it is not felt to be 
“worth while.” Grammar is too often taught as an information 
subject. It is not made a subject of nice inward searching and men- 
tal weighing. It is not producing the mental pleasure that it 
should. In geography, many are doing good work, but too many 
neglect the blackboard and the globe. The work in agriculture is 
generally weak. It is presented more with information in view 
than as a training to establish an interest and leave an impress on 
the character of the child. I found hygiene frequently neglected 1 . 
The teachers seemed uncertain about it. They did not know much 
about the subject or its aims or the course of study and consequently 
the work was frequently bookish and unattractive. Some teachers., 
however, handled the work well. They got the interest and consent 
of their class. The inspector could feel how well calculated their 
presentation was to affect character and conduct. I found, however, 
on the part of all teachers a greater interest in the habits of their 


Annual Report, 1919 


179 


children and in the condition of the schoolroom. Here, I think, 
is possibly the greatest sphere of hygiene in the public school. 
Practically all schools are doing something along the lines of manual 
training and household science. Some schools had a fine array of 
children’s work on exhibition and I was pleased to see how proud 
they were of it. A great many schools had gardens but lack of 
rain interfered with success in the west half of my inspectorate. In 
the east half some very good gardens were found. Not all of the 
gardens were so managed as to make them important factors in 
the education of the child. With few exceptions, physical training 
formed a part of the regular work of all schools. The quality of the 
work varied greatly. The mental value in the subject seemed very 
regularly overlooked. This side of the work should be well em- 
phasised in the training of the teacher. 

We are, I feel, developing a pretty heavy course of studies. 
A teacher in a rural school who has the full eight grades has great 
difficulty in arranging her time table to give all subjects a share of 
her time. Is there not a chance that we are dissipating the energies 
of both pupils and teacher? If we are, and if pupils are going 
through the public school without having tasted the pleasure of 
good intensive work, our public school course will scarcely be 
considered a success. It is right that we should have a fairly 
broad course, but the number of subjects taken abreast should be 
never be sufficient to chill enthusiasm. 

There are no large districts in my inspectorate. 

I use a Ford runabout car in my work. I find it quite con- 
venient in most of the country. It is much less tiring than driving 
a horse and enables me to to at home at weekends when I could not 
otherwise be. It has some disadvantages in the rough country, 
but I find the advantages far outweigh them. One great disadvan- 
tage is that it is very expensive. The initial cost is high and repairs 
are very costly. 

I succeeded in getting over all of my territory once and a good 
deal of it twice. The bad weather that set in, in the fall, greatly 
interfered with work. I lost considerable time during the summer 
through rheumatism, being confined to the house for about a month. 
After that, for a considerable length of time I was unable to walk 
much or stand much exertion and so could visit only convenient 
schools. Of schools with buildings erected five were not inspected 
this year. They were not in operation at any time that I visited. 
“No teacher” or “teacher away” was the explanation. My plan 
for visiting these later in the fall was foiled by the extremely bad 
weather that set in. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. F. Hutchison. 


180 


Department of Education 


Duck Lake, January 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the 
Rosthern inspectorate for the year ended December 31, 1919. 

The inspectorate consists of the following municipalities: 
Grant R.M. No. 372, Aberdeen R.M. No. 373, Fish Creek R.M. 
No. 402, Rosthern R.M. No. 403, Laird R.M. No. 404, St. Louis 
R.M. No. 431 and the south half of Duck Lake R.M. No. 463. It 
is divided by the South Saskatchewan river and extends over an 
area of fifty-three townships, fifty-four miles in greatest length and 
forty-eight miles in width. 

At the beginning of the year, there were 109 school districts on 
the list, with 130 departments. Three new school districts were 
formed during the year and nine departments added. 

School houses have been built in all three new districts. There 
are, however, two districts in which there are. no school houses — 
the Dobraniwka S.D. No. 2608 and the Passchendaele S.D. No. 
4084. In the first case, the district has an arrangement with the 
neighbouring school district, Heuboden No. 1877, and in the latter, 
delay was caused by the official trustee not securing the sale of 
debentures in time to proceed with the erection of the building in 
1919. 

The enrolment and attendance of the pupils in the schools 
on the day of my visit are shown below: 


Grades 

Schools of one department 

Schools of two or more departments 

Enrolled 

Present 

Enrolled 

Present 

I 

1,047 

906 

299 

278 

II 

394 

341 

153 

149 

Ill 

363 

307 

130 

120 

IV 

330 

273 

126 

120 

V 

198 

166 

95 

94 

VI 

49 

39 

95 

85 

VII 

33 

25 

87 

86 

VIII 

8 

8 

33 

33 

High school 

2 

2 

84 

78 

Totals 

2,424 

2,067 

1,102 

1,043 


This shows a percentage of attendance of 88.3, but it must be 
remembered that these were days when no excuse of inclement 
weather kept pupils at home. The yearly percentage is not so 
high. A further analysis of figures shows that for the hundred 
rural schools the average percentage was 85.25 and for the town 
schools 94.6. 

There is no doubt that the enactment of The School Attendance 
Act has been very beneficial and with an improved administration 
of it, even better results can be obtained. 


Annual Report, 1919 


181 


During the year, I have been further impressed with the 
advisability of a larger school unit for administration. In Laird 
municipality it has been found necessary to form two new school 
districts. This has resulted in changes of boundaries of over six 
school districts and in two of these cases,, the school house had to 
be moved to a new site. There is also a growing demand for a 
smaller school district, making the distance from the corners of 
the district to the school house shorter. This is bound to cause 
readjustment of school district boundaries with considerable 
additional expense in adjusting school centres. Many of the 
present school trustees are reactionary, especially in respect to the 
course of studies. They have attempted to restrict school studies 
to the subjects of arithmetic, reading and writing and when their 
children have obtained a slight acquaintance with these subjects, 
they are anxious to withdraw them from school. A smaller per- 
centage show a genuine interest in the progress of their school and 
are anxious to promote its efficiency in every possible way. 

In regard to a longer school year, the chief difficulties are the 
extreme cold, and impassable roads of winter and the desire of 
some parents to have children at home during the stress of farm 
work. 

At the beginning of the year, six school districts were being 
managed by official trustees, namely, Lilly S.D. No. 2841, River 
Park S.D. No. 843 and Strawberry Valley S.D. No. 2332 by Mr. 
A. J. Sparling; Scarpe S.D. No. 4076, Passchendaele S.D. No. 4084 
and Dobraniwka S.D. No. 2608 by Mr. Chas. Holz. During the 
year I found it necessary to recommend the appointment of three 
others, namely, Mr. H. E. Brunelle for Buffer’s Lake S.D. No. 2489, 
Mr. Fischer for Reinfeld S.D. No. 3386 and Mr. J. H. Curry for 
Riel Dana S.D. No. 1458. In each case the appointment was asked 
for on account of the refusal of the trustees to conduct the school 
in accordance with The School Act. 

During the last year there has been a decided improvement 
in the school buildings of this inspectorate. Ten one-room school 
houses have been built besides the completion of a four-room 
building in Waldheim village at a cost of $20,000 and the building 
operations at Rosthern public school at a total cost of $50,000. 
The latter is now a modern twelve-room building. I anticipate 
that relatively the same number of rural schools will be built in 
1920. There has been very little, if any, improvement made in the 
school grounds. On account of the drought a large number of 
school wells went dry during the summer. Different trustee boards 
have constructed or have under advisement the construction of 
large reservoirs to provide water supply for their schools. As a 
general rule the trustees appreciate their responsibility in these 
matters. 

The supply of teachers in this inspectorate has not been suffi- 
cient to meet the demand. In order to have all the schools in 
operation I found it necessary to recommend both provisional 
certificates and also extensions of Third Class certificates. At the 
same time, I impressed on the recipients of these certificates the 
absolute necessity of improving their standing, so as to make it 


182 


Department op Education 


unnecessary to require such favours. The extension of Third Class 
certificates, raises the question of permanent Third Class certificates. 
There are a number of married men, especially in the Mennonite 
districts, who have commenced teaching on Third Class certificates 
and have now become experienced and efficient teachers. It is a 
real hardship for them to take the time and go to the expense of 
improving their academic standing. In these cases, it would appear 
advisable to grant permanent Third Class certificates. The supply 
of teachers has been augmented by a number of young Ruthenian- 
Canadians, University students, who, being granted provisional 
certificates, have taken a year from their studies and. taken charge 
of schools. I found them doing very satisfactory work. 

In regard to the services rendered by teachers, the majority 
are efficient, conscientious in their work, returning excellent value 
to the school and district, more indeed than can be measured in 
currency. Also, the number of those who are a real detriment has 
decreased. I found a few among the Mennonite schools and a 
larger percentage among the French and Ruthenians. The latter 
I hope to eliminate from this inspectorate next year. 

The question of salaries is still a very serious one, not alone on 
account of the necessity for material increase in order to meet the 
present much enhanced price of all commodities, and to bring 
them more nearly on a par with salaries in other occupations and 
professions, but also in order to give advantages to those teachers 
who hold a higher grade certificate. I find that many teachers 
holding provisional or Third Class certificates are receiving larger 
salaries than those holding Second and, in some cases, First Class 
certificates. The present movement of the Teachers’ Alliance 
holds a promise of a remedy in this matter, a matter in which 
Departmental action might be advisable. 

The chart on the opposite page gives particulars regarding 
the teachers employed in this inspectorate during the year. 

In addition to the following table there were a few other 
teachers who were not recorded by me. The two provisional 
teachers in the village schools are explained thus — one was 
granted a certificate pending the receipt of documents from Scot- 
land and the other was a substitute teacher. Of the two who held 
no certificates, one taught a primary French class in St. Louis 

R. C.P.S.D. No. 14 and the other, a Ruthenian, taught in Ozeranko 

S. D. No. 644. 


Annual Report, 1919 


183 


O 

H 



nooom 

iO 


h^Oh 

CO 



rH 

1 

.2 £ 
73 o3 

HCQO • 

CO 

§> 



CO 



-S 



o 




1X3 rH <0> T— 1 

0 

<D 

t— 1 rH 

<N 

£ 



i 

£ 

Oi 

05 O >OrH H 

CIO 

■5 ^ 

rH 

<N 

G 



Pi 



l <D 

<a ■*» 

CO (N (M rH • 

00 

<y ‘a 

<N <M 

TiH 

S ° 

^ G 



X £f 

(ft .H 



p~i 

1 Cl H CO ■ 

05 

e3 

<N 

<M 

c a? 



h a, 




o 

>> 

13 

G 

.2 

’■+3 

c 3 

£ 


N 

O 

- 4 J 

o 

o 

C, 

GO 

.£ 


o 

o 

rG 


o 


o 

o 

pS 

o 

CO 


o 

o 

rG 


G 

O 


o 


^3 

« 


i 

o c; 

s ° 

^ {=! 


<N COO <M 
<N 


O 

H 


es.ts 

o G 

5 o 


iO <N ^ CD <N 
*-1 CO 


00 ^ O Tf( T 

CN <N 


t'- 00 <N rH 


o> • 
o 3 


o 


(ft 

_ (ft $2 • 

^3 m _c 3 & 

c^o 3 

' t"? £ O’ 

£.£2 ©*£ c 

£h^E* 


O 

H 


184 


Department of Education 


The figures showing the attendance of pupils bear out the gener- 
ally accepted fact that the majority of the children of the province 
leave school at the end of the fourth grade. In this inspectorate, 
consisting so largely of children of foreign descent, the grade is 
not so high. The following chart shows what percentage of the 
total enrolment was found in the various grades in (a) one-room 
schools and (6) schools of one or more departments. 

(a) One-room Schools. 


Grades 


1 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

H.S. 

43.2 

16.3 

15. 

13.6 

8.2 

2. 

1.5 

.33 

.08 


(6) Schools of two or more Departments 


Grades 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

H.S. 

27. 1 

13.9 

11.8 

11.4 

8.65 

8.65 

7.9 

3. 

7.9 


This shows that in the one-room schools almost sixty per cent, 
leave at the end of the second year, while in schools of two or more 
departments fifty per cent, leave at the end of the third year. 

The present administration of The School Attendance Act 
should be able to effect an improvement in this matter. At the 
present time, however, it is far too easy to evade the provisions of 
the Act. For example, the trustees have the power to grant leave 
of absence to children of from twelve to fourteen years of age. 
This privilege is very often abused and especially as there is no 
limit to the leave of absence. Another loophole is found in the 
clause restricting some to under eighty per cent, attendance. This, 
as one bright boy assured me, allows a pupil one day a week absence 
from school. 

The advancement in the special subjects is confined to a few 
schools and the exhibits at the school fair showed that they were 
obtaining excellent results. These schools are Rosthern, Duck 
Lake, Stobart, Waldheim, St. Jean Baptiste and a few rural schools 
in Laird and Rosthern municipalities. In each case, the school 
has had the advantage of the same teacher for a number of years, 
which leads to the conclusion that advancement in these lines is 
almost identical with the permanency of the teacher. 

There are no consolidated school districts in this inspectorate. 
Duck Lake and Stobart districts are above the average in area 
At the latter, and at St. Louis R.C.P.S.D. No. 14 there are convent 
boarding houses which are managed in conjunction with the school. 
The arrangement has many commendable features and is weli 
supported by the ratepayers. 

In my work of inspection I used an automobile. This has the 
advantage of allowing me to reach any school in the inspectoraet 


Annual. Report, 1919 


185 


in one day and, if I desire, to return home the same day. It has the 
disadvantage of leaving me with no conveyance during winter weather 
and an inspector’s expense allowance hardly warrants the hiring of 
livery conveyance. A car is more expensive with regard to upkeep 
than a horse and buggy and the initial cost is also much greater. 

The first four months of the year, I spent assisting at the 
Second Class Normal School session at Regina. Following that, 
several weeks were spent in adjusting school district boundaries, 
etc. In one case, where four school districts, Windom, Rose River, 
Springfield and Snowbird, were formed out of some unorganised 
sections, and the former Windom and Springfield school districts, 
Mr. Funk, Secretary of the Laird municipality, and myself were 
appointed commissioners to make a division of the property. 

In general, I devote one week at a time to each municipality, 
excepting Grant and Duck Lake. In the former, case I arrange to 
spend three days in the municipality, remaining two nights at 
Vonda, and in the latter I inspect as opportunity offers. During 
the year I was handicapped by the difficulty of crossing the river 
owing to low water and to many days of exceedingly high winds. 
Also, the early withdrawing of the river ferries, on October 8th, 
cut off communication with that part of the inspectorate. 

The regular teachers’ convention and school fair was held at 
Rosthern on October 9th, 10th and 11th. The attendance was 
smaller than that of last year. This was accounted for by the 
exceedingly bad storm which occurred on the 8th and 9th. Fifty- 
five teachers were present and the exhibits of school work, etc., 
were especially good. The association is indebted to Miss Rankin 
of the Provincial Normal School and to Dr. Wilson of the Saskat- 
chewan University for addresses at the various sessions. At an 
evening meeting, addresses of interest were given by Dr. Weir of 
the Provincial Normal School, Saskatoon, and Dr. Ehrich, president 
of the local trustees’ association. 

During the year I had the benefit of the assistance of Miss M. 
Campbell, from the Household Science branch of the Department 
of Education. Besides regular reports and inspections of the 
schools from that standpoint, I arranged for joint meetings of 
teachers and trustees at different centres, at which Miss Campbell 
was given an opportunity of emphasising the importance of teaching 
such subjects as come under Household Science and Hygiene. I 
have carried out a policy of following up this work through my re- 
ports to trustees and individual conferences. This work, I believe, 
is capable of considerable development, but is not progressing on 
account of the disinclination of the trustees to incur further expense. 

In conclusion, I wish to acknowledge the unfailing courtesy 
which I have received from the various municipal officials and from 
the trustees of the schools. I have also to acknowledge the assist- 
ance I have received from members of the Normal School staff, 
Saskatoon, and the officials of the Department of Education. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


A. W. Keith. 


186 


Department of Education 


Swift Current. January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report on the 
Sceptre inspectoral division and on my work as inspector of schools 
for the year 1919. 

The inspectorate comprises six rural municipalities; Nos. 230, 
231, 232, 168, 169 and 229, being larger than the field of 1918 by 
municipalities 168 and 169. The number of districts in this area 
on January 1, 1919, was 100 with a total of 119 departments. 
During the year, one department was added in the town of Cabri. 
In one district, namely, Grampian S.D. No. 3638, no school has 
been built, the five or six children of school age in the district 
attending school elsewhere. 

There was a marked improvement in the regularity of attend- 
ance during the year. The average monthly percentage of attend- 
ance as taken from the registers for an aggregate of 229 months, 
was 83.09. The total number of pupils enrolled when I visited the 
respective schools was 3,052, of which number, 2,519 or 82.53 per 
cent, were present. This improved showing is due in part to the 
better method of arriving at the possible aggregate enrolment for 
the month, but chiefly to the operation of The School Attendance 
Act. The Act has been applied very wisely in this portion of the 
province and the results, I think, are very gratifying. In addition 
to recording the number of lates, I should like to see space provided 
in the daily register for recording the actual percentage of punctual- 
ity for each month and term. This should be included in the returns 
to the Department. I believe that the progress of many rural 
schools is seriously retarded by many of the children arriving from 
thirty to sixty minutes late. The excuse generally given is the 
work at home. Offending parents should be held responsible for 
this in the same way as they are for non-attendance under The 
School Attendance Act. 

Under the present trustee system, I should say that school 
affairs are being managed fairly satisfactorily in about fifty per cent, of 
the districts. In the remainder, there is incompetency, carelessness, 
indifference and petty quarrels, all of which detract from the 
efficiency of the schools. It is not to be assumed that all those 
who accept office as trustees take a real interest in the school. 
The idea of an educational council in each municipality, which has 
been the subject of considerable discussion of late, has much to be 
said in its favour. We must have something of this nature or a 
greater number of official trustees. 

In most districts there has been a decided tendency toward the 
longer school year; nevertheless I think it advisable for many 
schools to take the long vacation during the winter months. With 
the advent of cold weather the attendance falls off to a great extent. 

I have reported twelve school houses as being unsatisfactory, 
for the most part because of their congested condition, in some 
cases as many as sixty children being enrolled in a school meant 
to accommodate thirty-six. I have sufficient faith in rural con- 


) 


Annual Report, 1919 


187 


solidation to recommend that in some of these cases, consolidation 
should take place and two-roomed or four-roomed schools be erected. 
Such centres would eventually develop into rural continuation 
schools. 

Apart from fencing, there has been little improvement in the 
school grounds. A few districts have planted trees but in only 
two instances have they shown signs of attention and given promise 
of growth. During 1918 I recommended widely that consideration 
be given to tree-planting, but I realise now that until we have more 
responsible caretakers at the schools, in this part of the province 
at least, the effort will meet with failure. 

Most districts are doing their best in regard to the water 
supply. I have reported eleven instances where, in my opinion, 
with a little effort, improvement could have been made in the 
arrangement. There are fourteen good school wells in the inspec- 
torate. 

While the supply of capable teachers has been inadequate, 
nevertheless there was no school closed throughout the year for 
want of a teacher. Of the teachers whose work I inspected, twenty- 
three held First Class certificates, fifty Second Class, forty-six 
Third Class and nine provisional. I have no doubt that this is 
a considerable improvement over previous years. Trustee boards 
have shown a greater tendency to pay more adequate salaries, 
$1,200 to women teachers in rural schools being quite common 
But in engaging teachers there is not sufficient recognition given to 
qualifications and experience. I recall the cases of (a) an experienced 
Second Class male teacher, married, whose salary was $900 per 
annum, and (6) a woman teacher holding a Third Class certificate 
receiving over $1,300 per annum. This is unfair, but there are 
many such instances. If teaching is to be considered a real pro- 
fession and if we are to retain our best male teachers, such con- 
ditions must be remedied. I think the only solution is for the teachers 
to become thoroughly organised. With this done, salaries can be 
adjusted, a system of pensions adopted and the profession elevated 
to that position in our civilisation which it should rightfully occupy. 
Then we may expect many of the best brains to take up teaching 
as a profession and the benefits to the nation will be inestimable. 

I am glad to report very satisfactory progress in the common 
school subjects. For the majority of the schools in this inspectorate 
I consider primary reading and language the most essential subjects 
of the curriculum and I have noticed that invariably the recent 
graduates of our Normal Schools handle this work in a very efficient 
manner and with good results. As usual, geography and history 
are taught chiefly as memory subjects and thus lose much of their 
value. 

Many schools attempted school gardens but owing to the dry 
weather, not more than three gave much promise at the time of 
my visit. Naturally this work has been very discouraging. During 
the year short courses in household science were held at Cabri and 
Leader by Miss Neelands and Miss McColl respectively. Judging 
from the remarks of senior pupils and teachers, these courses were 
very helpful and were much appreciated. More attention is being 


188 


Department of Education 


given to physical training and under the Strathcona Trust, prizes 
were awarded to Maple Dale S.D. No. 2727 and to the junior 
department of Sceptre S.D. No 3678. Beneficial as this work is, 
I am of the opinion that almost all the children of our rural schools 
require recreation for the mind much more than excercise for the 
muscles of the body. If our teachers could institute group games 
and various forms of team play during recreation periods, the child- 
ren would become brighter and more alert. This is a phase of 
teacher-training to which our Normal Schools might well give more 
attention. 

There are six large districts in the Sceptre division, regarding 
which, the following schedule may be of interest. The Garvelle 
district is entirely rural, j 





Enrolment 


Teachers 






Area 









No. 

District 

in 

Acres 

Below 

Gr. 

VIII 

Gr. 
VIII 
and up 

Third 

Class 

Second 

Class 

First 

Class 

Grad- 

uates 

Atten- 

ance 

Convey- 

ance 

1320 

Cabri . . . 

. .48 

158 

20 

1 / 

3 


2 

89% 

Good 

covered 











vans. 

3910 

Garvelle. 

. .45 

18 



1 



91.5% 

Auto 

1288 

Shackleton 

.A2H 

47 

11 



2 


88% 

Good 

covered 

3028 

2856 

Portreeve 

lemsford 

..45 

,.49H 

41 

33 

10 

1 

1 

i 

1 

1 


Good 

85% 

vans 

Vans 

Open 

democrat 

and 

sleighs 

3678 

Sceptre.. 

..39^ 

53 

11 

1 


1 


Good 

Good 













vans 


There are at least three advantages which may be inferred 
from the above, namely, the teachers in these schools are generally 
well qualified, the attendance is more regular and there are better 
opportunities for doing some work of the High School course than 
could possibly exist in the one-teacher school. The cost of con- 
veyance is no doubt high, each van averaging about $5 per day, 
so that the daily expense for this in some districts is over $20. 
However, there are few rural districts in my inspectorate where 
there are not two, three or four families whose children drive them- 
selves to school. The expense of doing so is evidently lost sight of. 
In these large districts, I believe autos could be used for conveying 
the children during a great part of the year, thus minimising the 
length of time the children must remain on the way to and from 
school. All things considered, I think consolidated school districts 
have a place in Saskatchewan and I look for their number to increase 
in the next few years. 

I used a car in the work of inspection, but I found it necessary 
to engage a livery rig on a number of occasions. The daily train 


Annual Report, 1919 


189 


service each way on the Empress branch of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway is a great convenience in my work. There are twelve 
towns and villages on the line, each of which is made my head- 
quarters for periods of from one to three weeks during the year, 
this enabling me to meet many of the people of the towns and rural 
districts. I made 118 first inspections and thirty second inspec- 
tions besides a considerable number of visits. All schools were 
inspected at least once. I assisted at the Normal School, Regina, 
until May and also spent about three weeks of the year at work in 
connection with the Teachers’ Reading Course and the summer 
examinations. 

The majority of the schools hold annual community picnics 
but the school fair idea has yet much room for growth. In August 
a very successful fair was held at Lancer under the auspices of the 
Women Grain Growers’ Association and about 400 exhibits from 
the various schools were sent to the central fair at Swift Current 
in October. About seventy teachers from the Sceptre inspectorate 
attended the union convention at Swift Current, which was held 
at the time of the fair. Two rural education associations have 
been organised at Cabri and Lancer respectively, but as yet they 
have remained inactive. 

Although there is yet much to be hoped for, nevertheless I 
feel that a good deai of educational progress has been made in this 
inspectorate during 1919. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

N. Latour. 


Wolseley, January 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I beg to submit the following report of the schools in 
the Wolseley inspectorate for the year 1919. 

This inspectorate consists of municipalities 93, 94, 95, 124, 
125. 154 and 155. It is bounded on the north by the Qu’Appelle 
river and on the south by the Moose Mountains. At the beginning 
of the year there were ninety-eight school districts comprising 120 
departments. Two new districts were organised but schools were 
not built. Five new departments were opened in urban schools. 
Two old schools, Edenland and Abbotsford, were not opened during 
the year; the former, because the district was organised into two 
new districts and the latter, because of lack of pupils. 

Generally the percentage of attendance was good. Fifty-five 
rural schools opened in January or February. The School Attend- 
ance Act has had good effect in promoting regular attendance. 

Local school administration has some commendable features 
in that it guarantees in a degree the interest of a considerable body 


190 


Department of Education 


of men in school matters. Where these men are progressive and 
are supported by the ratepayers, progress is being made. But 
too often petty strife or a desire to curtail expenses hinders the for- 
ward movement. In matters affecting several school districts, 
such as the formation of a new district in territory already organised, - 
this system lends no assistance to a speedy and satisfactory adjust- 
ment. It also isolates the schools from one another so that they 
seldom profit by the experiences of their neighbours. In general 
the people wish to give their children a good public school education 
but several circumstances make this difficult. They complain of 
the hardships their children endure in going three or four miles to 
school in severe winter weather. At present there is considerable 
unrest among farmers owing to inadequate educational facilities 
for their children. The rural schools are too far from some homes 
and they do not offer a high school education. I am informed that 
many farmers would send their children to town schools provided 
they could secure siutable boarding places. Such places, however, 
are few in our small towns. Three solutions present themselves, 
namely, to increase the number of rural schools, to organise con- 
solidated schools or to sell their farms and move to town. Both 
the community and the province would suffer a severe loss should 
the farmers act on the third solution. For the present the agitation 
for consolidation has died out. There is a movement on foot to 
erect small districts of ten or twelve square miles. Four such 
districts have been mooted this year, yet any move on the part of 
a community to form a new school district in territory already 
organised meets with considerable opposition from surrounding 
districts which would suffer loss of land. The rural community 
should be informed of the advent of the small school district with 
its increased educational advantages, as well as its increased finan- 
cial obligation, in order that they may take a broad view of their 
obligation to provide efficient education for the children of the 
community. 

This being an old settled district, a considerable number of 
schools are of the old type with windows on opposite sides. Many 
are heated by an ordinary stove and in such schools the doors and 
windows provide the only means of ventilation. The Waterbury 
system of heating and ventilating has been installed in some of 
these, but there is some complaint that they smoke the buildings 
and do not adequately heat them. Inspectors see the rural school 
closets at their best as rural schools are visited when there is little 
snow. A few are disgraceful, but on the whole they are in fair 
condition. I have advocated a frequent changing to new sites 
with deep pits. Outside urinals should be provided where necessary. 
The Grenfell school has the best outside closets in this inspectorate. 
Only one rural school has inside closets. Wawota and Glenavon 
have installed ckustic closets. The method of sweeping in the 
schools does not accord with approved practices. A satisfactory 
system of water supply has yet to be devised. 

The Trustees’ Association in convention has a splendid oppor- 
tunity to impress on trustees the importance of attending at once 
to the needs of the school plant. These needs are urgent. It is 


Annual Report, 1919 


191 


only fair to state that a considerable number of trustees make an 
hone st effort to do their duty in this respect. Glenavon and Wawota 
each built a two-roomed brick school, heated by furnaces and 
equipped with sanitary caustic closets. A plentiful supply of 
windows and blackboard space was provided. Kennedy school 
district installed a steam heating plant. Indeed, all the town and 
village schools are commendably equipped and an adequate teaching 
staff is provided. 

There is a good supply of teachers for this inspectorate. Only 
four provisional certificates were granted in 1918 and two in 1919. 
Teachers’ salaries range from $900 to $1,200. Teachers who serve 
their home schools are paid the lowest salaries. Some teachers do 
good work. Their schools are well organised, the children are 
interested, responsive and industrious. They know the work 
covered, they are gaining power and their native spirit of investi- 
gation is developed. Other teachers do fair work in some sub- 
jects but they are not developing strong pupils. The grade of 
certificate and the number of years spent in the work are not 
dependable criteria by which to judge of the teacher’s ability. I 
do not desire to be critical. Criticism has little value. Few 
bodies of people deserve more sympathy than rural teachers. 
Many of them are still in their teens. They lead a lonely profes- 
sional life and need more help. Conventions and school fairs give 
a little stimulus. The short courses at the university are a real 
inspiration, but unfortunately only a small number of our teachers 
attend. The inspector also gives some help, but too often teachers 
are like soldiers in the front line trenches with the lines of com- 
munication broken and the ammunition running low. Inspector 
J. Arch. McLeod’s scheme of assembling small groups of teachers 
to discuss thoroughly one subject of school work is a splendid one. 
I shall endeavour to organise similar work this spring. 

It is sometimes stated that our curriculum is crowded. I will 
leave this question for wiser heads to debate. My observation 
leads me to the opinion that teachers who know the subjects of 
study and see them in their proper perspective and relation to one 
another, who can correlate these subjects and combine classes to the 
best advantage and who have mastered the art of teaching — such 
teachers can do justice to the whole course. But the average 
teacher with a weak grasp of some subjects, who views the course 
as so many isolated subjects, cannot teach the whole course. Most 
teachers would profit by giving more careful attention to the 
syllabus of studies and more preparation to what they would teach. 
All teachers give attention to the common subjects and most of 
them are obtaining some commendable results. Considerable time 
is devoted to arithmetic. Teachers who aim at clearness of ideas 
and, beginning with small mental problems, follow these with a 
well-graded series of more difficult problems, do good work. Pri- 
mary reading gives a good deal of trouble and often slow progress 
is made. History is commonly looked upon as so many isolated 
facts. The relation of an event to a general movement is seldom 
noted. Composition is an elusive subject. It is not so much a 
matter of right and wrong as a matter of better and worse. Except 


192 


Department of Education 


for the attention paid to business forms, little teaching is done in 
this subject. Agriculture and nature study are viewed as purely 
information subjects. I seldom see original investigation carried 
on. Perhaps twenty gardens were attempted in this inspectorate. 
Those of Mount Crescent, Rhineland, Huntingford and Flinton 
were the most successful. The produce of the Mount Crescent 
garden was sold for $63. This garden was solely the work of the 
pupils and teacher. While the monetary value is not the chief 
consideration, yet where there is no such value the enterprise dies 
from lack of interest. 

In a few schools the pupils assist in providing some warm dish 
for lunch. This, with a little sewing, chiefly in connection with 
school fairs, constitutes the course in household science. 

Physical training is given in all schools. An increasing number 
of teachers are giving this training in the school yard. The exercises 
are done in a creditable manner. Games are seldom included in this 
work. This is to be regretted. 

The schools of towns and villages are visited in the early 
spring and late fall. The railway is used in making these visits 
and a car is used to reach the rural schools. The only difficulty I 
have encountered is the poor condition of the roads. Occasionally 
a second trip must be made to find the school in operation, because 
the secretary fails to notify the inspector of vacations. Two 
hundred and twenty-one inspections were made, fifteen depart- 
ments being visited once and 105 visited twice. Every department 
that was in operation, save the additional one opened at Glenavon 
in the fall, was inspected. 

Three school fairs were organised at Broadview, Wawota and 
Kipling. Successful fairs were also held at Grenfell and Poplar 
Grove school. While it is true that such fairs have attendant evils 
and receive a disproportionate amount of advertising, yet they 
afford an opportunity for pupils and teachers to get together for a 
social time. They see each other’s work and go back to their 
schools with a widened outlook and quickened interest. The 
Indian Head and Wolseley inspectorates are still united in a historic 
Teachers’ Association. Our convention was held at Qu’Appelle 
and valuable papers were given by Inspector J. Marshall, Miss 
Jean E. Browne, Director of School Hygiene, Professor Hoole of 
Regina and Miss Noble of Indian Head. Many praiseworthy 
exhibits of school work were made by both urban and rural schools. 
Mr. A. M. McDermott of the School Agriculture branch of the 
Department of Education, conducted a class in Grenfell in agricul- 
ture. Though the course was short it was much appreciated by 
the surrounding rural community. I hope to have at least one 
class of this kind organised this winter. 

The work of the inspector is very interesting. He sees some 
result from his visits to the schools and his reports and interviews 
with the trustees. Indeed, there appears to be no limit to his 
opportunities for usefulness. But in order that he may be prepared 
for his varied and arduous tasks I beg to suggest that the inspectors 
should be assembled annually for stock taking and preparation of 
plans for future work. A definite programme should be outlined 


Annual Report, 1919 


193 


and announced in good time so that all may be prepared to con- 
tribute something to the discussion. The value of such a conven- 
tion would be much enhanced if an eminent educationist were 
present to discuss with the inspectors some important phases of the 

work. 

Besides the regular work of inspection I was engaged for two 
and one-half months in the Moosomin Normal School and three 
days were spent in committee work in Regina. 

While much remains to be done yet the field is bright with 
promise. A little better team work among all concerned in this 
great work will bring gratifying results. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

James Little. 


North Battleford, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report upon the public schools in the inspectorate of 
“The Battlefords” for the year 1919. 

This inspectorate includes the city of North Battleford, the 
town of Battleford, the western portion of Mayfield R.M. No. 407, 
the northern portion of Prairie R.M. No. 408 and the rural munici- 
palities of Douglas No. 436, North Battleford No. 437, Battle River 
No. 438, Round Hill No. 467 and Meota No. 468. 

The number of school districts in this territory on January 1st, 
1919, was seventy-one, of which sixty-five were of one department 
each and the remaining six varied from two up to twelve depart- 
ments. To these were added during the year four new districts, 
while one, Rudell, added a second department. Thus at the close 
of the year there were sixty-eight schools of one department each 
and seven of more than one, making seventy-five in all. The year 
began with ninety-two departments and closed with one hundred 
and four, a net increase of three departments in ungraded schools 
and nine in graded schools. Two of the school districts were organ- 
ised too late in the year to enable them to erect buildings until the 
spring of 1920. 

The attendance, in almost every case, has been excellent. 
While attendance has been steadily improving for years it increased 
rapidly when The School Attendance Act came into force. It is 
still improving. The average percentage for the schools in the 
inspectorate was between 80 per cent, and 90 per cent, though 
after the first week in October there was a considerable falling off. 
The total enrollment in the seventy-one schools (100 departments) 
inspected, was as follows: 


194 


Department of Education 


First visit, (including departments inspected only once)— 


Enrolment 2 575 

Present on date of inspection 2,068 

Percentage 80.3 

Second visit, (four less schools) — 

Enrolment after midsummer 2,190 

Present on date of inspection 1,768 

Percentage 80. 7 


While the attendance is excellent and the enforcement of The 
School Attendance Act deserves great credit I believe that there 
are a good many children of school age living beyond the mileage 
limits stated in the Act who receive little or no schooling. I urge 
that the Act be so amended that all those living within a school 
district and those in unorganised territory be compelled to attend 
at least 50 per cent, of the school year. Those living at such a dis- 
tance as to find this a hardship should receive special assistance 
from the Supplementary Revenue Grant. The aim should be 
“a school for every child and every child in school.” 

More frequently than ever before, I have this year met the 
query, “Why do not the authorities make the rural municipality 
the school unit, tax all lands and thus enable the municipal board 
to place teachers more suitably?” I would refer you to my last 
year’s report regarding this matter. 

Of the seventy-five schools in the inspectorate, thirty-one may 
be considered as definitely whole-year schools, while five or six 
more will soon be in this class. Of the 104 departments sixty were 
open during the entire year. The part-year schools kept open 
well into the autumn in spite of the very bad weather after October 
8th. Two only closed on account of the weather conditions before 
December 12th. A few closed from other causes, a student-teacher, 
a school becoming too small, families moving away, the teacher 
being obliged to resign on account of sickness, etc. What shortens 
the term is the late start in the early months of the year. Two 
special difficulties cause this. It is difficult to start children to 
school in cold weather and I have known a teacher to be at the 
school daily for a week before a pupil appeared. Owing to the 
winter sessions of the Third Class Normal schools closing about 
the middle of March and the scarcity of teachers many boards 
neglect earnest effort to secure a teacher until this time. To these 
may be added the unwillingness to engage a “permit” teacher 
until it is absolutely certain that a trained teacher cannot be 
obtained. If the school year ended on June 30th, instead of 
December 31st, these difficulties would be removed, but others 
might arise. Another difficulty is the cold school room. So long 
as we depend upon a stove, or even a jacketed heater above the floor, 
the children’s feet will be cold and they themselves will be uncom- 
fortable and unable to study properly. 

The year has been one of decided progress in building. Three 
new school houses have been erected, the most modern in the field, 
two with full basements and indoor sanitary toilets, the other with 
a jacketed heater and indoor sanitary toilets. These are in The 
Hospital S.D. No. 3929, fully modern and a model building erected 
in the place of the one lost by fire last winter; The Brada S.D. No. 


I 


Annual Report, 1919 


195 


4134, fully modern and the finest rural school building in the 
inspectorate and the White Cap S.D. No. 4175, a fine rural school 
room but without a basement. Two school districts, the Ruddell 
S.D. No. 1588 and the Metropole S.D. No. 1608, have enlarged 
and improved their buildings, in each case excavating a basement 
under the newer portion and introducing furnaces. The former 
has become a two-department school, and the latter has the largest 
and one of the best rural school buildings in the inspectorate. 
Both made the mistake of not excavating a full basement and 
putting in sanitary indoor toilets, but the buildings are greatly 
improved and the other improvements will soon follow. There is 
now but one very inferior school building in my field and both 
ratepayers and trustees assure me that they will rebuild in the near 
future. I might add that eighteen of the school houses possess 
basements and basement furnaces. 

The Scentgrass Lake S.D. No. 3133, though organised some 
years ago, sent its pupils to Knowles School until 1918. A school 
house was then built with full basement and furnace, but indoor 
sanitary toilets were not arranged for. School was begun with the 
new year. The Eagle Valley S.D. No. 4254, organised at mid- 
summer, has the material for building on the ground, but the 
inclement weather prevented work being done until the spring. 
I hope it will provide basement furnace and indoor toilets. The 
Maymont S.D. No. 1555 and the Ruddell S.D. No. 1588 have erected 
buildings heated from a central room so as to have warmed sanitary 
toilets. 

Forty-four of the districts have two or more acres of ground. 
I believe it is now time that all districts should secure this amount 
of land as fair opportunity has been given all to enlarge to this size. 
The schools are all fairly and many are well equipped. I find the 
school boards prepared, generally, to supply all necessary equip- 
ment for the school room. No new school should be allowed to 
instal non-adjustable seats and desks and in schools already equipped 
all additions and replacements should be under the same restrictions- 
The new school rooms are being properly lighted. When alterations 
are made improvement in lighting is one of the first things sought 
and in the older school houses great improvement in the coloring 
of the walls and ceiling is taking place. Cause for complaint as 
regards these is being rapidly removed. 

The intense heat of the summer and the early cold of the 
autumn brought out the worst features of the badly planned, 
ill-eared-for outdoor toilets. These belong to the past. If they 
cannot be replaced by well-cared-for sanitary indoor toilets, some 
method of rendering them fairly comfortable should be devised. 
Today they are breeding places for present discomfort and future 
ill-health. I would urge that the bulletin upon this subject be 
made more emphatic and a copy be sent to every secretary-treasurer 
requesting the school board to have the matter discussed at the 
annual meeting. The sending should be timed so as to place it in 
the hands of the officials just before the meeting. 

The school well is almost always a failure, yet it should not be 
necessary to carry water to the school from any distance. Cannot 


196 


Department of Education 


our health authorities contrive some simple, cheap and effective 
system for filtering and storing rain water? Many rural schools 
have arranged to collect soft water for hand washing and scrubbing. 
It should be possible to purify it for drinking 

The supply of teachers is still far below the demand. Many 
schools were late in beginning and even then were able to open 
only by the employment of untrained teachers in many cases. The 
local exchange secured a number of teachers. The Departmental 
Teachers’ Exchange needs a local centre or clearing house to enable 
it effectively to aid inspectorates so far from headquarters. One 
hundred and twenty-nine different teachers have taught for longer 
or shorter periods in this inspectorate in the course of the year. 
Of these, seventy-seven remained during their entire term’s service 
in the same school or department. Of the fifty-two who changed 
positions thirty-two changed at the midsummer vacation, when a 
change is least harmful, but the remaining twenty were not so 
careful. Fifteen of the one hundred and twenty-nine held First 
Class certificates; seventy-one held Second Class; twenty-nine, 
Third Class; twelve, provisional and two, sent in by a Winnipeg 
Exchange and assured of standing by it, failed to qualify and were 
dismissed. Of the Firsts, I classed two as excellent, eleven as 
good and two as fair. Of the Seconds, eleven were excellent, 
thirty-eight good and twenty-two fair. Of the Thirds, three 
were excellent, ten good, twelve fair and four poor. Two of 
the provisionally certificated teachers did good work, five fair and 
five poor. 

The salaries of teachers in this field ranged from $850 to $1,800 
the average being approximately $1,025 per annum. A bad 
feature regarding salaries was the lack of proportion both as regards 
class of certificate and teaching power. Provisional teachers in 
some cases received higher pay than Firsts and Seconds and the 
average for Thirds was higher than for Seconds. The average 
salary for Firsts was $1,100, for Seconds $975, for Thirds $995 and 
for Provisionals it was $1,050. This discrepancy might be lessened 
if minimum salaries were fixed, say as follows: for Thirds, $840; for 
Seconds not being principals, $1,050; for Seconds being principals 
or for Firsts not being principals, $1,260 and for Firsts being prin- 
cipals, $1,470. Municipal school boards would control this matter 
also to a great extent. 

As regards progress in the common school subjects, I found 
it good in literature, reading, spelling and drawing, fair in writing, 
composition and geography, but rather poor in history and civics. 
I shall make special efforts next season to bring the last two sub- 
jects up to standard. In the less general subjects much attention 
has been given to physical training with excellent results. A cadet 
corps is maintained in each of the public schools in North Battle- 
ford. In agriculture, the progress is disappointing. The majority 
of the rural ratepayers discourage giving time to this subject. 
Something is being done in household science in connection with 
the noon luncheon and a special three weeks’ course was given 
in the North Battleford schools by a specialist from the Depart- 
ment. V< ry little attention is being given to manual training. 


Annual Report, 1919 


197 


There are no large districts in this inspectorate. Little men- 
tion is made of consolidation. A few pupils are conveyed from 
unorganised territory but entirely at their parents’ expense. 

During the past four years, I have used a Ford car in my inspec- 
tion work. Previously, it was necessary for me to remain away 
from home for a fortnight or three weeks at a time and though 
the schools could be inspected as rapidly, possibly even a little 
more rapidly, than at present it was demanding too much from the 
home. The opportunity for report writing was inconvenient and 
the use of the typewriter was prohibited unless one took a week to 
write up the material gathered during a three weeks’ trip. If a 
school chanced to be closed, it meant a long drive later for this 
one school, often one could not get back and the school remained 
uninspected. Taking one year with another, the expense was 
about as great with a team as a car. One special advantage with 
the car is that an inspector can reach a district quickly when any 
condition out of the ordinary arises. Power to cover one’s field 
thoroughly and to answer emergency calls, together with comfort, 
convenience and less worry over home matters, make the car the 
proper method of conveyance. 

When the year is given entirely to inspection work, the city, 
town and village schools lying along the railways are inspected 
during the winter and late autumn months. As soon as the roads 
become passable, visits to rural districts are begum those open during 
the year being taken first in the spring and just before the town 
schools in the autumn. As far as possible, all the schools are 
inspected once before June 30. School picnics are becoming quite 
common during the summer months and every endeavour is made 
to attend these so as to meet parents and ratepayers. During 
1919, I planned a series of visits to school boards, sending out a 
schedule of dates, including the time of day, for each district. In 
this way, many boards were met. Though tentative this year, 
it proved so valuable that it will be a part of my regular pro- 
gramme in the future. Much benefit is likely to arise from these 
meetings. 

The greater part of the first four months of the year was taken 
up by Normal School work at Saskatoon and convention and 
conference work at Regina. As a result only two departments 
were inspected before April 28. By steady work and not taking 
any time for holidays, all departments were inspected twice except 
a few. Six of these did not open until after midsummer and four 
were closed before I reached them the second time. There was 
one school, Hospital S.D. No. 3929, which opened after midsum- 
mer, which I did not inspect. It lies so near North Battleford 
that it was left till late in the season. When it was reached the 
teacher had taken ill the day previous and the school did not open 
again during the year. Of the one 104 departments on my list at 
the close of the year, three had not opened and one had been missed 
as explained, 91 were inspected twice and nine were inspected 
once. 

During the year much work has been done in assisting to 
organise and in attending school fairs. A convention of the mem- 


198 


Department of Education 


bers of the Trustees’ and Teachers’ Association of Northwestern 
Saskatchewan was held in North Battleford on October 16 and 17. 
One hundred and twenty-one members were present and a fine 
programme was successfully handled. A full report was sent 
to the Department. Dr. Ira MacKay from Saskatoon, the Misses 
Jean Browne and Isabel Shaw of the Education Department, 
Regina, and Mr. J. Huff of the Normal School, Regina, were 
present and added greatly to the interest and enthusiasm shown 
by those in attendance. 

Besides my regular reports to the school boards in which 
yearly schools and regular attendance were steadily urged upon 
the boards much correspondence with boards and others was 
carried on. The dry weather of the past three seasons has dis- 
couraged school gardening but in spite of this attempts have 
been made by many schools and considerable success has attended 
the efforts of some. Meota S.D. No. 790, Ellastone S.D. No. 
3552 and Battle River S.D. No. 585 deserve special commendation. 
The comparative failures in school gardening, as a result of climatic 
conditions, has resulted in one advantage, namely, that the school 
fairs have been led to emphasise other lines of effort which had 
been partly lost sight of and thus the fairs have become much 
more popular. 

As a basis for future community and inspection work I have 
made, with the assistance of the teachers and pupils as well as 
school boards, a pretty full survey of the inspectorate. This 
was rendered possible by the policy of fixed boundaries. I hope 
to place the results of this survey in your hands at an early date. 
Getting full information from a few districts may cause some 
delay. I expect these results to be of considerable educational 
and historical value. 

This year’s inspection work has been the most satisfactory 
which I have so far conducted. The work in the Normal School 
delayed the starting of the inspections and the very inclement 
weather after October 8th made the closing of the work very 
uncomfortable and, moreover, slow. The weather was also respon- 
sible for my failure to reach a few schools the second time. Never 
has my work brought me in touch with so many trustees and 
ratepayers. Many conversations have been held with parents 
and opportunity has been seized to urge increased interest in 
educational matters. Never has the outlook been so promising 
except from one point and that is the supply of teachers and especi- 
ally the supply of good teachers. Fortunately the increase in 
salaries and the unrest in educational matters are creating a demand 
for better teachers. More people are realising, too, that after 
all is said and done, the teacher makes the school. They are 
prepared, if really good teachers are secured, to pay them better 
and hamper them less. More are expected to reach the standard 
"excellent” and fewer to fall below the standard "good.” 

With the facts and figures of the survey tabulated and avail- 
able for study and comparison it is hoped to extend the form of 
inspection carried out in this and previous years and to test other 
methods and activities which may assist in evolving schemes for 


Annual Report, 1919 


199 


greater and more efficient effort. I claim this to be the best year 
educationally in this field but am determined to make the work 
of 1920jmuch more effective. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. H. Magee. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 


Weyburn, January 1, 1920. 


Sir,- — I beg leave to submit the following report on the Indian 
Head inspectorate for the year 1919. 

Extent of Inspectorate. — The Indian Head inspectorate for 1919 
was the same as for 1918 except that rural municipality No. 97 was 
substituted for rural municipality No. 96. The inspectorate com- 
prised the six municipalities of Wellington, Fillmore, Montmartre, 
Francis, Indian Head and the two Qu’Appelles, respectively numbered 
97, 126, 127, 156, 157 and 187. There were 98 school districts 
with 124 departments at the beginning of 1919. One school 
was organised and opened during the year, making ninety-nine school 
districts at the end of the year with 125 departments. Two districts, 
Dakota No. 1814, and Blackwood No. 241, have never built schools, 
the former because the few pupils now in the district attend school 
in Francis S.D. No. 777, by an arrangement between the two districts; 
the latter because there are now no pupils in the district. 

School Attendance. — There has been a real improvement in 
attendance since the enactment in 1917 of The School Attendance Act. 
Owing to a rather widespread misunderstanding among the teachers 
as to the way in which percentages were to be calculated under the 
regulation adopted last year these percentages vary to an extent that 
makes them very unreliable. Taking, however, the enrolment and 
attendance as found at the date of inspection the following table shows 
an average of eighty per cent. — slightly higher than last year but much 
higher than any previous year. 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Junior Form 
Senior Form 


Grades 


Enrolled 


Present 




1,032 

804 

455 

368 

526 

444 

421 

346 

388 

326 

222 

166 

154 

129 

111 

85 

54 

45 

10 

8 

3,370 

2,721 


Totals 


200 


Department of Education 


Local Administration . — The present local administration of schools 
is not, of course, perfectly satisfactory but I do not see that the much- 
heralded municipal school board would he an improvement, inasmuch 
as the men with whom it is proposed to replace the present trustees 
are men of the same class with the same ideas and standards. The 
school boards on the whole are willing enough to keep the schools 
open as long as weather will permit in the fall, to pay fair salaries 
and to get the more obvious equipment required by the teachers. They 
are, however, rather apathetic on the subject of the grounds, the closets, 
the water supply, lighting and sanitation. The later schools have 
usually been built from the Waterbury or similar plans and provide 
for proper and sufficient lighting. The older schools have windows on 
opposite sides of the room with the resulting shadows and cross lights, 
very trying to the eyes of the pupils. The proportion of such schools 
is now fortunately only about one in ten. Most schools, old or new, 
have now the Waterbury heating and ventilating system or a similar 
one and these almost everywhere are giving satisfaction. Indian Head 
school has water closets in the basement, used winter and summer. 
Two rural schools have installed the Waterbury caustic closet for 
winter and summer use and have found it perfectly satisfactory. The 
vast majority have the outside closet for summer and winter use, only 
about ten schools having the sanitary closet and then only for the 
winter months. The outdoor closet is almost universal on the farms 
and it is hard to convince trustees that what is good enough at home 
is not good enough at school. Flies being regarded in the country as 
an inescapable infliction of an inscrutable providence, it is difficult to 
persuade trustees that the outdoor closet is a nuisance that can be 
abated. The water supply is also unsatisfactory everywhere. In many 
schools no provision whatever is made. In others, drinking water is 
supplied usually three times a week. In very few schools is there a 
supply of water for toilet purposes or for washing the school. That 
the pupils should want, or be compelled, to wash during the day has 
not entered the minds of most trustees. The schools almost universally 
are scrubbed but once a term and no arrangements are made for regular 
and vigorous sweeping and dusting with dust bane and O-Cedar oil 
respectively to keep down the dust and protect the sweeper’s lungs and 
air passages. I do not foresee much improvement in any of these mat- 
ters until there has been a vigorous propaganda for health and sanita- 
tion among the people of the country. In this connection I may add 
that enterprising teachers who wished to secure the services of one of 
the Department’s nurses to test their pupils’ physical fitness have 
encountered a certain sensitiveness regarding the possible revelation 
of family weaknesses, that required great tact to overcome. Trustees 
and people alike require much missionary work in matters pertaining 
to health and sanitation. 

Teachers . — The inspectorate was fairly well supplied with quali- 
fied teachers during the year. The 154 teachers whom I visited were 
certificated as follows: 


Annual Report, 1919 


201 



First Class 

Second Class 

Third Class 

Permits 

Men 

8 

17 

9 

1 

Women 

9 

64 

45 

1 


Where one considers real, as against professional qualifications 
the picture is less rosy. I can but repeat substantially what I have 
said in previous reports. The scholarship of far too many teachers is 
so inaccurate that the wonder is how they obtained their academic 
standing. Their professional attainments are as poor as their aca- 
demic. I do not find that first class certificates mean more real teach- 
ing power than third class or that those who have taken the ten months’ 
or two years’ course in other provinces are more skilful than the pro- 
ducts of our own short courses. With the exception of a gifted few, 
teachers are all following a more or less lifeless routine, harking hack 
to what their own teachers did. Not one lesson in a hundred exhibits 
a clear aim, or is based on conscious pedagogical principles. Either 
the style of teaching in the normal schools here and elsewhere, is insuf- 
ficiently practical or young people at the age of our teachers are very 
weak in the power of abstract analysis and in the application of prin- 
ciples. They hear at normal school much about interest and attention, 
apperception or the use of the contents of the pupil’s mind in present- 
ing new work, of motivation or creating of an incentive for getting 
up the new work, and of right and wrong forms of questioning with 
a view to promoting the pupil’s initiative and self-activity, hut one 
fails to see that the principles laid down in Normal govern the presen- 
tation of their lessons. All that remains from Normal apparently, is 
the memory of certain catchy devices. I do not say that the teachers 
are shirks but they do not seem to know how to apply the principles 
that they have been taught should govern the presentation of a lesson 
where the aim is the development of power and initiative rather than 
parrotlike memorisation. 

Progress of Pupils . — (a) In common subjects. The average 
intelligence of the pupils throughout the inspectorate is quite fair. 
Generally speaking too they are of bright and sunny dispositions. I 
have been able by means of intelligence tests to discover a certain num- 
ber of subnormal and what is more gratifying a larger number of 
pupils of superior ability. This is a side of school work that is coming 
to the front in the States and should receive attention at our Normal 
schools. Promotion and grading at present are based on no very 
scientific principle. With the rapid changing of teachers and the 
tendency among teachers to be suspicious of their predecessors’ work, 
pupils arc on the whole retarded. Endeavouring as accurately as possible 
to average the amount of retardation throughout the inspectorate I 
would say it amounted to a year and a half for each pupil. Pupils who 
are required in the second term to go over what they did in the first 
term, because a new teacher is in the school lose interest and fail to 
make progress. Reading is in the great majority of schools little more 
than word naming. Now and then a girl reads with enthusiasm and 


202 


Department of Education 


expression but most pupils, boys and girls alike, are slow, hesitant and 
monotonous. Arithmetic is not what it should be. It is a rare pupil 
who can both perform the mechanical work accurately and find the 
solution for a problem of ordinary difficulty without help. In measur- 
ing windows or blackboard 'where the measurements may be in inches, 
there are astonishingly few pupils who can get the area in square feet 
at once by converting the inches into feet and fractions of a foot, or, 
keeping the measurement in inches can symbolise the whole operation 
and by cancellation reduce the amount of mechanical work. Composi- 
tion is not satisfactory. Oral expression is scarcely cultivated at all 
while written work is not done systematically or thoroughly enough. 

(b) Special subjects — Physical training according to the Strath- 
cona syllabus receives five or ten minutes a day in most schools but 
there is no systematic teaching of what is far more important, namely, 
games, nor much supervision of the playground. Household science 
except in Qu’Appelle and the few schools in which the hot lunch is 
given, is not taught. There are very few school gardens in my inspec- 
torate and those that there are, are not very successful, dry weather 
and gophers being enemies too powerful. Even where the school exhi- 
bition is in vogue the tendency is for children to bring their exhibits 
from their own plot in the home garden. Manual training other than 
rhe paper folding and construction work in the primary grades of all 
schools is not taught. Agriculture except as an option in Grade VIII 
is not taught or not taught practically. Teachers on this subject make 
insufficient use of what pupils know of the subject from home opera- 
tions. Nature study when taught takes too prosy and too practical a 
turn. The development of the powers of observation I take to be the 
true aim of nature study, the ability to see “the beauty and the wonder 
and the power, the shows of things, their colours, lights and shades, 
changes, surprises,” but this purpose is too often lost in the humdrum 
dull way in which nature study is generally taught. 

Progress of Pupils. — (a) In common subjects. The average 
dated districts in the inspectorate. Dakota school district No. 1814 
has an arrangement with Francis S.D. No. 777 but the two districts 
are not formally consolidated. There is a good deal of vague handling 
of the consolidation idea. People start the subject in a district and 
'cause much unrest and dissatisfaction with actual conditions without 
facing the inherent difficulties due to our climate and to our sparse and 
scattered population. There should be no premature forcing of this 
issue. A long preliminary discussion of the subject should precede 
action. Consolidation will no doubt mean better attendance. It ought 
to mean better teaching, if you could be sure that you had not merely 
two or more illtrained teachers instead of one. But whatever the teach- 
ing and attendance may be, consolidation in the majority of cases is 
scarcely consummated before it is discovered that the conveyance is 
not as comfortable as was promised, nor the teaching so much better, 
while the cost is always greater. It seems to me that there is some 
force in the argument of the opponents of the scheme, namely that the 
children are too long in the rigs, that the rigs are not always comfort- 
able, that the conduct of the children is not improved by the lack of 


Annual Report, 1919 


203 


supervision in the rigs, and that the presence of an educated refined 
joung woman in each four or five miles square is a good thing for the 
community, especially if the young woman has any gifts for social 
usefulness. With well educated, properly trained and zealous teachers 
able and eager to make the school an intellectual hot-point the difference 
between the one teacher school and the consolidated school of two or 
three teachers would seem to me to be difference betwen tweedledum 
and tweedledee. 

Work as Inspector . — From the time I set out in the spring until 
October I used a car in getting about the country. The unseasonably 
early winter necessitated my changing to horse and rig or train much 
earlier than usual. In using a car there are advantages even though one 
does go home every night. One is much surer of reaching the after- 
noon school on time and can more easily find time to see the secretary 
or chairman of the school hoard. The chief difficulties encountered 
in my work are the annual road grading which made heavy or impas- 
sable stretches of road and the neglect on the part of secretaries to 
notify me of the closing of schools for holidays, a negligence which 
resulted in many fruitless visits. 

The first four months of the year I spent in Normal school work in 
Regina in connection with first and second class work. Three weeks 
in July were occupied with examination work at Regina as a member 
of the consulting committee. I visited 98 schools, 124 depart- 
ments, once. One school only, Candiac No. 4247, organised late 
in the year after I had been in that neighbourhood, was not visited. 
Fifty schools, 60 departments, were visited a second time and one 
school, four departments, a third time. In addition to the work already 
mentioned I set four papers for the Departmental examinations and 
read some fifty papers on different subjects on appeal. I endeavoxir to 
see the secretary, who is usually a trustee, of every school district I 
visit. Mv plan is to take my territory by municipalities and, before 
leaving, to have a meeting of teachers in the local centre on a Saturday 
for a sort of miniature institute discussing practical school topics. I 
endeavour at these meetings in addition to organise a teachers’ associa- 
tion for the municipality. A very successful association was organised 
in the Indian Head municipality t which has met every month since, 
alternately at Sintaluta and Indian Head and has had some very vital 
and profitable discussions of school methods. I intend to complete 
this organisation for all the municipalities in the coming year. I had 
a very successful organisation meeting for school exhibition purposes 
in Francis on December 13, at which Mr. F. W. Bates was present. 
The municipal council at my request made a grant of $100 to the 
cause and the reeve and councillors and trustees and teachers from 
eighteen of the twenty-four -districts in the municipality were present. 
The central Saskatchewan Teachers’ Association held a very profitable 
convention at Qu’Appelle on October 2 and 3 including an exhibition 
of garden and class room work. 

I low the work of Inspection might be made more effective . — 
Effective inspectoral work depends it seems to me on three factors : 
(1) the extent of our territory (2) freedom from financial anxiety and 


204 


Department of Education 


(3) our own mental and professional equipment for our work. Our 
work should become more supervisory rather than inspectoral and to 
become so in a greater degree we should be able to spend all day in 
a school and revisit all schools once and some twice or three times in 
the year. The size of our territories though being reduced is still too 
large for proper supervision. Finally, and most important of all, the 
work of inspection might be immensely improved if the government 
would either let us away in detachments to take psychological courses 
in Columbia, Chicago or Leland Stanford Universities, or bring into 
Saskatchewan a couple of men well trained in the Binet-Simmon intelli- 
gence tests and give the inspectors a one or two months’ course. 
The intelligence tests and the standard tests in different subjects are, 
taken together, the two greatest educational achievements of the last 
fifty years and the training of inspectors to give these tests and to 
suggest the remedy for retarded pupils, and the proper courses for 
accelerates, as those of superior intelligence are termed, would make 
the work of inspection more definite, add to its prestige, and result in 
untold benefit to the schools. There are horn, we are told, about as 
many children of superior as of inferior ability, hut while we have 
some idea of when there is a lack of intelligence we are very slow to 
recognise superior ability. Only one in ten of possible geniuses is 
detected and helped to develop his talent. The detection of the other 
nine and their development, for some genius will not out without help, 
would probably revolutionise the departments of life in which these 
superior people would work, not to speak of the more modest achieve- 
ment of making the best of the defectives. I trust the department will 
at some near date consider the suggestion of giving its inspectors the 
opportunity for the psychological training I have mentioned. 

I have the honour to he, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. Marshall. 


Wadena, January 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the fol- 
lowing report of my work as inspector of schools in the Wadena district 
for the year 1919. 

The inspectorate for 1919 consisted of the following rural munici- 
palities: Nos. 305, 335, 336, 337, 338, 366, 367, 368 and 398, and 
included the towns of Wadena and Watson, and the incorporated 
villages of Quill Lake, Kuroki, Margo and Invermay. 

There were 112 school districts at the beginning of the year. 
During the year two schools were put in operation for the first time, 
one new district organised and three departments added. Willow 
Glen S.D. Ho. 2435 was the only school kept closed on account of an 
insufficient number of children and they were sent to adjacent schools. 


Annual Report, 1919 


205 


Bateston S.D. 1ST o. 3350, not having any building, arranged for the 
conveyance of the children to Kelvington S.D. No. 1683, but this did 
not prove altogether satisfactory as the van did not continue its trips 
throughout the whole year. 

The attendance at the schools was exceptionally good. In a few 
cases The School Attendance Act served as a stimulus where parents 
did not realise the importance of allowing their children to attend. 
There was a decided increase in the number of pupils in attendance 
who were beyond the compulsory school age. 

School boards were generally willing to pay any reasonable salaries 
that their schools might be kept in operation. The supply of teachers 
was sufficient to put all schools in operation. Some untrained teachers 
were employed for short terms. These were carefully selected and 
special attention was given to the direction and supervision of their 
work, with fairly satisfactory results. 

A school convention was held at Wadena on October 9 and 10. 
Besides the day sessions, two well-attended evening sessions were held. 
Appropriate and interesting addresses were given by Mr. R. F. Black- 
lock, Registrar of the Department of Education, Mr. A. M. McDermott 
Supervisor of Extension Work in School Agriculture, and Miss 
Willoughby of the School Hygiene staff. 

A non-competitive exhibit of the work of the different schools was 
held, simultaneously with the convention. Specimens of woodwork, 
nature study, penmanship, and art were very creditable. Kelvingside 
S.D. No. 3537 (Miss Norma Massey, teacher), held a very successful 
school fair which was a centre of interest for the whole community. 
Prizes were awarded and a general fete day was observed. 

The hot lunch is now installed in a large number of the schools. 
Many of the children walk three miles morning and evening, and in 
some extreme cases, five and even six miles to attend school. In such 
cases the warm dinner is imperative and adds greatly to the efficiency 
of the pupils. 

I assisted in Normal School work in Moose Jaw during the months 
of January, February and part of March. 

I have given educational addresses at various gatherings and 
availed myself of every opportunity of keeping in touch with the people 
of the inspectorate, to promote and maintain their interest in the cause 
of education. 

I have the honour to he, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

N. L. Massey. 


206 


Department of Education 


Shaun a von, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
the following report on the Shaunavon inspectorate for the year 1919. 

This territory, now shrunk to half its former size, covers rural 
municipalities 49, 76, 77, 78, 108, IS and 19 and local improvement 
districts 17, 47 and 48. These last are mainly ranching country 
traversed by the canyonlike trench of the Whitemud river. A bare 
half dozen schools lie within their borders. 

At the beginning of 1919 there were 83 school districts 
providing 99 departments and eight new districts were erected 
during the course of the year. Six of these, however, have failed to 
build, owing to the severe weather in October or because of delay in 
organisation. Of the other two, Beauchamp S.D. Ho. 414 has opened 
with a good building equipped with inside toilets, and River burn S.D. 
Ho. 4209 has commenced school in temporary premises. Three dis- 
tricts held no school but sent their children to neighbouring districts, 
Powermine S.D. Ho. 2551 conveying them to Shaunavon, Marne S.D. 
Ho. 4043, to White Water and Voll S.D. Ho. 2934 arranging with 
surrounding schools but not providing conveyance. Two of these 
districts possess school buildings but Marne, with ten children, has not 
yet built. 

The attendance of the children in the 101 departments now 
available is an encouraging indication of the change being brought 
about by the administration of The School Attendance Act. Figures 
based upon the attendance in 70 schools prior to the date of 
inspection give a percentage of well over 80 and confirm the opinion 
noted in my report for 1918 as to the beneficial working of the Act. 

The following analysis of the population is based upon the 
parentage of the school children and is therefore only a rude approx- 
imation : 


American one-half 

Canadian (other than French Canadian) less than . . . .one-third 

French or French Canadian one-tenth 

British one-tenth 


The American element which is so pronounced over the larger 
part of the area and particularly in the southern half, is largely of 
Scandinavian origin. In fact Horwegian and Swedish Americans in 
the proportion of three of the former to the one of the latter, appear 
to make up one-quarter of the total population. French and French- 
Canadians are gathered mainly around Ponteix in the eastern part of 
the inspectorate; a number of Belgians are associated with a smaller 
group of French settlers in the west, south of Dollard; and there is 
a small colony of Finns in Hummola School District, south-west of 
Shaunavon. 

Ho just estimate can be formed of the progress of education in 
this area without keeping in mind the ill fortune which has brought 
farming almost to the verge of disaster. For three, and in some cases 
four vears, many farmers have failed to recover from their fields 


Annual Report, 1919 


207 


sufficient grain for the next seeding. At the present time there is 
scarcely any feed to be found even after the strawpiles of 1915 have 
been carefully sifted. Cattle and horses are being shot or left to die, 
or at best are sold for a song, and the distributors of relief, food and 
clothing meet with many distressing cases of want and even starvation. 
It is not difficult to imagine the dismay with which these homesteaders 
look forward to the coming spring without seed for their fields or feed 
for their workhorses, and it can be no matter for surprise that the 
gloomy outlook has depressed all forms of public activity. 

In spite of this there are signs of a growing desire to keep the 
schools open for a longer term. It is true that most of the rural schools 
opened in April and May, but this was mainly because of delay in 
obtaining teachers, and also in part to difficulties in the mail service. 
In most cases it had been the intention of the trustees to open in March. 
Earlier than this is not as a rule thought feasible owing to the severity 
of the weather. 

One cannot resist the feeling that local administration by districts 
in this inspectorate is frequently faulty. There are, of course, many 
trustees who are actuated by disinterested motives and their work 
deserves the highest praise. But in too many districts and especially so 
towards the south, community life is sacrificed to a factious litigious 
spirit. Private quarrels, however remote from school in their origin, 
tend to find vent at this storm-centre ; the school becomes the battle- 
ground of the district and unfortunately whichever side wins the 
children lose. Even apart from those more extreme cases where a 
district is divided against itself, there are other instances where it is 
clear that trustees are only too susceptible and teachers too exposed to 
local pressure and intrigue. 

Buildings and Equipment . — About one-quarter of the school build- 
ings were found in a neglected and dilapidated condition, nearly the 
same number of districts have provided no stable, one-half have grounds 
which have remained untouched since the fire guard was ploughed and 
three-fourths have no fence. The newer buildings are distinguished by 
their correct lighting and improved heating system. Two-thirds of the 
schools are free from cross-lighting, and fifty-three have jacketed stoves, 
practically all of the Waterbury type. Some buildings deteriorate at 
an astonishing rate, -particularly where there is no fence. One school 
with so recent a number as 4079 already requires repainting and wears 
a look of premature old age. 

Tn view of the straitened circumstances of the ratepayers it was 
felt to he at once futile and impolitic to press for any expensive improve- 
ments and attention was concentrated upon sanitary conditions; privies, 
water supply and cleaning. One had to keep in mind not merely expense 
but also the difficulty in remote districts of getting labour and even 
materials for repairs such as, for example, window glass. I have there- 
fore followed the fixed rule of recommending only such appointments 
as require a minimum of care and attendance from outside, and are 
as nearly as possible foolproof and incapable of getting out of repair. 

Bv' far the most unsatisfactory feature is the appointment and 
care of closets. Even in the newer schools their construction is almost 
invariably in such marked contrast with the school building as to suggest 


208 


Department op Education 


that if they appear on the plans submitted to the department those plans 
are seldom adhered to by the builder. The fault is not so much that 
they are nearly always outside closets of the earth-pit kind for even 
such a closet well-kept is better than an untended indoor toilet. But 
they are seldom lighted and ventilated, never scrubbed out, and never 
by any chance protected from flies. In forty-six schools the closets were 
recorded as “poor” or “bad” while only four rural schools have urinals 
for the boys. In many cases the earth-pits have not been dug. During 
1918 I enclosed a copy of “Recommendations Concerning School 
Toilets” in every report sent to trustees, and made special mention of 
the danger of infection from flies. The results were very discouraging 
and during the past year I have relied more upon personal interviews 
with trustees. The root of the evil is that conditions at home are even 
worse than at school. Wherever one goes, in town or country, farmhouse 
or hotel, the average closet (there are exceptions, of course) can only 
be described as an object of horror, and as long as this is so it will be 
a struggle to break down the indifference and passive resistance so often 
shown. The newer kinds of toilet are apt to be either unworkable or 
so costly as to be prohibitive, at least in this countryside. Two districts 
near Shaunavon will serve as illustrations. In the one an expensive 
closet of the new chemical type installed last spring was already out 
of order a few months after school had opened. In the other the trustees 
put in removable pans but were unable to find anyone to empty them. 
After the Chairman had finally been obliged to do this himself, rising 
at four o’clock to journey to the school, then hurrying back for his day’s 
work, the pans were put aside for the older earth-pit. The problem is 
how to make the best of this simplest type of closet. It is the type 
which has possession of the field both in the schools and in the homes, 
and if the school can show the home that even this primitive form can 
be kept in a state of comparative decency, teachers will not have 
laboured in vain. 

Judging from the number of schools in which flies are a pest, it 
would seem well if all our teachers were made acquainted with some 
such book as “House Flies and How They Spread Disease” by Dr. 
Hewitt, Dominion Entomologist. 

The supply of water is always a difficult problem and has been 
unusually so during the past rainless summer which exhausted wells 
and sloughs which had never before been known to go dry. The under- 
ground tank fed by rain water from the roof is useless here where 
rainfall is so scanty. Two schools south of East End, Dunkeely S.D. 
No. 2980 and Eastbrook S.D. No. 2925, have made the experiment of 
building, just outside the school wall, an underground cement cistern 
which communicates with a pump placed inside the anteroom. The 
cisterns hold about eight barrels and are filled from neighbouring wells. 
As a receptacle for holding drinking water the porcelain crock with 
a serviceable faucet is much preferable to the more expensive drinking 
fountain. The drinking fountain is found usually out of order and is 
not easily mended. 1 have known a plumber fail to make the necessary 
repairs. The water cooler on the other hand meets the requirements 
laid down above. It is inexpensive, can scarcely get out of order and 
needs no attention which cannot be given by teacher or pupils. Better 


Annual Report, 1919 


209 


still, it provides a training in the use of individual cups and this strikes 
a much-needed blow at the farmhouse family dipper. 

In thirty-eight schools the desks were loose or in some other respect 
unsatisfactory. Adjustable desks were found in only seven districts, 
and even some of these were not free from serious defects. It is not 
generally recognised that among many faults in the so-called non- 
adjustable desks not the least is the very fact that it is adjustable, and 
that in the only way in which it should not be, namely in the horizontal 
distance between desk and seat. This is a fault which is shared by 
some of the newer adjustable desks but it is not found in the desks of 
fifty years ago. It is due to the remarkable fact that instead of a desk 
and its seat forming a unit, the unit of construction is a desk plus the 
seat of another desk, surely one of the strangest innovations ever made 
in school equipment. It is in order to render this adjustment immobile 
that the Department requires desks to be fastened to the floor or to 
strips of wood. This regulation is one of the least observed because 
it is so seldom understood even by teachers and one of the advantages 
I have found in personal visits to trustees has been the opportunity 
thus gained of pointing out the purpose of the regulation. Even when 
trustees have endeavoured to meet the requirement, the correct overlap 
of desk-top over seat is seldom found. In some cases desks are grouped 
upon short wooden strips leaving a wrong adjustment between a desk 
or seat in one group and the corresponding seat or desk in another 
group, in front or behind. An inspector feels that he can make little 
headway against the evil, knowing that even if the desks are properly 
adjusted after his visit they will probably be wrong again after the 
next dance held in the school room. One wishes that it were possible 
to place an injunction upon school furnishing houses issuing such desks. 
There are hundreds of thousands of them in Canadian schools and they 
are so expensive, costing, it is said, fifty per cent, of the total equipment, 
that when once they have been bought it is practically impossible to- get 
them changed. I wish to emphasise the fact that the strictures just 
urged apply to all desks, whether double or single, non-ad justable or 
adjustable, where the desk and its own seat do not form a unit. The 
worst instance of faulty seating in this inspectorate was found, I regret 
to say, in a new school equipped with new adjustable desks and under 
the charge of a teacher holding a Second Class (temporary) certificate. 
The standards of the desks were wider apart than those of the seats 
and the screwing down to strips of wood had been carelessly done. Many 
were lopsided, the adjustments being most haphazard. Although there 
were 1 9 desks for 1 1 children the latter were invariably seated 
in those desks which had the worst list to starboard. 

Teachers . — The following table gives an analysis of the teachers 
in this inspectorate according to the certificate held : 


First Class 15% 

Second Class 24% 

Third Class 2 r % 

Provisional 32% 


As has already been pointed out, the difficulty of obtaining teachers 
is due not only to the prevailing shortage but also the long delays caused 
bv correspondence. In the case of outlying school districts a reply bv 


210 


Department of Education 


mail frequently takes twelve or more days. Triangular correspondence 
between Regina, trustees and inspector often takes up nearly twice 
that time. 

The “permit” teacher remains very largely master of the situation 
in this part of Saskatchewan. Usually she has local influence and not 
only does she occupy a post which ought to belong to a trained teacher, 
but she frequently introduces a friend or relative to neighbouring 
trustees. A teacher holding a first class certificate is as likely as not 
to receive a lower salary than the majority of these teachers with 
provisional certificates. A particularly obnoxious type of ‘‘permit” 
teacher does not scruple to promote undeserving pupils just before 
leaving the district, with the result of making matters difficult for her 
successor. In most of the cases of inquiry which had to be made into 
complaints and petitions brought by ratepayers against teachers, it was 
found that the teacher in question was trained, while her predecessor, 
with whom she was unfavourably contrasted, held no other qualification 
than that of popularity. 

It is a refreshing experience to meet with a teacher who has a 
sincere enthusiasm for some single branch of instruction. This is a 
virtue which enables one to condone many faults, and moreover the 
special interest tends to spread to other subjects and to raise the general 
level of the teaching. This general standard would be much higher 
than it is if teachers could be induced to spend more time in preparation 
and in enlarging their range of reading. The Teachers’ Reading Course, 
which cannot but produce beneficial results, suggests that something 
more might be done in this direction through the establishment of a 
pedagogical lending library at one or two central points in an inspec- 
torate. 

As in 1918, so again during the past year, I found that the average 
amount of retardation is about two years, that nearly three quarters 
of the pupils are in the four lowest grades, and that the number of 
those who reach grades VII and VIII is disappointingly small. 

The suggestion which has been made by Inspector Marshall that 
promotion and grading might be based upon the results of psychological 
tests is one which is well worth investigation by the inspectoral body 
as a whole. The Binet-Simon and Otis scales, however, measure only 
native intelligence while mental attainments and physical maturity 
would also seem to be factors claiming consideration in a method of 
grading, and for this as well as for other reasons I think that the 
investigation should also include the question of introducing standard- 
ised tests for measuring the results of teaching. 

Subjects of Instruction . — Of the common subjects of instruction, 
handwriting is perhaps the best taught. Few teachers are without some 
knowledge of the large arm exercises, although many show a lack of plan 
in their use, and some have withheld them from the younger pupils 
because they saw no immediate good results. Fatigue is a matter of 
unusual consequence in writing and there are two sources of fatigue 
involved in the adoption of slant methods which deserve more consider- 
ation than appears to have been given them. These are the crossing of 
the ulna and radius in the movement of pronation, and the eyestrain 
resulting from the angular position of the writing paper. 


Annual Report, 1919 


211 


In arithmetic it is probably the case that there is too much written 
work and that more oral exercises and instruction would bring more 
rapid progress. Written work is nevertheless indispensable and should 
be looked upon as an important form of composition, — composition 
which is frequently overlooked in shorthand, it is true, but the main 
thing is that the pupils should recognize the shorthand as such and be 
able to expand it at will into intelligible English. How seldom does 
one hear a lesson free from such jargon as “Divide nine into 288,” and 
how often does one find a child, familiar with the terms “quotient,” 
“dividend” and so on, who at the end of a division sum cannot tell us 
what has happened in some such simple words is “I have found out that 
if 288 is parted into nine shares, each share will be 32.” 

In some of the rural schools very little work is done outside the 
three R’s by teachers who reason that time diverted to other matters is 
necessarily lost to these more essential subjects, forgetting that the 
pupils are thereby starved in thought material and imagery indispens- 
able for the successful teaching of literature and composition. Nature 
study, history and geography all suffer in this way, as also for the 
additional reason that the preparation involved in teaching them is 
more than some teachers are willing to give. 

Much might be achieved if the excellent notes given in the first 
few pages of the Course of Study were expanded, if not to the extent 
of the bulky volumes of 600 pages or more issued in some parts of the 
United States, at least to something approaching the 100 and odd pages 
of the “Suggestions for the Consideration of Teachers” sent out by 
the English Board of Education. Such a booklet, containing as it 
should guidance for further reading, would promote a livelier interest 
in the subjects of instruction and a new breadth of view and treatment. 

If history is to cease to be a subject in which the pupil plays 
the part merely of a listener and reproducer, teachers should be 
encouraged to employ at least a modified form of the “source method” 
involving the use of contemporary documents, illustrations and other 
monuments of history together with problems and exercises based on 
these. The present text-books would in that case need to be supple- 
mented if not replaced, by such works as the volume on Canada in 
Bell’s History Source Books or Keatings and Fraser’s History of 
England where the documents and problems occupy more than half 
the text. 

The focus of geographical teaching should he the meaning and 
use of the orographical map, yet not one of the map cases forced upon 
the attention of trustees by school-furnishing firms contains a single 
map of this kind. Only two series of orographical maps appear to be 
on sale in Canada, and the publishers complain that there is no market 
for them. A decent map of Saskatchewan is unprocurable. The 
nearest approach to such is not the map usually sold but the homestead 
map which can be obtained free from Ottawa. 

Drawing in the schools is characterised by a frequent lack of con- 
tinuity and progression through the grades. This is especially true 
of the teaching of colour theory. In the authorised text-books is pro- 
vided an excellent course, the value and correct use of which are not 
often appreciated. I have tried to bring to the notice of teachers the 


212 


Department of Education 


new series of Industrial Art Textbooks published by the Prang Com- 
pany and I was pleased to find these in possession of one teacher who 
bad recently passed through Normal School. 

In less than half of the schools was physical training taken 
systematically and over one quarter of them had no copy of the 
authorised text. This is perhaps the only subject in which strict 
adherence to the text should be enforced. The sequence of exercises 
laid down is of such vital importance that it ought to be considered a 
matter of principle not to tamper with the tables except in accordance 
with the important chapter on “Order and Progression.” 

Large Districts .- — The only large district in the inspectorate is 
Aneroid S.D. No. 2704, covering fifty square miles. Since its forma- 
tion in 1913 it has been operated with much success, although the 
heavy cost of conveyance is occasionally the object of criticism. The 
brick building, substantial and well-equipped, provides four depart- 
ments in the charge of one first-class and three second-class certificated 
teachers. In December the enrolment was 120 pupils classified below: 


Grade 

T 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

Vh. 

Junior 

Form 

Total 

Pupils.. . . 

22 

17 

12 

17 

21 


13 

8 

10 

120 


It will be seen from this table that instead of one-half, less than 
one-third of the pupils are in the two lowest grades, and fifty-seven 
per cent, instead of seventy-five per cent, are in the first four grades. 
The average attendance from January to December was ninety-two per 
cent, in three upper rooms and 80 per cent, in the primary depart- 
ment. Thirty-five of the pupils, a smaller proportion than in previous 
years, were conveyed to the school from outside. Five routes were in 
use, the conveyances being Ford cars and covered vans on wheels or 
sleighs according to the season. On the whole it may be said that the 
experiment has been very successful. 

Work of Inspection . — During the year seventy-seven school depart- 
ments were inspected once and fourteen were inspected twice. One 
school was omitted, two attempts to reach it having failed, one through 
the motor of my car having burst and the other because of a blizzard. 
All the school districts were visited with this exception and two other 
districts which have only recently been erected. Twenty-one districts 
were visited more than once and some of these many times. The total 
distance travelled was nearly 6,000 miles. The Ford car was found 
to be indispensable. No horse conveyance could have covered the dis- 
tances in the time at disposal, to say nothing of the extreme scarcity of 
feed and water. Besides the work of inspection proper my time has 
been occupied in the following duties: supervision of the Vidora 

inspectorate for the first half of the year ; special inquiries into matters 
of dispute, especially in the southern part of the area ; duties as official 
trustee of one district during the last three months of the year; essay 
marking; work in connection with school exhibitions and teachers’ 


Annual Report, 1919 213 

conventions, formation of boys’ and girls’ clubs ; reports and corre- 
spondence. 

I have endeavoured to meet the secretary or the chairman of every 
school district in the hope that a personal interview would be better 
than a written report. In most districts I succeeded in doing this and 
in many cases I have reason to think that my hope was well-founded. 
At the same time it entailed utilising the noon hour to the utmost and 
was in other ways a heavy strain. I found it impossible to continue to 
do this for five days in the week and then cope with the burden of 
writing reports at the week-end. 

Early in the year a Rural Education Association was formed in 
close connection with the Shaiinavon Agricultural Society and a central 
committee was appointed for the organisation of young people’s clubs. 
Plans were laid for holding the agricultural fair, young people’s club 
fair, school exhibition and teachers’ convention all in the same week. 
I cannot say that the young people’s clubs were successful. Their 
formation took up a disproportionate amount of time — in one single 
case necessitating eight visits to a school district, including attendance 
at two meetings. Diminishing hopes of a crop led to the abandonment 
of the agricultural fair, but the remainder of the programme was 
carried out in late August. Inspector Rowan kindly co-operated with 
me in the school exhibition and in the joint convention of the teachers 
of the Vidora and Shaunavon inspectorates, which included a small 
exhibition of educational books and orographical maps. Both at the 
school and during the convention invaluable assistance was given by 
Mr. F. W. Bates and Miss Jean E. Browne. Later in the year an 
exhibition of school work and of the work of boys’ and girls’ clubs was 
held at Admiral under the auspices of the Wise Creek Agricultural 
Society. An attempt has been made during the winter to form a Home 
Reading Circle in Shaunavon, but the prevailing sense of gloom seeks 
relief in less arduous recreations. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


J. J. Maxwell. 


214 


Department of Education 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 


Canora, January 1, 1920. 


Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report of my work as inspector of schools during the vear 
1919. 

The boundaries of the Canora inspectorate were altered since my 
last report and now contain municipalities Nos. 273, 274, 271, 303 
and 304. 

During the year eighty-four schools were in operation employing 
108 teachers. Two new districts were added. Forty-one were inspected 
once only and thirty-one were inspected twice. 

Five districts were found to have unsatisfactory school houses, 
sixty-three had no stables, seventy-five had unsatisfactory toilets and 
eleven had inadequate blackboard accommodation. In nine schools 
the seating was not hygienic, in sixty-three drinking water was lack- 
ing, ten schools had no library record and two had no record of readers. 


School Attendance. — There is a marked improvement in the 
attendance of pupils since the enforcement of the new attendance law 
but no perceptible difference was noted in those schools in charge of 
the most capable teachers. There was a tendency on the part of 
several ratepayers to retaliate when teachers did their duty in report- 
ing delinquents. In some cases communications were sent to the 
Department very hostile to the teachers. On investigation I found 
every letter to be false and libellous, conceived in spite because the 
teacher had reported the non-attendance of the writer’s children. 


Local School Administration. — I regret to report very little im- 
provement in local school administration. While thoroughly believ- 
ing in co-operation and meeting the trustees as often as possible to 
advise with them, I find they show too much indifference to The School 
Act and to the duties of trustees in their relations with teachers, school 
and pupils. 

Teachers. — Our supply of qualified teachers has been better this 
year. In securing teachers our trustees have had the assistance of the 
Departmental Teachers’ Exchange, whence we have obtained some 
very good teachers. There were thirteen permits issued. Forty-one 
teachers held third-class certificates, forty-three held second-class and 
ten first-class. Seven were graduates. From the standpoint of aca- 
demic fitness our teachers surpassed those of all former years. The 
same may safely be said concerning their pedagogical fitness. 

As to salaries only a few were amply compensated. The average 
salary was less than that of a billiard marker or of a barber. A teacher, 
whose education has entailed considerable expense, should receive as 
much compensation as a good mechanic at least. 

% 

Progress. — I am pleased to report a little progress in the three 
“R’s,” but in agriculture, manual training and school gardening there 
is room for considerable improvement. 


Annual- Report, 1919 


215 


Consolidated Districts . — There are no consolidated schools in the 
inspectorate. 

Work as inspector . — I travel in a car, which is the most up-to- 
date means of getting from place to place. When I reach the outskirts 
of civilisation where the trails are impossible, I hire a farmer to drive 
me or walk to and from the school, being somewhat of a pedestrian. 

From January 1, till March 15, I was in charge of the Third 
Class Normal session at Yorkton, where forty-eight teachers were in 
training. 

During the year a new High School was established by the 
Minister at Kamsack and every effort is being made by the people of 
Canora to organise a rural High School. 

Our sixth annual teachers’ convention was held at Kamsack on 
September 25 and 26. Dr. Weir and Miss Jean Browne rendered 
valuable assistance. There were 110 in attendance. The organisation 
of our school fairs is interfered with by annual alterations of inspec- 
toral boundaries. 

In conclusion I think it only fair to the teachers to say that a 
large proportion of them this year are endowed with natural teaching 
ability. Not so many of them seem to despise the teaching profession 
as unworthy of their powers and ambitions. Quite a few of them take 
the problem seriously and give all their thought and energy to the 
performance of their duties and make efficiency the aim of the school, 
seeking to develop in each pupil the capacity for happy and useful 
service. 

In this inspectorate we require teachers with special fitness to 
leach non-English pupils. The agencies should never lose sight of this 
fact in sending teachers to us. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Arthur L. Merrill. 


216 


Department of Education 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 


Sir, — I beg to present my annual report on the schools in the 
Regina inspectorate for the year 1919. 

This inspectorate consists of the following municipalities: Eden- 
wold Ho. 158, Sherwood Ho. 159, Lumsden Ho. 189 and the city of 
Regina. 

The number of districts in the inspectorate on January 1 , 1919, 
was fifty-three. Of these forty-five were schools of one department and 
eight were schools of more than one department. The total number of 
departments was 187, of which 143 were in schools of more than one 
department. Only one school district, Herchmer S.D. Ho. 131, is not 
in operation, an arrangement having been made to send the pupils to 
Regina schools. 

School attendance in this inspectorate is very good and The School 
Attendance Act is working well. I believe the attendance has improved 
considerably since the enforcement of the Act. In Regina there is a 
good truant officer and children not at school are closely looked after. 

The supply of teachers in this inspectorate is adequate. Ho diffi- 
culty is experienced in getting qualified' teachers. Salaries have 
increased considerably the last few years and rural school trustees have 
responded to changed conditions much better than those in towns and 
cities. 

Local school administration is on the whole satisfactory. In this 
inspectorate a number of new school houses should be erected and it 
is somewhat difficult to induce some boards of trustees to deal with this 
matter. In two districts this year, modern schools have been built and 
I hope other districts will soon follow their example. In many dis- 
tricts there is a desire on the part of the trustees to keep their schools 
open as long as possible, and to keep them open in winter 
months rather than in summer. I always encourage them 
to do so for the pupils make better progress if the schools are kept 
open in winter. Those which close in winter frequently experience 
difficulty in having their schools open the required number of days. 
The difficulties in the way of a longer school year are principally (i) 
the severity of our winter, (ii) distance from school of many of the 
pupils and (iii) poor school buildings which are often very cold. 

Most school boards have a good attitude towards improving 
equipment and recommendations to them in this respect are generally 
acted on. It is more difficult, I find, to get trustees to improve their 
school grounds. When the grounds are rough and require levelling I 
recommend that they break up half the first year and when this is fit 
for a play ground break up the remainder. The newer schools are 
as a rule well lighted, heated and ventilated and are provided with 
sanitary closets, but the old buildings are poorly lighted and some of 
them poorly heated and ventilated. The water supply in many of the 
districts in this inspectorate is a big problem and the trustees are 
doing their best to solve it. I recommend to the trustees, to try to get 
some person to bring a supply each day and to have a water cooler to 


Annual- Report, 1919 217 

put it in, from which it may be drawn by a tap, and that each pupil 
have a cup of his own. 

The work done in the common subjects, reading, arithmetic, writ- 
ing, etc., is on the whole satisfactory. The value of a school will always 
depend on the efficiency of the teacher. Our Saskatchewan-trained 
teachers, it always seems to me, do the best work and our Normal 
schools are to be commended for the training they are giving their 
students. Agriculture is little taught in the schools, except when 
taught to Grade VIII for the purposes of examination. Manual train- 
ing is not taken up to any extent in rural, village and town schools. 
Tn Regina the six larger schools have well equipped manual training 
rooms. Three instructors devote all their time to this work, each 
having charge of two schools. Rural school gardens during the last 
few years have not been very successful owing to the dry conditions 
prevailing. 

The noon lunch has been instituted in a number of rural schools. 
In addition to providing the pupils with a hot meal at noon, this tends 
to broaden and refine the social side of rural school life. 

The physical training in some schools is very good. The teachers 
who have graduated of late years from our Normal Schools do satis- 
factory work, as a rule,, but teachers from other provinces, except Nova 
Scotia, are somewhat indifferent to this work. 

There are no large districts in the Regina inspectorate. An attempt 
was made a year ago to organise one hut it was unsuccessful. 

Tn my work of inspection I use as a means of conveyance a Ford 
car. During the last two seasons it has proved to be a good mode of 
travel. The roads have been good, except in the late fall and with a car 
much more ground can be covered than by any other means. For nearly 
five weeks this fall I never missed a day, generally inspecting two schools 
a day and travelling long distances over rough hilly roads. The car 
enables the inspector to find suitable quarters to put up for the night 
and not to be dependent on school districts for accommodation. 

System of Inspection . — In summer I make Regina Beach in the 
northern part of my inspectorate my headquarters. In the Assiniboia 
inspectorate where I was during the month of September I found it 
advantageous to inspect the schools in the neighbourhood of one town 
and then move to another. I endeavoured to make my long drives on 
Saturdays. The only difficulty I met with was the absence of the 
teacher at school exhibitions of which I had not been notified, and in 
one case I found a school closed in preparation for a school exhibition. 
It appeared to me that some teachers made school exhibitions the means 
of getting a holiday. The regulations respecting attendance at school 
exhibitions are somewhat wide and it seems to me only those teachers 
participating, that is, whose pupils are exhibiting work, should be given 
the privilege of having those days off. 

From January 1 until May 1 I was engaged in Normal School 
work at Regina. During May and June I inspected the rural schools 
in my inspectorate. In July I was engaged in Departmental examina- 
tion work at Regina and then took my holidays. When these were 


218 


Department of Education 


finished I read fifty-one teachers’ essays and then resumed my work of 
inspection. On September 3 at the request of the Chief Inspector of 
Schools I went to Assiniboia to inspect those schools Mr. Coutts had 
been unable to visit up to that time. In the Assiniboia inspectorate 
I visited and inspected forty-two schools, visited (not inspected) three, 
visited and found closed, four. I inspected all the schools on the list 
but one, which was closed when I visited it, and to get another chance 
to inspect it I should have had to wait four days in the district. During 
the last few months when the weather was favourable I inspected rural 
and village schools and when I was unable to go to the country I 
inspected city schools. This year I have only been able to inspect those 
teachers on the Regina staffs — public and separate schools — who had 
not been previously inspected by me or who required an inspection to 
complete their permanent certificates. 

The number of inspections I made during 1919 was as follows : 


Schools of one department, one inspection 67 

two inspections 18 

Schools of more than one department one inspection 72 


two inspections 7 

a total of 189 inspections. 

When I visit a school where I think it is well to see the trustees, 
I go and see them — one or more — or if there is a ’phone in the school 
I call up the chairman or secretary. Frequently trustees call to see me 
on Saturdays and several times I have been called up on the long 
distance ’phone. I try to become acquainted with some school official 
in each district and I try to be of service to trustees in any wav I can, 
to ratepayers in trying to get them good schools and teachers, and to 
teachers by giving them assistance and advice in their work. 

I encourage yearly schools as much as possible by advising trustees 
that children do better work in such schools. It is only by having 
yearly schools that trustees can hope to keep good teachers. The great 
trouble in short term schools is that they usually have different teachers 
each term. Under such a system we can never have good results. The 
community centre idea is undergoing rapid changes. Regina is the 
social centre of my inspectorate. In this age of automobiles people 
think nothing of travelling thirty or forty miles. Practically all 
farmers have cars and come to Resina considerable distances as easily 
and as quickly as they drove a few miles not many years ago. The 
automobile has revolutionised life in the country. The farmer is novr 
the patron of our professional ball games, hockey matches, theatres 
and picture shows. He is brought near our city churches, schools and 
colleges. He is no longer dependent on the social life of his school 
district. This may not apply to many inspectoral districts, but it 
certainly does to this one. 

The work of inspection, it seems to me, is primarily to aid the 
teacher, and rural schools should be visited at least twice a year. The 
inspector must attend primarily to the teaching. Nothing can be more 
important than the teacher in the class room. Although school work, 
other than that in the class room, may be of value, we must not lose 
sight of the fact that the common subjects are the important subjects. 


Annual Repoet, 1919 


219 


If our pupils in the schools are not well taught in arithmetic, reading, 
writing, etc., the tools they are to work with, their elementary education 
has been wrongly directed. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant. 

Norman MacMurchy. 


Rosetown, January 1 , 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration my report 
on the Rosetown inspectorate for the year 1919. 

The inspectorate contains the following rural municipalities : Nos. 
286, 287, 288, 315, 316, 317 and 318 and at the beginning of the year 
there were 89 school districts with 104 departments. Two new districts 
were erected during the year and one new department was opened. The 
two new districts had no schools in operation, two conveyed the children 
to neighbouring districts, one was closed for lack of children and one 
at the time of my visit had no teacher. 

The School Attendance Act was looked upon with favour by most 
boards of trustees, and the teacher was well supported in his efforts to 
secure regular attendance. The following schedule will show the enrol- 
ment, the attendance and the percentage of attendance of schools on 
the day of my visit for the years 1918 and 1919 and increase per cent. 


Grade 

Enrolled 

Present 

Percentage 
for 1919 

Percentage 
for 1918 

Percentage 

Increase 

I 

675 

556 

82.37 

73.37 

9. 

II 

258 

217 

84. 1 

77.31 

6.79 

Ill 

260 

212 

81.54 

79. 1 

2.44 

IV 

309 

235 

76.05 

75.53 

.52 

V 

234 

197 

75.63 

70.85 

4.78 

VI 

131 

93 

70.99 

51.59 

19.4 

VII 

86 

52 

60.46 

52. 17 

8.29 

VIIJ 

155 

119 

76.77 

45.76 

31.01 

Junior 

64 

48 

75. 

67. 24 

7.76 

Middle 

6 

6 

100. 

100. 


Senior 

3 

3 

100. 

100. 



The percentage of attendance at the time of my visit was 81.35 
from Grades 1 to IV inclusive, 73.02 from Grades V to VIII inclusive 
and 78.08 in the Junior, Middle and Senior Forms. Of the High 
School students 27.39 are enrolled in the rural schools. 

Although this has been the third year of poor crops in this part 
of the province, I am pleased to inform you that the trustees of the 
various schools have done for the advancement of the educational 
interests of their children all that finances would permit. The schools 
have been renovated or remodelled, single adjustable desks have been 
purchased, the grounds have been ploughed, trees have been planted, 


220 


Department of Education 


sanitation along all lines has been better attended to, better salaries 
have been paid and better accommodation has been given to the teacher, 
and the children have been favoured with hot noon-day luncheon and 
play ground equipment. Yet, all that is being done for the children 
is not enough, for you will notice that they leave school in large 
numbers when the compulsory attendance law can no longer keep them 
there. We must devise some means to keep control of all youths until 
they are intelligently placed in business or industry. 

Of the teachers engaged, sixteen had First Class, fifty-six Second 
Class, twenty-three Third Class and six provisional certificates. Sixty- 
one of these had received their training in Saskatchewan, fifteen in 
Ontario, five in New Brunswick, two in Nova Scotia, two in Great 
Britain, six in Manitoba and four in Prince Edward Island. Six 
had no professional training. In the main, they are a faithful, ener- 
getic class of workers, both in school and in the community. It is to 
be regretted that the salaries paid are still inadequate to check the 
exodus from the teaching profession or to induce men and women of 
great ability and high purpose to enter it. Teaching has been looked 
upon in all ages as a noble profession and we would have the teacher 
view it as the noblest of all professions. 

The fundamental subjects of the curriculum come in for their due 
share of attention and are as a rule well taught. Manual training in 
the lower grades is generally well taught. Nature study and agriculture 
receive only fair attention. Greater importance is now being given to 
household science and a majority of the schools have made provision 
for the hot noon lunch. Physical training is being conducted quite 
satisfactorily. 

There are two large districts in this inspectorate, — Milden S.D. 
No. 382 containing 43 square miles, with an enrolment of 77 pupils, 
and Dinsmore S.D. No. 2349 containing 47 square miles, with an 
enrolment of 55. In each district two teachers are employed. The 
children are conveyed to and from school. The advantages are many. 
Suffice it to say, that by it the rural boy or girl is offered all the 
desirable educational advantages which the city boy or girl now has, 
and without having to go to the city to obtain them. 

All the schools in operation were inspected once. Fifteen schools of 
one department and 21 departments in village and town schools were 
inspected twice. Owing to illness during the spring term and to the 
early approach of winter during the fall term, I was unable to inspect 
all the schools a second time. / 

Five school exhibitions were held in this inspectorate during the 
year at the following centres: Laura, Harris, Milden, Eosetown and 
Fiske in rural municipalities Nos. 315, 316, 286, 287 and 288 respec- 
tively. The exhibitions at Harris, Milden and Fiske were first efforts 
and great successes. Each fair was largely attended during both day 
and evening sessions. A strong belief in their usefulness was fixed in 
the minds of many who had hitherto held vague notions of their 
importance. In the coming year, new centres will be chosen at which 
exhibitions will be held. 

The annual convention of the teachers’ association of the Eose- 
town inspectorate was held at Eosetown on October 2 and 3. T)r. Hogg, 


Annual Report, 1919 


221 


late of the University of Saskatchewan, Mr. A. S. Rose, of the Saska- 
toon Normal School, and Mr. Wm. Holliston, Principal of Buena Vista 
school, Saskatoon, very ably assisted with the programme. 

In conclusion, I beg to state that in each school district great 
strides have been made in educational affairs this year. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

S. E. M. McClelland. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 


Wat rtous, January 1, 1920. 


Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report of my 
work in the Watrous inspectorate for the year 1919. 

My division consisted of seven municipalities of which the follow- 
ing places were the municipal centres: Stalwart, Simpson, Young, 
Colonsay, Viscount, Lockwood and Nokomis. At the beginning of the 
year there w T ere 101 organised districts with 119 departments. One 
district did not operate its school at all during the year because of the 
small number of children. Three districts were included in the two 
new consolidated districts of Colonsay and Viscount. Four new dis- 
tricts were organised and four new schools built, three of which were 
operated during the fall term. One rural school was remodelled and 
enlarged to two rooms while Watrous, Nokomis, Lanigan, Viscount 
and Colonsay opened additional rooms. At the end of the year 125 
departments were in operation. There were no organised districts 
without schools of some sort although some rooms used as class rooms 
were not really fit for children. There were several areas of unorgan- 
ised territory large enough for school districts. The ratepayers of two 
of these attempted to organise but organisation was not completed. 

There were three large districts in this inspectorate — Simpson 
containing 30 sections, Colonsay over 40 and Viscount over 60. In 
Colonsay and Viscount the pupils were conveyed at public expense 
while in Simpson conveyance was provided by the parents. In both the 
Simpson and Viscount districts contracts were let for new four-roomed 
schools. The Simpson school was completed but not the Viscount one. 
The table given below will indicate the grading and enrolment of 
pupils in these schools: 


School district 

Grades 

Total 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

V! 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. 

Form 

Mid. 

Form 

Simpson 

11 

8 

15 

1 

7 

15 


11 

3 


71 

Colonsay • ■ ■ 

2(5 

8 

7 

8 

4 

7 


7 

4 

1 

70 

Viscount 

37 

12 

10 

12 

13 

12 

13 

4 

12 

3 

128 


222 


Department of Education 


Simpson had a staff of two teachers but will begin. 1920 with four. 
Colonsay had a staff of two teachers and hopes to add a third at an 
early date. Viscount had a staff of four teachers and may add one 
or two more in 1920 as the enrolment increases. These three schools 
have scarcely got going yet and it will be interesting to watch develop- 
ments. All three are located in well-settled prosperous sections of the 
country where good roads prevail and where the people are willing to 
pay for good education. It may be some time before the advantages 
are apparent but the following are some of them : 

1. Better school building and equipment. 

2. Better teachers and greater permanence in their term of service. 

•3. Greater interest in different school activities due to increased 
enrolment. 

4. A graded system of education. 

5. A higher education given locally. 

There may be a few disadvantages such as difficulty of transporta- 
tion and of securing van drivers. There may also be difficulty in 
securing good teachers capable of handling the bigger job. The same 
difficulty may be met with in securing trustees. Such a school is a 
bigger proposition than a one-roomed school and requires better and 
bigger handling. 

School attendance has improved very considerably during the 
last two years. The percentage of attendance should average between 
70 and 80. In some districts especially where several large families 
live on the very edges of districts the attendance still is unsatisfactory 
as the following table will show. 



Enrolment 

Percentage of attendance 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aug. 

School No. 1 . .. 
School No. 2. .. 

18 

19 

93.6 

80 

71.9 

68.4 

71.7 

42.8 
83. 1 

54.3 

65.7 

50 

34. 13 
60.8 


The following classification of pupils may prove interesting: 



Grades 

Total 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

School No. 1 

School No. 2 

7 

12 

3 

1 

6 

3 

2 

1 


i 

T 


18 

19 


There seems to be a tendency on the part of some parents to keep 
just within the law. They keep their children at home on an average 
five days a month and then take them from school as soon as they 
reach the age of fourteen. Some strong and healthy children 10 and 
11 years old will not travel two and three-quarter miles while their 


223 


Annual Report, 1919 

neighbours living a few hundred rods nearer the school have to go at 
seven and eight years of age. The letter but not the spirit of The 
chool Attendance Act is kept by too many. In a few cases teachers 
ave tailed to report cases and pupils have remained home who should 
i? a . v f,,k een a } school. Generally, though, teachers have co-operated 
faithfully with the Chief Attendance Officer. 

Theie was no shortage of qualified teachers in my inspectorate. 
Two or three provisionally certificated teachers taught for a few months 
until qualified teachers could be secured. A few successful third-class 
teacheis had their certificates extended but the majority were qualified 
Firsts and Seconds, many of whom have had several years’ experience. 
Theie were 24 Firsts, 70 Seconds and 31 Thirds. The salaries paid 
ranged from $900 to $1,900 a year with an average between $1,100 
and $1,200. In my estimation that is not nearly enough. The average 
should be nearer $1,500 for Firsts and Seconds. I think the teachers 
m mv inspectorate this year were the best I have had. As a body 
they were a fine class of young people. As teachers they were not all 
one could wish of course. Some were young and inexperienced and 
did. not do much real teaching, some were careless about sanitary con- 
c itions and about , caring for school property generally and others were 
careless about. their registers and school records but the majority stood 
tor the best in our Canadian citizenship. While each teacher had 
her own particular methods, devices and attitude the following more 
or less common tendencies might be noted : 

The average teacher is not a student. She is not doing much 
to improve her standing or to increase her general knowledge. She 
does not read many books on education nor does she subscribe to school 
journals. She reads very little history or literature. 

.2. Ihe aveiage teacher is not keenly alive to the importance of 
physical education. She does not know whether there is sufficient 
light, or. not. She does not worry about comfortable seating or good 
ventilation. That is the trustees’ concern but not hers. I am sure I 
found more fresh air and foul air flues closed than open; more water- 
pans dry than wet. 

3.. The average teacher is more concerned about imparting in- 
formation and teaching the mechanical than she is in developing the 
child’s faculties and training him for citizenship. 

4. The aveiage teacher fails to estimate the different subjects on 
the course of study at their true value. Arithmetic, oral reading, spell- 
ing and grammar are over valued while history, geography, literature, 
hygiene, nature study, music, art and play are undervalued. I found 
in one school, for example, five half-hour periods a week given to 
grammar in Grades V, VI and \ II and not more than two fifteen- 
minute periods to hygiene. In another school I found at least an hour 
and a half a day given to arithmetic and probably ten minutes three 
times a week to music. One is curious to know why these things are 
so generally true. The only answer I can give is that the majority 
of teachers do as their teachers did and their pupils will do as they 
do when they become teachers. Thus it is we find it a slow and diffi- 
cult process to improve the teaching done in our schools. T wish 


224 


Department of Education 


someone could devise some way of getting the average teacher to read 
and study more, to look after sanitary conditions about the school 
better and to keep the school records correctly and up-to-date. There 
would be more hope for our schools then. 

The children enrolled in our schools are, as a rule, very well 
behaved and respectful. There seems to be a tendency in the wrong 
direction this year. More than the usual number of teachers have 
found trouble with the discipline. I suppose it is the spirit of the time 
reflected in the school. We are living in a criticising age. Everyone 
is criticised and I have no doubt the authority and influence of the 
teacher is undermined by criticism in the home before the children. 
In my estimation many children start to school too young. Six or 
seven years of age is young enough. Parents having little ones to go 
to school do not always start them at the same time. This is incon- 
venient and annoying to the teacher. The poorest teaching is done in 
the primary grade and children of average ability spend from one to 
three years in Grade I, reading at most two primers. In Grade I 
many children learn bad habits of reading, writing, sitting and acting. 
The primary teacher should be the best trained and most gifted teacher 
on the staff as well as being passionately fond of children. Too often 
she is the least experienced, the youngest and the poorest trained. She 
is nearly always paid the lowest salary. The teacher who lays the 
foundation and starts the child on the road to learning should surely 
be the best. Grades II, III and IV present no difficulty hut Grades V 
and VI do. Here many pupils slow up in their progress and drop out 
altogether. These are important grades and require careful handling. 
Grades VII and VIII are the last stretch of the race to examination. 
The average age of Grade VIII pupils is at least a year too high. In 
one graded school I found the following: In Grade VII three pupils 

of 12 years, one of 13 years, two of 14 years, two of 15 years and one 
of 16 years. In Grade VIII there were two pupils of 15 years, four of 
14 years, one of 13 years and one of 12 years of age and that was six 
months before the time to write. In another graded school I found 
the following: 


Age 

Pupils in 
Grade VI 

Pupils in 
Grade VII 

Pupils in 
Grade VIII 

11 years 

4 



12 years 

5 



13 years 

3 

1 

2 

14 years 

3 


2 

If) 'years 

1 

2 

2 

16 years 



1 


In one ungraded school five pupils wrote on their Grade VIII 
examination and all passed, one with honours. Their ages were as 
follows: two, 12 years and three, 13 years. I cannot explain the cause 
for such a difference, unless it were their first teachers. 

The work of the pupils generally is characterised by lack of 
originality, thoroughness and finish. With so much to occupy their 
leisure time, less reading of standard authors is done and teachers find 


Annual Report, 1919 


225 


it just that much harder to interest their pupils in literature, history 
and composition. As intimated before, the average teacher teaches the 
common subjects or reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography, 
history and composition fairly well but seems to regard as much less 
important the special subjects of agriculture, manual training, school 
gardening, household science, art, physical drill, nature study, music 
and play. Not very much agriculture of a practical nature is taught. 
It is almost entirely a hook subject. A great many schools attempt a 
little school gardening for the sake of the garden but very little educa- 
tional value is derived from it. Manual training is not taught at all. 
A little basketry, mat weaving and paper cutting is done for school 
fair purposes but that is about all. About twenty schools have noon 
lunch outfits and serve a hot dish at noon during the cold weather. A 
short course in household science was given at Watrous in the spring. 
This proved very popular with the bigger girls and young ladies of 
the town. As soon as accommodation can be provided household 
science will be taught in the school. Art is attempted by the majority 
of teachers but only in the larger graded schools is it much of a success. 
Physical drill is taught fairly well by those teachers who have taken 
the course. It is not taught to any extent to pupils beyond Grade VIII. 
Very few teachers teach nature study except “incidentally,” as they 
say, which means not at all. Rote singing is taught by a large number 
of teachers hut very few attempt to teach singing by note. Play is 
much neglected and is badly needed in most schools. Trustees are 
providing play ground equipment but teachers are not showing any 
inclination except in a few cases, to devote any special time to the 
teaching of games. 

A good deal is said and written about municipal school boards. It 
seems to me it marks a forward movement in education and the time 
is about ripe for such a step. The local board may have given satis- 
faction years ago when less was expected of the school but in my 
estimation it is no longer giving general satisfaction. The average 
trustee is not abreast of the time in regard to school buildings and 
education in general. He is not progressive, generous and forward- 
looking. He is a busy man more interested in his own particular business 
than in the school. He is slow to act even after he has decided that 
certain improvements should be made. He apparently does not believe 
in what experts say regarding lighting and sanitation of school build- 
ings. He is not very conversant with The School Act and Regulations 
and seems to think they are intended for some other school than his. 
Some trustees will no doubt be inclined to question my statements but 
let me ask them how they account for the fact that so many schools 
do not conform to the requirements of the Department of Education. 
Let me also ask why an inspector should have to point out these defects 
again and again and then probably have to threaten to have the school 
grant witheld or an Official Trustee appointed before even a minimum 
of improvements is made. The fact of the matter is the average trustee 
does not believe the Regulations were ever intended for enforcement 
and he does not even bother to read them. His idea of a school is prob- 
ably the one he attended in Ontario or North Dakota 20 or 30 years 
ago — a school which was even then 10 years out of date. It could 


226 


Department of Education 


hardly be otherwise because where else would he get his ideas of what 
a school should be? The average trustee reads very little along the 
lines of better schools. The Farmers’ Movement, the Trustees’ Con- 
vention and the daily press are slowly educating the trustees and the 
ratepayer and I find many indications of an awakened interest in 
our rural and village schools. If trustees would acquaint themselves 
with the Regulations and with the latest ideas on schools, if they would 
take a broader and deeper interest in their school and if they would 
get things done in anything like reasonable time I should have little 
cause for complaint. At present the great majority of trustees, as far 
as my experience both as a teacher and an inspector goes, do none of 
the above. I am well aware that trustees give their services free and 
that they are busy men and that great difficulty is often experienced 
in securing labor in connection with the school. That does not alter 
the fact that the proper education of the children of the district is too 
important to be undertaken by men who know they cannot possibly 
do it justice. If trustees feel they cannot do this thing well they should 
be the first to advocate another system. If they feel they can do it well, 
then why do not they do it? Of course, trustees vary greatly. Some 
do their work very well. I have some who go ahead and do things 
without waiting for recommendations. Some are willing to make 
improvements when the necessity is pointed out to them while others 
hesitate, complain about expense, talk about the school they went to 
and then decide to wait until next year. Some have been waiting for 
twelve years to fence their grounds. Some have waited longer than 
that before they could be persuaded that a ventilation system was 
needed. Every board of trustees should have a copy of the Regulations 
and of The School Act. If they will read these they will find out just 
how far their school falls short of the minimum requirements. 

A municipal school board has been suggested to handle all the 
schools of a municipality as a city board handles the schools in a city. 
It seems to me it would have many advantages over the fifteen or six- 
teen local boards. These advantages have been given so often and by 
so many different authorities it is unnecessary for me to point them 
out here. 

I used a car in covering my field and found it very satisfactory. 

I was able to visit all my schools once, forty of them twice and a few 
three times. I could get home almost every night and was able to attend 
many meetings of trustees and teachers. I was also able to attend all 
the school fairs held in my inspectorate and visit any district at any 
time if the occasion arose. 

I lost about six weeks due to sickness in my family. I also spent 
some time in the Normal School at Saskatoon. The rest of the time with 
the exception of a few holidays I spent inspecting schools, writing 
reports and letters. I endeavoured to keep in closer touch with my 
schools this year and after sending in my recommendations I wrote to 
the different secretaries to find out what had been done regarding them. 
In the majority of cases I received favourable replies. A few failed 
to answer so I wrote a second or a third time. In the three cases not 
heard from I advised the withholding of the school grant. 


Annual Report, 1919 


227 


I have encouraged yearly schools in the few districts where short 
term schools are conducted. I am glad to say the majority of the 
schools in this inspectorate are practically yearly schools. I have also 
encouraged union picnics and field days and a number were held 
during the year. 

It seems to me that seven municipalities with 102 organised 
districts are still too many for an inspector. With four municipalities 
and sixty schools one could spend a whole day three times a year in each 
district. In that way I feel sure an inspector could render greater 
service both to the teachers and to the trustees and his life would not 
be one mad rush from the first of May to the end of December as it 
is now. 

I am satisfied that substantial improvements and progress was 
made in this inspectorate in spite of difficulties. Two four-roomed 
schools were built. Dour were remodelled. A number of grounds were 
fenced, caustic closets were installed in half a dozen schools and new 
and better outhouses provided at others. Several schools put in new 
floors and others new single adjustable desks. 

Successful school fairs were held at Young, Colonsay, Guernsey, 
Imperial and Watrous. A very successful teachers’ convention was held 
in Watrous when Mr. A. S. Rose and Dr. Hogg of Saskatoon and 
Miss Shaw of Regina gave addresses that were much appreciated. 

I look for greater improvements in 1920 when I expect two four- 
roomed, two two-roomed and six or seven one-roomed schools will be 
built besides a number of old ones being remodelled. Yearly every 
district reports an increased enrolment and the trustees are having 
great difficulty in meeting the requirements in the matter of accom- 
modation. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. J. McCulloch. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 
Minister of Education. 


Silton, January 1, 1920. 


Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report of the work done in the Last Mountain inspectorate 
for the year 1919. 

This inspectorate includes seven rural municipalities lying directly 
east of Last Mountain lake and north of the Qu’Appelle valley. At 
the beginning of the year it included 103 school districts having 119 
departments, seven of the districts having twenty-three departments. 
Two new districts were added during the year and nine departments. 
The two new districts, Thorncliffe S.D. Yo. 4183 and Llanwenarth 
S.D. Yo. 4202, proceeded to erect buildings and will open schools early 
in the new year. Unfortunately, two of the buildings in which school 
was being held were burned during the year, namely, Mission Lake 
S.D. Yo. 1716 and Lewiswyn S.D. Yo. 3272. In the latter, school had 
been held in a church but now a school building is being erected. The 


228 


Department of Education 


burning of these buildings caused tbe closing of the schools for a con- 
siderable portion of the year. Criterion S.D. No. 3766, a small district 
south of Punnichy, has not erected a school but the pupils are driven 
to Punnichy and educated there, the arrangement working very satis- 
factorily. In Wessels S.D. No. 1705 no school is held because of the 
lack of pupils. Those belonging to the district are attending other 
schools. 

The passing of The School Attendance Act has made a decided 
improvement in the regularity of attendance. This was most noted 
during the last school term, when previously the attendance was very 
bad owing to holidays, haying, harvest, threshing and cold weather. 
78 per cent, of the pupils on the roll were present on the days of 
inspection. The age of compulsory attendance should be raised from 
fourteen to seventeen years. Pupils from fifteen to seventeen 
inclusive should be compelled to attend the equivalent of at least 
100 days per annum, unless Grade VIII has been passed. There 
was a decided increase in the enrolment in all schools. Two rural 
school districts, Wallenstein S.D. No. 1795 and Fransfield 

S.D. No. 2031, found it necessary to add a second room, while an 
additional room was added in Bulyea, Govan, Southey, Mark- 
inch, Strasbourg and Silton. In the last two cases the additional 
teacher was dispensed with during the second term. Greater pressure 
should be put on school districts to compel them to keep open 200 days 
per annum in order to earn the school grant. Only cases specially 
reported on by the inspector should be excused. If this were enforced 
the rural schools would take a great step forward. 

The present administrative system, in many cases, is not satis- 
factory. A larger administrative area, such as the rural municipality, 
with a board specially elected for the purpose, should be responsible for 
engaging, paying and dismissing teachers. Smaller details might be left 
to a local committee acting under instructions from the central board. 

Teachers’ residences are needed in the majority of districts. Their 
erection would have a very beneficial effect, helping to stabilise the 
teaching profession and thus leading to a great improvement in the 
schools. The cost of maintaining efficient schools would thus be lessened. 

Short term schools, the frequent change of teachers, and the 
engagement of teachers poorly prepared are still the crying evils of 
the rural schools. The old-fashioned school rooms, with windows glaring 
on opposite sides, should be remodelled and full basements added. 
Provision should be made in these for classrooms for domestic science 
and manual training. 

The supply of teachers was better than during previous years. 
Faithful work, on the whole, was attempted. A good deal more, how- 
ever, must be done along the line of teacher-training before ideal condi- 
tions are reached in the rural schools. The boys and girls in the country 
should have as good an opportunity as those in the cities and towns. 
The salaries of teachers have risen during the year, but not in pro- 
portion to the advance in the cost of living. Unfortunately, poorly pre- 
pared, inexperienced teachers are paid almost as much as those who 
are experienced and well trained. The salaries of the latter are too low, 
being out of proportion to those paid for far less responsible work. 


Annual. Report, 1919 


229 


Unless a decided advance is made, the services of the mo3t desirable 
young men will be lost. 

Few schools attempt an allround training. The progress made by 
the pupils in the common subjects is not commensurate with the time 
spent by the majority of teachers upon them. There is plenty of time 
to give the pupils a thorough training in domestic science, manual 
training and agriculture without lessening the present efficiency in the 
common subjects. If this were attempted a heightened interest on the 
part of the pupils would be the result. Too often, nothing but instruc- 
tion in the three “E’s” is given with the result that pupils become tired 
of these subjects. As no fresh interests are appealed to. they soon 
consider attending school as not worth while. 

The following are among some of the reasons for introducing a 
more practical scheme of training in our schools. 

Constructive work makes use of and develops the sensory motor 
impulses, so strong in children, establishing the correlation of eye, brain 
and hand. It gives ample scope for sense training. It brings to the 
pupil the “joy of creativeness,” one of the chief pleasures of life. It is 
one of the best will-forming agents. The worth of a man consists more 
in what he wills than in what he knows. The joy of achieving is the 
greatest spur to further effort. Constructive work appeals to many fresh 
activities, hence the interest of the child is not only captured but held. 
Hand work is self-revealing. The worker tests himself, finds probably 
that he is untidy, thoughtless and careless. He can thus be directed 
towards self-improvement. Constructive work not only follows along 
the sound lines “from the concrete to the abstract,” but it forms a 
practical application for geometry. It also follows the order of the 
development of the race. Man grew mentally brighter by dealing with 
his environment through the work of his hands. The child is thus, in 
the various stages of his development, brought face to face with the 
problems the race had to meet and solve. 

The school is the natural supplement of the home and, as the 
manual arts are now no longer practised in the home, it devolves upon 
the school to give the pupils this experience. Constructive work tends 
to create habits of industry, thus strengthening the moral fibre of the 
child and giving him a true sense of the dignity of labour. It has 
been found to be very valuable in the development of the feebleminded 
and in the training and developing of the inferior races. We learn to 
do by doing. A person never fully realises a process until he performs 
it himself. Handwork forms a natural approach to art. The joy of 
creating some new form leads to further effort towards making that 
object still more beautiful. This gives a motive for Art without which 
its study is meaningless. “Life without industry is guilt; industry 
without art is brutality” (Ruskin). “Ornamentation is pleasant 
thought, expressed in the speech of the tool.” Handwork places the 
child in the position of a giver. He can now bestow gifts into which 
he has put something of himself. So far, he knows little of the value 
of money but he does know something of the value of his own work. 
It also promotes a readjustment among the members of a class. The 
so-called “stupid” boy in formal book work often outshines the others 
in handwork. He thus receives a fresh inspiration. Constructive work 


230 


Department of Education 


also serves to make a person valuable to his fellows and to society. It 
is indispensable in the work of the farm and is useful in the offi.ce 
as well as in the shop. It serves to give a dexterity which cannot 
otherwise be acquired. It furnishes delightful recreation and employ- 
ment for leisure hours, lessening the demand for questionable forms 
of amusement. 'When the school exercises are thus made interesting, 
it is found that pupils remain in school two or three years longer, thus 
getting a better training in English, history and the other subjects than 
they would otherwise obtain. The majority of pupils are not “book- 
minded” but rather “hand-minded.” They do not aspire to the pro- 
fessions. Hence the work of the school as at present constituted, does 
not appeal to them as being worth while. They grow tired of it and 
drop out on the first opportunity, taking the first .thing that offers 
and generally dropping into “blind alley” ways of making a living, all 
progress being at an end. The course of study is not to blame for 
this. An excellent and interesting course is there outlined. The 
average teacher, however, either through inability or indifference, fails 
to carry this into effect. The ordinary work of the school is pre- 
eminently unsocial, each one striving for the first place. To. assist a 
comrade is a school crime. Constructive work, on the other hand, is 
pre-eminently social. To assist a fellow pupil here, is only to help him 
set free the powers that are within him. 

There are three large or consolidated districts in the inspectorate, 
namely, Cupar, Duval and Mark inch, the latter having only recently 
been formed. The following tables give some interesting information : 


No. 

Name 

Size 

in 

sections 

No. of 
pupils 
enrolled 

No. of 

Certificates 

held 

Conveyance 

teachers 

1st 

2nd 

used 

972 

Cupar 

57 

173 

5 

2 

3 

8 covered 
vans 

2864 

Duval 

43 M 

73 

2 

1 

1 

4 covered 
vans 

1880 

Markinch. . . 

40M 

64 

2 

1 

1 

No vans yet 


Classification of Pupils 


School 

i 

11 

III 

IV 

Y 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Jr 

Form 

Mid. 

Form 

Total 

Cupar 

42 

28 

29 

15 

17 

7 

4 

18 

9 

4 

173 

Duval. ............ 

15 

11 

16 

11 

6 

3 


3 

8 

73 

Markinch. ......... 

31 

11 

8 

4 

6 


' 4 


64 







The attendance in these districts is above the average ; for instance, 
the attendance in the Cupar district for 1919 was in the neighbourhood 
of ninety per cent of the enrolment. 

The advantages of these large districts are evident — a better and 
more stable staff of well qualified teachers, better grading, better 
opportunities for taking up the higher work, better chance of regular 
attendance and better general equipment. 


Annual- Report, 1919 


231 


The disadvantage is chiefly in the increased expense, but this has 
been cheerfully borne because it is felt that good value has been 
received. Each of these schools is engaging an extra teacher for the 
present year. 

In the work of inspection a Ford car was made use of. This 
costs more than keeping horses on the road, but is found much more 
satisfactory, as less time is wasted, more frequent visits can be made 
and the work kept better in hand. The increased cost of public 
accommodation is a serious detriment. One hundred and twenty-three 
departments were inspected once and forty-four of these a second time. 
In addition twenty other official visits were made. All districts having 
schools in operation at any time during the year were inspected, with 
the exception of Lewiswyn S.D. Ho. 3272, Mission Lake S.D. Ho. 1716 
and Bourneville S.D. Ho. 3521. These schools were closed during the 
last term when the official visit was made, the two former because of 
The buildings having been destroyed by fire, the latter because of the 
inability of the board to secure a teacher. The schools along the line 
of rail were visited during the early spring and late fall, when travel- 
ling by auto was impracticable. As a rule a week at a time was spent 
in the field, thus giving greater opportunities for meeting school boards 
and getting acquainted with the ratepayers. 

Very successful school fairs were held at Arbury, Markinch, Earl 
Grey, Strasbourg, Duval and Govan. Four of these were attended 
by your inspector and the people addressed on educational matters. 
The teachers’ convention at Govan was attended by over fifty teachers. 
The convention accounted for three days of the inspector’s time. Four 
months were spent assisting in the Regina Hormal school. Six weeks, 
including the time allotted for holidays, were spent in visiting technical 
schools and agricultural colleges in Winnipeg, Minneapolis, Chicago, 
Guelph and Toronto and in attending the University schools, Toronto, 
where the theory and practice of manual training was taken up, practi- 
cal instruction being given in mechanical drawing including ortho- 
graphic and isometric projection, wood and sheet metal working, card- 
hoard modelling and simple bookbinding. Some days were also spent 
reading teachers’ essays on the Reading Course. 

The importance of holding yearly schools is emphasised during 
the visit to each district and its necessity and importance noted in 
reports to school boards. The Department is recommended to with- 
hold the grant where through negligence or carelessness districts fail 
to keep yearly schools. The value of school gardens and community 
enterprise was emphasised in public addresses and reports to school 
boards, also in conversations with the teachers. Some advance has 
been made, but there is room for improvement. The smaller inspector- 
ate gives better opportunities for supervision and for keeping in touch 
with general educational activities. 

A projection lantern with suitable slides would be a valuable help 
in bringing educational subjects before the people in a popular way. 


232 


Department of Education 


Increased auto expenses and the increase in the cost of public 
accommodation add to the practical difficulties of inspecting, making 
former schedules inadequate. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. G. McKeohnie. 


Estevan, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — Following the order of topics stated in your memorandum 
dated December 12, 1919, I beg to submit my report on the Estevan 
inspectorate for the year ending December 31, 1919. 

Extent of Inspectorate . — The Estevan inspectorate for 1919 com- 
prised rural municipalities Nos. 4, 5, 6, 34, 35 and 36, being smaller 
than in 1918 by rural municipality No. 7. The territory is compact, 
well served by railways and graded roads and conveniently worked 
from the town of Estevan, where I reside. There were exactly 100 
school districts in the inspectorate at the beginning of the year. None 
were added during the year, but the two districts latest organised com- 
pleted their buildings and operated schools. A third department was 
opened at Lampman S.D. No. 471 and at Black Diamond S.D. No. 
1898. Thus there was an increase of two departments but no increase 
in the number of districts during the year. The following table pre- 
sents the facts as to the operation of the schools: 



In operation 

Not in operation 

One-room schools (91 districts) 

88 

3 

Schools of more than one room (9 districts) 

35 


Total 

123 

3 




In two of the three districts with no schools in operation, no school 
houses have ever been built. 

Conditions with respect to population that developed soon after 
organisation made it inadvisable to build. Torquay S.D. 4029 con- 
ducts its school in rented quarters and has done so since it was organ- 
ised two years ago. I am satisfied that its board has acted wisely by 
thus providing, at least up to the present. 

School Attendance . — The School Attendance Act has come to be 
fairly well known and I think its effect in improving attendance is 
considerable. The following figures are significant: 


Annual. Report, 1919 


233 


1917 


No of school district 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
January 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
February 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
March 

Percentage of 
average for 
three months 

2507 

68. 6 

77. 2 

62.4 

69.4 

1329 

81. 

76.8 

79. 0 

78.9 

1391 

90.4 

88. 1 

85.6 

88. 0 

1792 

71. 1 

80.2 

70.7 

74. 

1177 

91.9 

85. 

82. 

86.3 

1022 

61.5 

52.8 

73.7 

62.6 

3693 

80.9 

76.3 

89.7 

82.3 

1295 

85. 1 

62.6 

55. 

67.5 

3546 

78.3 

89.4 

72. 1 

79.9 

1235 

76. 

67 

61. 

68. 

1865 

79.5 

84.7 

80. 

81.4 

795 

81. 

55. 

79.8 

71.9 


Percentage average 

78.7 

74.5 

74.2 

75.8 



No. of school district 

1918 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
January 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
February 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
March 

Percentage of 
average for 
three months 

2507 

81.4 

48.1 

65.4 

64.9 

1329 

70.6 

85. 

84.5 

80. 

1391 

89.3 

93.7 

91.9 

91.6 

1792 

89. 1 

99. 

99.5 

95.8 

1177 

84.7 

98. 

90.3 

91.0 

1022 

65.8 

72.2 

67.1 

68.3 

3693 

82.3 

81.7 

75. 

79.6 

1295 

76.7 

69.5 

59.6 

68. 6 

3546 

52.3 

61.5 

79.4 

64.4 

1235 

55.2 

76.3 

73.4 

68.3 

1865 

76.3 

83.8 

65. 

75.0 

795 

65.7 

90.6 

85.9 

80.7 

Percentage average 

74.1 

79.9 

78.0 

77.3 



1919 

No. of school district 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
January 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
February 

Percentage of 
attendance in 
March 

Percentage of 
average for 
three months 

2507 

94.2 

62. 

70.2 

75.4 

1329 

85.5 

84. 

80. 

83.1 

1391 

97.6 

85.8 

84.9 

89.4 

1792 

93.9 

77. 

83.3 

84.7 

1177 

88.9 

87.4 

69. 

81.7 

1022 

97. 1 

83.3 

80.6 

87.0 

3693 

77.5 

89.5 

92. 

86.3 

1295 

70.5 

75.7 

62.2 

69.4 

3546 

96.8 

64.2 

72. 1 

77.7 

1235 

97.7 

88.8 

92.7 

93.0 

1865 

89.4 

85. 

79. 1 

84.5 

795 

96 2 

83. 3 

78.9 

86. 1 






90.4 

89.5 

78.7 

83. 1 




234 


Department of Education 


A few comments on the above figures are necessary. The exceed- 
ingly high percentage for January, 1919, is partly explicable bv the 
remarkably fine weather during that month, and the same may be said 
of the good showing of February, 1919. The percentages for 1919 are 
higher than those of the corresponding months of 1918 and 1917, but it 
should be remembered that in 1919 a new rule for computing the per- 
centages was introduced and no doubt part of the superior showing for 
this year was due to the operating of the new rule. I should add that 
the rule seems to me to be an excellent one though it is not always fully 
understood. Seven of the twelve districts showed better percentages for 
1918 than for 1917 and five showed worse, while for 1919, eight show 
better results than for 1918 and four show worse. Only five of the 
districts showed a consistent improvement for the considered portions 
of the three years. This lack of consistency in improvement is far from 
reassuring, but the most suspicious feature of the schedule is the lack 
of uniformity in attendance among the districts themselves. The high 
and low figures for 1917 are 88 and 62.6; for 1918, 95.8 and 64.4; 
for 1919, 93 and 69.4. Whatever forces are keeping our children at 
school, they are far from being equally effective in all districts. The 
disparity between high and low in 1917 was 25.4 per cent; in 1918, 
31.4; in 1919, 23.6. Here as elsewhere in these comparisons, the 
figure for 1919 suggests encouragement, but when we make allowance 
for the new rule and the exceptionally fine winter of this year we 
could wish for better evidence. 

There are reasons why some districts show better attendance than 
others, and better attendance at some times than 'at others. Some 
teachers have an enthusiasm for attendance and a genius for promoting 
it. 

The fine showing of S.D. 1792 in 1918 (see table) is a case of 
this kind well known to me. In some districts the desire for school 
is keener than in others. In some districts the proportion of very young 
pupils is large, which militates against regular attendance. But the 
condition which affects the school attendance most adversely is, I 
believe, that a considerable proportion of the children of school age 
live more than two and a half miles from the school house, that is, 
beyond the jurisdiction of The School Attendance Act. This fact 
seems to me to be one of great importance. I have no means of know- 
ing the exact percentage of such children in the province but I should 
think it would be nearly 30 per cent, of the rural school population. 

While living at a greater distance than two and a half miles from 
school protects the parents of such children from the penalties of the 
Act, it does not relieve the situation from the point of view of public 
school education. The fact remains that a large number of children 
may avoid attending school regularly, or at all, if their parents are so 
disposed, the distance of over two and a half miles from school serv- 
ing for excuse or justification. We know that many parents would 
scorn to evade their obligation to educate their children by means of 
such excuse or justification. Excuse, it may be, but justification, 
never. Nothing can justify leaving children to be brought up without 
schooling, at least in well organised Saskatchewan. But the state also 
professes some obligation in respect to educating its children. How 


Annual' Report, 1919 


235 


shall it meet its obligation ? Shall it stand with those parents who are 
content to make living over two and a half miles from school an excuse 
for allowing their children to grow up without schooling, or shall it 
stand with those other parents who scorn such excuse and who are 
content with nothing short of a complete acquittal of their just obliga- 
tions. 

Though we have moved appreciably towards its realisation during 
the past few years we still fall somewhat short of our aim of giving 
every child an elementary school education. Either one of two remedies 
seems to me worthy of consideration. (1) Make the application of The 
School Attendance Act coincident with the boundaries of the school 
district with special provision for adjacent unorganised areas. (2) 
Leave the application of The School Attendance Act as at present 
within the two and a half mile limit, but make it obligatory upon 
trustees to provide conveyance to within this limit, or instead of con- 
veyance let the trustees provide a cash grant based on mileage in excess 
of two and a half miles from school, the Act extending automatically 
to include all children for whom such provision has been made. Section 
215 of The School Act hints at such a measure as I have described but 
it is impracticable for if invoked I think it would create far more 
difficulties than it would remove. 

Either the state should educate its children or individuals should 
do so or the responsibility should be shared jointly. The third of these 
alternatives is a practical compromise much resorted to by all 
enlightened states particularly in recent years. Under it the second of 
the remedies mentioned above may be eminently justified. The state 
assumes the responsibility for conveyance to within a certain distance 
of the school, throwing on the individual the responsibility for the 
balance of the distance. Its right to do this is as clear as its right to 
enact the school attendance law and it seems to me that the need for 
bringing all children under the application of the Act is exactly identical 
with that for passing the Act in the first place. To argue otherwise 
would lead to strange conclusions. 

Considerable money obligations would be incurred bv carrying out 
such a scheme as I have described. It is not necessary for me to say 
how the money should be raised. At most that is but a small detail. The 
financing of the elaborate systems of conveyance used in large districts 
shows us that we shall encounter no serious difficulty in that direction. 
But the matter of great moment is that we recognise that we have in 
our midst a condition that is remediable and that must be remedied. 
Delegations clamoring for larger grants from that inexhaustible supple- 
mentarv revenue fund might do well to bear in mind that there is no 
claim on the fund quite so good as the claim of those who live at exces- 
sive distances, from the district schools. 

The School Attendance Act is an instrument of compulsion to those 
who created the need for such a measure. We may be thankful if their 
number is not large and that the stress is applied to men and not 
children; but this should be borne in mind — that when we find it 
xieresgqrv to employ compulsion we must employ it with consistency 
and sufficiency. The influence of a few successful prosecutions in a 


236 


Depaktmunt of Education 


district has a salutary effect on attendance, but failure to prosecute in 
a few other cases has an effect in the opposite direction. 

Local Administration . — Of the eighty-eight one-teacher schools 
operated in this inspectorate during 1919, sixty opened in January, 
ten in February, ten in March, four in April, two in May and one 
in September. This leaves one school unaccounted for. I do not 
know its opening date. Of the last three two were new schools 
which opened as soon as possible. The fact that seventy schools 
opened in January and February shows that the tendency towards 
yearly schools is fairly strong, while even those that opened in March 
endeavoured, by shortening the summer holidays, to operate for 200 
days. If yearly schools were general the outlook would be bad for 
the several hundred teachers who leave our Normal Schools in 
March and May. But fortunately — or unfortunately — there is no 
immediate occasion for worry on behalf of these teachers. 

In general I am able to say that the attitude of trustees towards 
keeping the school premises and school equipment up to standard is 
reasonable. It is easy to find fault and possibly many of us are too ready 
to do so. I am less disposed to be critical now than formerly, and often 
feel differently towards instances of apparent remissness after dis- 
cussing them with the trustees. They have their side of the story. It is 
not easy to get work done at all, to say nothing of getting it done rightly. 
They are not experts in building, equipping, repairing or decorating 
schools, nor is it always easy to engage the services of those who are. 
The changing requirements of our regulations is a source of confusion 
and annoyance to them, particularly as they are not always impressed 
with the reasonableness of those requirements, that is, if they have 
heard of them which sometimes they have not. Years of crop failure, 
the high cost of living and the increase in salaries of teachers all con- 
tribute to the difficulties of administration. Yet these trustees do not 
falter in respect to what they consider as essentials and their judgment 
of essentials is fairly sound. They are plain, hardworking people, little 
impressed with new fangled ideas though often decoyed into adopting 
them, but perfectly convinced of the necessity for schools and thoroughly 
determined to provide them. They used to think that schools existed 
for the educational advantage of children, but now they are somewhat 
ashamed at being caught with such an old-fashioned idea in their 
possession. They would win your approval by means of sanitary 
drinking fountains, sanitary toilets, the noon lunch, liquid soap and 
the like, though secretly they still think the educational prosperity of 
their children is the great thing. 

I am becoming more and more a believer in the one-teacher school 
and its possibilities. To bring it to its highest efficiency certain improve- 
ments must be made. First, the system of financing should be improved 
by increasing the supplementary revenue very substantially. If two- 
thirds of the cost of operation came from this source, taxation would be 
so nearly on a provincial basis that the present element of inequality 
would be practically eliminated. I can see no good reason why the fine 
altruistic principle that “all should jointly share the responsibility for 
the education of each” should not have its application extended to ita 
logical limit. In school financing X think its logical limit would mean 


Annual Report, 1919 


237 


that about one-third of the cost of operation of the school would be left 
to be raised by district assessment. Certainly some financial respons- 
ibility should be shouldered by the district. If two to one is not the 
correct ratio it only remains to determine what is. Second, we must 
have teachers of high scholarly standing, teachers of culture, who love 
culture and who love to promote it. We must demand more of our 
teachers, not more work, but more encouragement, more wisdom in 
guiding and directing, more ambition for others, more influence towards 
learning. Of the eighty-eight one-teacher schools in this inspectorate 
only thirty-seven had pupils in Grade VIII in 1919. In each 
of fifteen of those schools Grade VIII consisted of but a 
single pupil. The total Grade VIII enrolment in the thirty- 
seven schools was only eighty-seven. Yet most of those schools 
have been in operation for years. Something has been wrong for a 
long time and still continues wrong. If we could only inspire our 
children with a love for learning! This brings me to the next con- 
sideration. Third, we must get rid of the old idea that the little 
district school is incompatible with the higher studies and we must 
dismantle this recently set up idol, the so-called “teaching of science.” 
Establish contact with literature, history and English through proper 
studies in those realms, develop his power of written and oral expression, 
and you have given a child a start in life, nay, you have given him 
life itself. 

Teachers .— There has been no shortage of teachers in this inspec- 
torate during the year. In only four schools were teachers with provi- 
sional certificates employed. Three of them had had some experience 
in teaching and the fourth, who had had no experience, did better work 
than any of the other three. It was merely the accident of aptitude 
coupled with energy and sincerity. All other teachers employed in this 
inspectorate were qualified by training. In connection with the supply 
or rather the supplying of teachers I must speak a word of praise for 
the Teachers’ Exchange. It is doing excellent work and its usefulness 
would be greatly extended if teachers and trustees would co-operate 
with it more fully. There is considerable unevenness in the matter 
of salaries. The highest paid this year was $1,600 and the lowest $800. 
The teachers in both cases had experience and efficiency and both held 
second class certificates but the higher paid was a school principal. 
There were sixty-one teachers receiving salaries of $1,000 and 
over and thirty-nine receiving between $900 and $1,000. These 
figures refer to my first visit. In some cases salaries were 
raised at midsummer but in no cases were they lowered. 
There is some evidence of a disposition to pay more for 
second and first class teachers, but other factors quite apart from 
merit really control the situation. I do not find it easy to make general 
observations on the work of teachers. Speaking of them apart from 
qualities of personality there is a remarkable sameness. Out of person- 
ality springs the power to influence and stimulate the desire of a child 
to use his powers, while professional training undertakes to ensure the 
wise direction of the child in the exercise of these powers. The methods, 
devices and drills used in Grade I bear the stamp of the Normal School, 
but. those used in other grades become less and less recognisable the 


238 


Department of Education 


higher up we go. It is, perhaps, only a coincidence that the classes 
become smaller and smaller the higher up we go, but I think there is 
some connection of cause and effect. Possibly many normal instructors 
specialise on the work of Grades I, II and III. I think Grade IV is the 
critical point in a child’s public school career. It is at this point that 
the need arises for the wise and systematic exercise of his higher 
powers, a practice that must be continued for the balance of his school 
days. We have improved on the old primary methods and practices, 
but when it comes to the studies of the upper classes we are still per- 
petuating the procedure of time out of mind. We should professionally 
attack the problem of the upper grades. 

At this point I should say a few words on promotions from grade 
to grade. Many children fall by the wayside by this process, some 
sustaining such injury to their feelings that they never quite recover. 
Some are overcome by history, some by geography, some by arithmetic 
or spelling. The penalty is the same. Further advance in their studies 
is prohibited for a year. Such is the result of arbitrary standards or 
even of rational standards when left to be applied by injudicious 
teachers. But it seems to me there is something quite artificial in these 
simultaneous yearly promotions and failures. Certainly the pupil looks 
forward to the ordeal with feelings very different from those he enter- 
tains for Christmas. The failure to make his grade is a serious mishap 
for a child and I have my doubts whether a normal child ever makes 
a real failure even though his name does not appear in the list of 
successful ones. The course of studies has its place and value, but the 
child has his nature and being. The teacher must not allow her respect 
for the one to become a restraint for the other. What a child reads, 
understands and enjoys is of far more consequence than what he 
remembers for the purpose of answering his teacher’s questions. A good 
taste acquired is worth more than any number of facts stored in 
memory. A growing imagination is far better evidence of educational 
welfare than skill in any mechanical process. In directing his activities 
the child himself should be the first consideration and the course of 
studies a very poor second. Pursuing this course you -will sometimes 
find a so-called Grade V child with Grade VIII capacity. The child 
mind is not a rigid thing and whoever attempts to fit it to a rigid 
standard will bring disaster not on the standard (the more is the pity) 
but on the child. 

General Progress of Pupils . — Looking over my notes I find very 
few schools marked “weak” and fewer still marked “excellent.” Most 
of my schools were doing satisfactory work according to prevailing 
standards which I adopt for the purpose of rating school standing. In 
a considerable number of cases I was pleased to find teachers with a 
particularly enlightened conception of the functions of their office and 
as a matter of course, pupils happy in the suitable exercise of their 
activities. The educative process is a happy one. As to the special 
subjects, with the exception of physical training, there is a more or 
less feeble and intermittent attempt to follow the course of studies, 
though Maeoun School District ISTo. 901 deserves high praise for what 
it has done in manual training. In almost every school physical training 
was taken regularly though often with such a lack of spirit and preci- 


Annual Report, 1919 


239 


sion as to make it an utter waste of time. A race around the school 
house would be far better for the children than such a performance. 
But when properly conducted at judicious intervals it has a high value 
both mental and physical. It is not intended to take the place of play. 
The game is a feature of every table which is significant of the import- 
ance attached to play. The only limit to the variety of games is the 
limit to the teacher’s enterprise. 

Large Districts. — There are no large districts in this inspectorate 
and I see no likelihood of any. A very few years ago I was strongly 
in favour of large districts but deeper consideration of the school 
problem has caused me to change my mind. In the end rural Saskat- 
chewan must depend on the small school district. It remains for us 
to see and develop its possibilities. They are great. When we have 
found a way to finance a teaching profession we have solved the 
problem. We shall make a good beginning by breaking away from the 
fascinating glamour of externals, from the spell of materialism which 
has possessed us, from the strenuous competition for glitter in which 
we are engaged with provinces and states, and concentrate on essentials. 
Much money may thus be made available for better use. 

Work of Inspection. — I do all my travelling in a Ford car except 
when visiting a few schools situated near railway stations. For a school 
inspector in this part of the province no other mode of conveyance is 
to be thought of. It has a few disadvantages. It is a light car with 
rather stiff springs which makes it bumpy. Also many of the super- 
ficial parts soon develop a little play which makes it noisy. But a man 
soon becomes so accustomed to these idiosyncrasies that he would regret 
the lack of them. The only system I have for covering my territory 
is to try to visit two schools a day when travelling is practicable, visiting 
those accessible by railway in the early spring and late fall and the 
others between those seasons. I begin each year with the hope of two 
visits to each school, but up to date this hope has not been realised. 
Last, year epidemic influenza interfered and this vear the earlv arrival 
of winter conditions cut short the country work. I made 122 first 
inspections and 70 second. The onlv school in operation anv part of 
the year that T did not inspect was Olmstead School District Ho. 1227. 
This school operated only during 1 the winter months and closed before 
T had begun my country work. The Departmental practice of collecting 
information concerning schools, particularly onening, closing and vaca- 
tion dates, and forwarding the same to the inspectors is a great con- 
venience to the latter. 

T am personally acquainted with one or more trustees or the 
secretary-treasurer in nearly every school district in my inspectorate. 
Tf there are conditions which seem to require it I make it a point 
either to call on one of the trustees or to have a meeting with the board 
before T leave the district. I feel most friendly towards the trustees, 
am anxious to discuss school problems with them and I wish to have 
them realise that such is my attitude. From vear to year instances of 
co-oreration between the trustees and myself become more and more 
freonent. For keeping in touch with teachers I have my inspectorate 
organised into three associations, one at Lampman, one at Midale and 


240 


Department of Education 


one at Estevan. All three organisations were completed in the spring 
of this year. I spent a day at each centre assisting in the organisation 
and taking a hand in the professional discussions. At Midale I 
addressed an evening meeting of the citizens. The professional results 
of the meetings at Midale and Estevan were unusually marked as I 
had ample opportunity to observe during my subsequent visits to 
schools. These spring meetings with my teachers have proved an 
excellent professional measure. This is the second year in which we 
have held them and I shall endeavour to make them a permanent 
feature in this inspectorate. My principal means of getting in touch 
with ratepayers are the school picnic and the school exhibition. The 
municipal school picnic has become a fixed event at Estevan. School 
exhibitions are held under the auspices of the agricultural society at 
Lampman, Estevan and Midale, while I hope to see the school fair 
revived at Frobisher and one organised at Torquay. The success of 
the school exhibition at Estevan this year was phenomenal ; that at 
Midale was moderate while at Lampman the yearly fair was abandoned 
because of the unusually early harvest. The prize lists used at the 
several centres are practically identical and I believe they are con- 
structed on absolutely sound educational principles. In particular they 
leave no chance of winning a prize to the pupil who depends on a spurt 
at the last month. In classroom subjects every entry must be represen- 
tative of the year’s work. As to the quality of the work called for, 
imitation is almost entirely eliminated, and independent, productive 
work is greatly emphasised. There are competitions in every subject 
of the course of study, those in the special subjects such as school 
gardening, manual training and household science being by no means 
the outstanding features, but occupying a position commensurate with 
their importance. Our prize list for 1920 was published late in October, 
1919, and mailed early in November to every school in the inspectorate. 
From every point of view this early distribution of the prize list should 
be advantageous. 

General Comments . — The reduction of inspectorates to a reason- 
able area and the assurance of comparative stability of boundaries make 
it possible for an inspector to exercise such influence as his being is 
capable of. We have dealings with trustees, teachers, parents and 
children but our ultimate interest must always be educational. I try 
to act on this view. I should like my people to see in me, not one who 
is fussy, arbitrary or dictatorial, but one who is sincerely devoted to 
their interests and those of their children. The situation is in our 
hands. No more is asked of us than we should be able to accomplish. 
It remains for us by an exercise of wisdom, sympathy, discretion and 
skill to win the confidence and good will of the public and by so doing 
establish the channels along which our influence may flow. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. Arch. McLeod. 


Annual Report, 1919 


241 


Regina, January 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

• Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I beg to report as follows on the Humboldt district and in 
connection with my work as an inspector of schools during 1919. 

The district comprised seven rural municipalities, namely, Nos. 
340, 369, 370, 371, 399, 400 and 401, with their related towns and 
villages. In this area there were 107 school districts at the opening of 
the year and 110 at its close. These districts were all visited — nine 
three times, 88 twice and 13 once, making a total of 216 visits. Seven 
districts had no school. Of these, two were newly organised, the schools 
of two were closed for lack of pupils and in three there were private 
schools. The school of one district was in operation so intermittently 
as to miss inspection at both visits. The remaining 102 districts repre- 
senting 113 (in the second term, 114) departments had their schools 
inspected — 83 twice and 19 once. In all, 185 inspections of schools 
and 209 inspections of departments were made. St. Brieux became a 
t,wo-roomed school in the second term. 

Four months ending May 1 were devoted to Normal School work 
at Regina. Field work was much impeded by the early and rather 
severe insetting of winter. The ground became frozen about October 10th 
and there was heavy snow on the 21st. Snow accumulated and tempera- 
tures became low but work was continued under increasing difficulties 
until November 22nd. Eight days had been given to the holding of 
conferences and eight further days were spent in attendance at school 
exhibitions and conventions. 

In the spring a circular was sent out to all school boards announc- 
ing joint conferences with trustees and teachers and such a conference 
was later held in each of the seven municipalities, two being held in 
t.he municipality of Hoodoo. In the aggregate 76 school districts were 
represented at these conferences and seven rural education associations 
were formed covering the whole territory with the exception of the 
rural municipality of Humboldt. Five of these associations showed 
much vitality and under their auspices school exhibitions were held in 
the fall at the following places: Annaheim, St. Brieux, Middle Lake, 
Cudworth and Dana. The associations, with one exception, derived 
their funds from municipal grants, which were made freelv, and they, 
in turn, supported a central exhibition at Humboldt held under the 
management of the teachers’ association for the district. 

At the conferences the following were the chief topics discussed: 
proper school environment ; the yearly school— comfortable quarters for 
teachers and the building of stables; the winter school — its value; the 
night school — where needed and when practicable; the large ungraded 
rural school ; the teacher — wisdom of paying a good salary — relations 
of school and home, of trustees and teacher, etc. ; the school library — 
its value and use; over-age pupils — what can be done for them; school 
exhibitions. The principle of the yearly school received quite general 
acceptance and most of the schools are either already such or steadily 
tending in that direction. The importance of the winter school was 
recognised where there are sufficient older pupils or sufficient of the 


242 


Department of Education 


young people over school age, but trustees with singular unanimity were 
not in favour of the night school in rural districts. In addition to other 
— and weighty — objections the following line of argument was pre- 
sented. The night school must depend for its teacher on the district 
school ; the night school is practicable only in the winter hence the 
district school would have to be run as a winter school ; winter is not 
a busy season on the farm and prospective night school pupils could 
attend the district school and would receive fuller and better instruction 
there than in the night school. . 

Conferences have a value and so have exhibitions. They do some- 
thing towards creating around the work of the school an atmosphere 
of friendliness and appreciation. But we should do well to recognise 
the limitations of such work. We should do well to minimise the 
importance of the spectacular. The real work of education is a quiet 
work, unostentatious and sober and can be attained only through patient 
daily tasks and the class room labours of a good teacher. 

The work of 127 teachers was inspected — twelve of the First 
Class, fifty-five of the Second, fifty-three of the Third and seven 
others. Of these teachers, twenty-three ranked as good, sixty-five 
as very fair, twenty-four as weak and fifteen as inefficient. The twenty- 
three good teachers had certificates as follows : First Class, three ; Second 
Class, eight; Third Class, twelve. Of the fifteen inefficient teachers, 
six belonged to the Second Class, seven to the Third Class and two had 
no certificates. The permit teacher was practically eliminated, only 
two permits being recommended during the year. This point, however, 
was gained not without much correspondence and a considerable 
struggle. Many unqualified teachers attempted to take charge of 
schools. Permits had been so much a matter of course that the 
jurisdiction of the Department appeared to be lost and its re-establish- 
ment was no easy matter. Even though qualified teachers were secured 
the improvement that might be expected was not noticeable. And now 
as the year closes there are indications that next year may see a return 
of the permit evil to its widest extent. Should this be so it will 
neutralise everything that has been gained in the last three years and 
will relegate to the far future all hope for a better school. It may 
even now be too late to avoid such a calamity but its effects might be 
lessened and the day of recovery might be hastened by the following 
steps: (i) a restoration of the previous regulations governing Third 

Class training and (ii) a survey by an economic expert from one of 
the Canadian universities to determine, all things considered, what 
salaries should be paid teachers under varying conditions in this prov- 
ince. The report of such an expert would give us something rational 
to go on either in an appeal to school boards or in the fixing by law of 
an economic salary. 

The general progress of pupils in school work is always relative 
to the type of teacher engaged. Almost a third of the teaching body 
in this inspectorate was classed either as weak or inefficient and the 
progress of their pupils was poor. The shifting about of teachers dur- 
ing the year also contributed to poor results. Section 202, subsection 
(2), of The School Act prevents the making of an agreement binding 
for longer than thirty days. In several cases a teacher having taught 


Annual- Report, 1919 


243 


three or four months in one district availed herself of this provision 
and resigned, then took another school more to her fancy, perhaps in 
the same neighbourhood. In too many instances the work of Grade I 
was not well done. Physical training was about as reported last 
_year. Household science in very moderate amount received attention 
in several schools — in a few cases in the form of the noonday lunch. 
Gardening was carried on in many of the schools, but not always with 
the proper viewpoint. There was a rather general use of paper con- 
struction, weaving, etc. 

A word should be said in praise of the better two-thirds of the 
teaching body. Of this section three-fourths did very fair work and 
one-fourth did work which was practically flawless and highly educa- 
tional — work that was not surpassed in the best schools of the province. 
This latter part moreover was the medium through which very often 
trustees were stirred to action and by which movements and conventions 
were made possible and successful. “The teacher is a doctor” was the 
startling statement made by one trustee ; then he expressed it thus — 
“The teacher is a healer,” and he justified this opinion by saying that 
the good teacher prevented or healed disputes in the district. A good 
teacher does all that and much more. With such teachers very many 
of our problems would disappear. 

The better school will materialise only through the labours of a 
body of such good teachers. Further, with a supply of good teachers 
the greatly magnified qitestion of the foreign-speaking would find its 
solution. This question was being met a quarter of a century ago 
by the Territorial government and in the only spirit that can attain 
success. Dr. Goggin, the able educationist who then directed our 
policy, expressed that spirit in the following words: “If these are 

to grow up as Canadian citizens they must be led to adopt our view- 
point and speak our speech. This does not imply that they shall cease 
to have a love for their mother land or mother tongue, hut that they 
shall be fitly prepared for the life they are to live in the land of their 
adoption.” (Report, 1898). 

Conversations were held with one or more members of the school 
board of each of seventy-nine districts ; members of several of these 
boards were seen more than once. Cultivation is being attended to in 
eighteen districts, of which six will plant trees in 1920. Stables were 
lacking in 51 districts. Many districts should give attention to 
quarters for teachers. Four school houses and a few stables and teach- 
ers’ residences were built, one school was partly reconstructed and six 
districts carried out considerable improvements and renovations. 

The principle of convenience in local management, to say nothing 
of the strength of public opinion, approves the existence of the present 
size district as against a municipal unit. But the same principle would 
justifv the conditional removal from the school boards to the municipal 
councils of certain matters which mav be denoted as the works side of 
school administration. For example, repairs and improvements could 
be much more conveniently effected by a body dealing with all schools 
in the municipality and it is doubtful if general progress can ever be 
made in the way of water supply and improvement of grounds until 
such matters, with others, revert to a central body when the school board 


244 


Department of Education 


does not deal satisfactorily with them. Such a departure amply safe- 
guarded from abuse could he brought about by a brief amendment to 
The School Act and would mark the commencement of a worthy 
reform. 

The School Attendance Act continues to work well. The per- 
centages indicating attendance were somewhat better even than last year. 
It must he remembered that though supported by the Act, attendance, 
like everything else, is affected to a large extent by the efficiency or 
inefficiency of the teacher. The efficient teacher who a few years ago 
would be found with an attendance of from 75 to 80 per cent, will 
now he found with 90 per cent, and upwards. It would be discourag- 
ing to find, as sometimes happens, an attendance of say 65 per cent, 
if one’s experience had not been that under similar conditions not 
long ago the figure would be down to 45 per cent, or less. In such 
cases very often the correct remedy is for the trustees to / change the 
teacher. 

The fourth annual convention of the Humboldt teachers’ associa- 
tion was held at Humboldt on October 30 and 31. The central school 
exhibition was held November 1. Between 40 and 50 teachers attended. 
Colonel Perrett, O.B.E., and Prof. Bates delivered addresses and Miss 
Campbell assisted in judging exhibits. The presence of Colonel Per- 
rett inspired the convention ; his addresses were practical and his 
general attitude evoked a note of fine good-feeling. At the evening 
session many visitors came to meet and to hear him. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. O’Brien. 


Moosomin, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I beg to submit the following report on the Moosomin 
inspectorate and my work during the year 1919. 

The Moosomin inspectorate comprises eight rural municipalities, 
the numbers of which are 91, 92, 121, 122, 123, 151, 152 and 153, 
together with the town and village municipalities. In the same area, 
there are 91 rural school districts and 10 town and village school dis- 
tricts containing 36 departments. In all, there are 101 districts con- 
taining 127 departments. During the year, three departments were 
added. There are school buildings in every district, except one which 
was organised late in the year. 

The attendance of pupils is steadily becoming better, partly owing 
to the administration of The School Attendance Act and partly to the 
increasing desire of the parents to have their children at school 
regularly. Parents realise that children cannot make thorough pro- 
gress unless the attendance is regular. A good deal of credit is due to 
the teachers for their part in creating this attitude. 


Annual Report, 1919 


245 


I find that school boards generally take an active interest in school 
matters and show good executive ability in conducting the business of 
the district. As this is an old settled part of the province, a number 
of trustees have had long experience in school matters and are familiar 
with local conditions. There has been some discussion as to whether 
or not municipal school boards would be more efficient than the trustee 
boards existing at present. I am inclined to think that the proper kind 
of local interest would be lacking if our trustee boards were removed 
and their place taken by a small body of men, not all of whom would 
be so well acquainted with parents, teachers and ratepayers as our 
trustees are in their respective districts. In order to have a really 
efficient school in any community, it is necessary to have the sympath- 
etic co-operation of all the people living therein, trustees, teachers, 
parents and ratepayers. Most of the school buildings are old. Some 
were erected at least 25 years ago and do not meet the requirements of 
the present regulations as to lighting and blackboard space. Nearly 
all have windows on two sides. Many improvements have been made, 
however. Since the advent of the school nurse into this inspectorate, 
nearly every district has effected improvement in such matters as in- 
terior and exterior decoration of school houses, lighting, heating and 
ventilation, water supply and sanitary toilets. In many cases, such 
changes involved considerable expense. 

School boards experienced no special difficulties in securing quali- 
fied teachers. As stated in my previous report, it has never been a 
problem here. The classification of the teachers as to certificates held 
is as follows: First Class, 15 per cent; Second Class, 46 per cent., 

Third Class, 32, per cent., and provisional seven per cent. The salaries 
here are lower than those in the western part of the province. The 
difference between the salary of a teacher holding a third class certifi- 
cate and that of a teacher holding a second class certificate is small. 
When engaging teachers the school boards try to secure those holding 
the better class of certificates. In actual teaching and school manage- 
ment the teachers compare favourably with those of previous years. 
In many districts the teachers are taking their part in creating and 
maintaining a good community spirit. For inspiring them to do such 
work, a share of the credit is due to the Normal Schools. Most of the 
common subjects of the curriculum are taught well. There are two 
subjects not taught as well as others, namely, arithmetic and history. 
Some teachers feel that when pupils are backward in arithmetic more 
time should he given to the subject. A better method of overcoming 
the difficulty would be to give a clearer explanation in presenting new 
topics and a vigorous, earnest drill. Occasionally the subject is not 
treated systematically. Pupils work too much in miscellaneous exer- 
cises instead of doing thorough work in each successive topic. Often 
history is not made real and as a result the pupils do not grasp facts, 
etc., readily and have little interest in the subject. There is also the 
matter of “phonics” which requires some attention. To my opinion, 
few teachers use them wisely with beginners at school. They appear to 
teach phonics as though it were a definite subject in itself like arith- 
metic instead of using it with a view to assisting in the reading. 
Agriculture in Grades VII and VTTT is taught better than nature 


246 


Department of Education 


study in the preceding grades. The school gardens are generally poor. 
The pupils take better care of home gardens from which they prepare 
some good exhibits for the school fairs. In household science the 
number of schools having hot lunch at noon is increasing. I inspected 
the physical training closely and found that the outstanding weakness 
was a lack of vigour in the performance of the exercises. 

There is only one large district in this inspectorate, namely, Tan- 
tallon S.D. Ho. 949. It includes 56 sections of land lying in and 
about the Qu’Appelle valley. The school is in the valley, the roads 
leading up and down the banks are comparatively long and steep and 
when these roads are muddy the hauling of the vans is difficult. Previ- 
ous to consolidation, there were three small districts in two of which 
the schools were in the valley and in the third about one mile back 
from the top of the north bank. In order to reach school and home 
again several children used to walk up and down the long, steep roads 
on the banks and many of them, on reaching the school, were tired and 
not in the best physical condition to do good work at school. Under 
the present system of consolidation, they ride up and down these hills 
and arrive at school better able to do a day’s work. Even though some 
children spend considerable time in conveyance, it is preferable to 
tiresome walking up and down the banks in extremely hot or cold 
weather. At first sight, the Tantallou district, owing to it topographi- 
cal features, would appear to be an unfavourable place for consolida- 
tion but such system is an effective solution of the pupils’ difficulties 
mentioned above. In addition to conveyance the pupils derive the 
advantages of a graded school, one room of which is devoted mainly 
to high school work. The cost of operating the school is proportionately 
greater than that in the small district, but from several enquiries I have 
made the people generally appear to be enthusiastic about their school. 
There are four teachers employed. The principal holds a first class 
certificate and each of the assistants holds a second. There are 128 
pupils enrolled, 99 of whom are conveyed. The number in each grade 
or form is as follows : 


Grades 


I 

II 

111 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. Form 

Mid. Form 

36 

14 

13 

12 

10 

12 

5 

14 

11 

1 


The attendance throughout has been reasonably good. At the 
time of inspection, a number were absent owing to an epidemic of 
whooping cough. 

As a means of conveyance, I use an automobile and believe it to 
be the most effective mode of conveyance. Its chief advantage is that 
any point in the inspectorate can be reached quickly. This is important 
as very often certain matters required immediate attention. The chief 
disadvantage of an automobile is experienced on muddy roads. How- 
ever, in this inspectorate the roads dry quickly and a car can be used 
almost continuously during the summer. 


Annual Report, 1919 


247 


From January 1 until May 1, I was assisting' in the Normal 
School work in Regina and during three weeks in J uly, I was in Regina 
in connection with the reading of the answer papers at the • Depart- 
mental examinations. A few days were spent in organisation work in 
four districts, in two of which new buildings were being erected for 
the first time. The other two districts were erected during the year. 
Every department in operation was inspected at least once. Seventy- 
eight rural schools were inspected once and ten twice, making in all 
98 inspections in rural districts. In schools of more than one depart- 
ment, 26 departments were inspected once and 10 twice, making a 
total of 46 inspections in such schools. By request, I assisted Dr. 
Snell, Inspector of High Schools, in inspecting the four departments 
of the Moosomin Collegiate Institute. During the year I made a 
total of 148 inspections. 

There were successful school fairs at Tantallon, Moosomin and 
Wapella. The annual convention of teachers was held at Wapella, 
there being 7 0 teachers present. Able assistance on the programme was 
given by Principal Perrett, of the Regina Normal School, James Duff, 
M.A., Chief Inspector of Schools, and Miss Jean Flatt, of the House- 
hold Science staff. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Geo. D. Ralston. 


Mortlach, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sik, — I beg to submit the following report of my work in the 
Mortlach inspectorate for the year 1919. 

The inspectorate consists of eight municipalities: Nos. 101, 102, 

103, 131, 132, 133, 162 and 163. Several ranges of hills cross the 
district from north-west to south-east. The hilly portion is but thinly 
settled and contains considerable unorganised territory. 

At the beginning of the year the inspectorate contained 87 dis- 
tricts as follows: one school of four departments, one of three depart- 
ments, four of two departments and 76 of one department in operation. 
There were also five districts without schools and one school closed. 
During 1919, three districts were organised, six new schools built, three 
departments added and one school closed. At the end of 1919, the 
inspectorate contained one school of five departments, three of three 
departments, two of two departments, 80 of one department in opera- 
tion, two schools closed and two districts without schools. Of the two 
districts with schools closed, one had no children of school age, the 
other, four. The latter and the two districts without schools make 
provision for the children at neighbouring schools. 

One half of the schools in this inspectorate are closed for part of 
the winter and many are open less than ten months in the year. A few 


248 


Department of Education 


of these are trying to operate in winter but, in the hills, the roads are 
usually too had. It is difficult to decide whether it would be in the 
best interests of the district to take the vacation in summer or winter, 
few of the younger children can attend in the winter while many of 
those over fourteen years of age would do so. The only satisfactory 
solution would be schools in operation continuously. This could be 
done under municipal boards by the employment of extra teachers to 
relieve the regular teachers in rotation. A few schools on the plains 
are operated as summer schools where, I think, they might be made 
yearly schools with advantage. 

The attendance, on the whole, is fairly regular. In 95 depart- 
ments inspected, the total enrolment was 2,136 and the attendance at 
the time of inspection 1,875, or 87.76 per cent. In quite a number of 
schools the attendance was very regular while in a few it was not 
satisfactory. This was due largely to the scattered population in the 
newer districts. As a rule, I found both parents and pupils very 
much interested in the schools. In the few cases where the parents are 
indifferent The School Attendance Act is having an excellent effect. 

The great majority of school boards are capable and interested in 
the efficiency of their schools though sometimes a little slow in mak ing 
needed improvements. A few are indifferent or worse. The newer 
school buildings are of a good type and up to date except as to base- 
ments. The extra cost of a basement is small compared with the bene- 
fit derived from it. A number of the older buildings are unsatisfactory, 
especially as to light, the window area being usually much too small. 
In not a few cases this defect is increased by stained wooden walls and 
ceiling, darkened by age and smoke. This might be improved by paint- 
ing the walls and ceiling a light color. In these schools the heating 
arrangements also are sometimes poor. The defects of the older schools 
cannot be remedied, except as mentioned above, till the buildings are 
replaced by new ones. 

Equipment is generally satisfactory and where it is deficient I 
have usually found the trustees ready to supply whatever is lacking 
when the need is pointed out. I do not know if schools are being 
supplied with inferior clocks but, for some reason, many are out of 
order. Seven schools were without clocks, while in 25 others the clock 
was out of commission. 

Heating is satisfactory except in a few of the older schools. The 
jacket heater is in general use though a few schools have a furnace in 

the basement. 

Not enough attention is given by trustees to sanitation. Privies 
were usually fairly clean but often in bad repair. The high winds of 
the past summer damaged a good many and repairs are seldom made 
promptly. The very general neglect to provide urinals produced bad 
conditions in many cases. In all the new schools, sanitary indoor 
closets are installed. 

A large percentage of school grounds are entirely unimproved, 
especially in the new districts. In some cases they are practically use^ 
less as playgrounds. In only a few districts have trees been planted. 
This area has suffered from drought for four seasons and where trees 
have been planted few have survived. The teacher could often make 


Annual Report, 1919 


249 


an improvement by having the pupils keep the ground worked about 
the trees. Unless under the most favourable conditions it is useless 
to plant trees unless they are properly cared for afterwards. Some 
trustees take a live interest in the grounds but many regard them 
merely as a place on which to build a school. Lack of time is the 
usual reason given for neglect of the grounds. 

The water supply is a very serious problem in this inspectorate, 
much of it being strongly alkali. There are, in the eighty- 
six districts in operation, seventeen ordinary wells, four to 
which water is drawn from one half to two miles, and two 
filter cisterns for rain water. Of the seventeen wells, seven 
do not supply water fit for use. The cause is usually that not enough 
water is taken out. In most districts without wells it is left to the 
volunteer efforts of the teacher and pupils to provide a supply. This 
works well enough where there is a nearby well but too often the results 
is an insufficient supply. The water is kept in a great variety of 
vessels. These consist of nineteen fountains (six out of order) twenty 
tanks, twenty-one open pails and a miscellaneous assortment of cans, 
jars, bottles, etc. The fountains seem easy to put out* of order and 
difficult to repair. The closed tank cooler gives the best satisfaction. 
The objection to it is the inconvenience of providing cups. 

There is, in many cases, inadequate provision for washing. Where 
water is brought a mile or two the supply is seldom more than is re- 
quired for drinking. 

During the year I inspected the work of 121 teachers. Of these 
sixteen were male and 105 female teachers. Fifteen held First Class 
certificates, fifty-two Second Class, forty-three Third Class, eight per- 
mits and three were temporarily in charge without any certificate. 
The great majority of the teachers are earnest workers, faithfully doing 
their best for both the schools and the districts, but there are some 
exceptions. The frequent change of teachers tends strongly to lessen 
the teacher’s interest in the district. Of ninety-eight schools or 
departments, thirty-five changed teachers at least once during the year 
while several had three or even four different teachers in that period. 
The principal causes for the frequent change of teachers are : 

(1) Remoteness of the district. Especially in the hilly region many 
schools are remote from town or railway and receive mail about twice 
a week. 

(2) Difficulty of securing suitable accommodation. The teacher’s 
cottage does not seem to me to meet the difficulty. 

The school is usually at a considerable distance from any house, 
and only married men or widows with children will occupy a cottage. 
This restricts the choice of teacher to such a degree that I could not 
recommend the erection of a cottage in the two cases where my opinion 
was asked. In two districts, teachers reside in separate buildings, 
(small houses that have been replaced with new ones) and board with 
the occupants of the new house. This plan gave good satisfaction in 
both cases. It might be worth trying the experiment of building a 
two-room cottage so constructed that it could be easily moved and plac- 
ing it near the house of someone willing to board the teacher. If a 
change of boarding house became necessary, the cottage could be moved. 


250 


Department of Education 


Usually there are only one or two possible boarding houses in the dis- 
trict. 

(3) Scarcity of teachers. If a teacher becomes dissatisfied for 
any reason it is an easy matter to get another position. 

(4) Unfair criticism of and unwarranted interference in the 
personal affairs of the teacher. These, besides causing the teacher to 
leave, work to the serious detriment of the school while she remains. 

(5) Summer schools. As indicated below, the short school year 
greatly reduces the actual salary, and the teacher has to spend two or 
three months idle at a time of year when holidays are not desirable. In 
almost every case, teachers who had summer schools were trying to get 
into yearly schools. 

Except in a few cases salaries varied from $900 to $1,200, but 
in many cases these were only nominal salaries. In schools closed in 
winter the short teaching year reduced these to actual salaries of about 
$780 to $1,030. Salaries depend as much on the kind of district as 
on the grade of certificate ; in a new, remote and thinly settled district 
a greater salary inducement is necessary to secure a teacher. 

General progress is usually least in districts having summer 
schools and greatest in those yearly schools where the same teacher has 
been in charge for two or more years. 

Arithmetic is generally well taught. Reading, spelling, composi- 
tion and grammar are more variable, often the reading being lacking 
in expression. History, geography and literature are seldom satis- 
factory. This is due to lack of knowledge on the part of the teacher ; 
her reading being too often confined to the text book. A wider range 
of reading in these subjects is necessary. Art is very poorly taught 
except in a few cases and except in graded schools, agriculture, manual 
training and household science can scarcely be said to he taught at all. 
Physical training is now fairly well attended to and short drills are 
given daily. 

There are no large districts in mv inspectorate though their forma- 
tion is under consideration in three places. 

I have two schools in which the pupils are French speaking. In 
one no French is taught ; in the other an hour a day is given to French. 
TheUanguage regulations are being observed. I have also a number 
of schools where the ratepayers are almost entirely of non-English 
nationalities. In none of these is any desire shown to have any 
language other than English taught. Tn all these schools the people 
are keenly interested in giving their children a good education. They 
are willing to do everything possible to make their schools efficient 
and are ready to pay the price. In not one instance have I found any 
friction among the ratepayers or between the ratepayers and teachers 
over school matters. 

I used a Ford car in my work and found but little difficulty. I 
lost two days through car troubles. From the peculiar characteristics 
of my territory and mv ignorance of the roads I was unable to follow 
any definite system. I just went ahead and when I found one thing 
would not work, tried something else. The result was much unneces- 
sary driving. Aside from the causes given above my chief difficulty 
arose from the neglect of secretaries to notify me of the date of holi- 


Annual Report, 1919 


251 


days. This made my work very difficult in July and August. One 
week I drove 170 miles and found but two schools open. 

In my inspectorate there are 98 schools or departments in opera- 
tion. I took up the work April 1 and inspected 73 departments twice 
and 22 once. Of the remaining three one was closed when I visited it 
and the other two are new schools which opened late in the fall. The 
early snow in October made the roads to these impassible. I visited 
13 schools and found them closed and made six visits for purposes other 
than inspection. I attended very successful school fairs at Caron, 
Mortlach, and Parkbeg. A school fair was held at Expanse in connecc- 
tion with the Agricultural Fair, but I was not notified of it in time to 
attend. I interviewed trustees or secretary where possible but the 
difficulty of finding my way kept me busy and prevented me from doing 
as much in this way as I would like. However, it brought me into 
brief contact with a good many ratepayers. I spent two weeks on work 
for the Department other than inspection work. 

I have the honour to 'be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Gr. D. Robertson. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 


Saltcoats, January 1, 1920. 


Sir,— I have the honour to submit the following report on the 
Saltcoats inspectorate for the year 1919. 

The inspectorate comprised six rural municipalities, as follows: 
Nos. 181, 183, 184, 211, 213 and 241. The last named municipality 
was added in 1919 in place of municipality No. 152, which was re- 
joined to the Moosomin inspectorate, to which it more naturally 
belongs. The effects of this rearrangement were to place sixteen 
Ruthenian districts in the division instead of twelve largely English- 
speaking districts and to make the farthest distance to be driven to a 
school 50 miles instead of 75 as formerly. 

On January 1, 1919, there were 101 school districts in the inspec- 
torate and 115 departments. These numbers remained the same 
throughout the year as no new districts were organised or new depart- 
ments added. 

Every district had its school in operation, except Dressier S.D. 
No. 3732. No school has yet been built here. Until quite recently 
there were only seven children in the district of school age and these 
• were attending schools in adjoining districts during the year. Two 
other children came into the district late in the year. The trustees 
are not contemplating building a school in the spring. 

There is no doubt that the working of The School Attendance Act 
is having the effect of considerably increasing the number of pupils 
enrolled and of steadily improving the regularity of their attendance. 
Especially in foreign districts are these results noticeable. It cannot 


252 


Department of Education 


but follow that the increase in enrolment and the improvement in 
regularity will have a strong tendency to reduce the retardation so 
prevalent in these districts and to a lesser degree in most rural districts. 
It is not uncommon to find in non-English districts pupils of 11, 12, 
13 and even 14 years of age who have not advanced beyond Grade II. 
The chief cause of this is that they did not commence school until an 
advanced age. In all likelihood, if the Act had not been in operation, 
they would not have attended at all. 

In fourteen Ruthenian schools the total enrolment was 485 and 
the total number in the first three grades was 393. Thus 81 per cent, 
of the total enrolment were in Grades I to III. This may be taken 
as some indication of the condition of illiteracy that would have pre- 
vailed here had the Act not been in force, as doubtless the large major- 
ity of these pupils of Grades I to III have been gathered into school by 
its operation. In foreign districts many of the people, even the trustees, 
do not understand that it is the duty of the teacher to report pupils 
for irregular attendance or non-attendance, and suppose it to be spite 
or prejudice on the part of the teacher, and hence become hostile. This 
trouble is constantly occurring and will continue until the people under- 
stand clearly that their children must be reported. This is one among 
the many causes of the change of teachers. It is suggested that a 
small circular be issued explaining the matter clearly and that a number 
of these be placed in the hands of the secretaries for distribution to the 
people. 

The following schedules give the enrolment and number present 
on the day of inspection, in rural schools, in town and village schools 
and in all schools. 


Rural Schools 


Grades 

i 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. 

Form 

Mid. 

Form 

Total 

Enrolled 

838 

256 

329 

308 

153 

93 

54 

22 

1 


2054 

Present 

680 

220 

261 

228 

109 

66 

39 

17 



1620 


Town and Village Schools 


[Grades 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

1 . 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. 

Form 

Mid. 

Form 

Total 

Enrolled 

340 

136 

124 

170 

83 

74 

53 

37 

37 

6 

1060 

Present. . . . 

292 

121 

115 

141 

72 

61 

45 

35 

32 

4 

918 




All Schools 


Grades 

I 

11 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. 

Form 

Mid 

Form 

Total 

Enrolled 

1178 

392 

453 

478 

236 

167 

107 

59 

38 

6 

3114 

Present 

972 

341 

376 

369 

181 

127 

84 

52 

32 

4 

2538 

1 


Annual Report, 1919 


253 


The percentage of pupils present in rural schools was 78.87, in 
town and village schools 86.6 and in all schools 81.5. 

In many districts trustees display a fine interest in- the schools and 
are working seriously and earnestly for their advancement. In many 
others the trustees are incompetent, indifferent and neglectful. In 
some rural districts it seems almost impossible to find three persons 
who can and will conduct school affairs satisfactorily and the only 
recourse is to an official trustee. 

On the whole there is a gratifying tendency to comply with the 
law regarding the operation of the schools for the full year of 200 
days. Two of the chief difficulties in the way are the character of the 
buildings and the lack of stabling accommodation. Many of the old 
school houses are now incapable of holding heat in the coldest weather 
and need considerable work before being fit for winter use. Even in 
the case of some of the more recently built ones this matter has not 
been kept too well in view. During the present winter several instances 
have come to my notice where the intention was to keep open until 
late in the year, but it was found impossible to keep the room comfort- 
ably warm and the school had to be closed. A good stable is absolutely 
essential to keeping up the attendance in rural and village schools in 
cold weather. There were twenty-three schools in the inspectorate with- 
out stables. With the above reservation regarding heating in cold 
weather few school buildings were pronounced unsatisfactory— nine in 
all. This was mostly due to lack of sufficient accommodation. There is in 
general a sufficiently complete equipment for ordinary school work. In 
twenty-seven schools there was insufficient or unsatisfactory blackboard 
space. In most cases where the area is too small there is no good remedy 
until the building is remodelled. It is quite rare to find school grounds 
unfenced and more attention is being paid to orderly and well-kept 
surroundings although it cannot be said that the planting of trees and 
shrubs has so far received much attention. 

There has been a generally good response to suggestions leading 
to the improvement of the water supply. Usually there is a sufficiency of 
good drinking water and washing facilities also are usually provided 
The open pail has almost disappeared and has been replaced bv the 
small tank or filter together with individual cups. 

Where trustees took early and adequate steps to secure qualified 
teachers not much difficulty was experienced. The Teachers’ Exchange 
rendered valuable assistance in this direction. The work of 127 
teachers was examined. Of these ten held First Class, fifty-one Second 
Class, fifty-seven Third Class and six Provisional Certificates, while 
three had no certificates. In two of these last cases the teachers held 
good certificates from other provinces and were awaiting the decision 
of the Department as to their standing in Saskatchewan. In the other 
case it was necessary to insist that the teacher cease work. 

The salaries in rural districts range from $840 per annum to 
$1,250 and in urban schools from $900 to $1,500. It is necessary 
to note here that no school in the division contains more than four 
rooms. There is some slight tendency in rural schools to pay higher 
salaries for higher qualifications and longer experience. Within the 


254 


Department of Education 


last two years there has been a marked increase in salaries, especially 
in rural districts. 

It may be stated that teachers as a rule are performing their 
duties conscientiously and faithfully. The general efficiency of the 
work may be classed as very fair. The outstanding defects are a failure 
to arouse the self-activity of the pupils and hence to develop power, 
the presentation of the matter in a disconnected and unorganised form, 
lack of preparation, too much text-book work and too little attention to- 
care and neatness in the written work. 

The general proficiency of the pupils in the common subjects is 
not high. Some progress, however, is observable. The prevailing 
deficiencies here are lack of power to attack a new problem, expression- 
less and lifeless reading, and vague and indefinite knowledge in such 
subjects as geography, history and grammar. Composition and spelling 
show good progress. Writing is generally a weak subject. Civics is 
► receiving more attention. Much work of a fairly satisfactory quality 
is being done in nature study and agriculture. Manual training is con- 
fined to the work outlined for the lower grades. Many fine exhibits of 
this work were seen at the various school fairs. Ho schools are equipped 
for the work in the higher grades. The teaching of household science 
is mostly limited to the work in sewing, which is taken up in many 
schools. The noon lunch is gaining in favour and is found in an 
increasing number of schools. Physical training is taught in practically 
all schools and is generally fairly satisfactory. Most districts have a 
school garden and where adequate steps are taken to cope with weeds, 
gophers, lack of rain, etc., gratifying results are obtained. 

There are no large districts in this inspectorate and no instances 
where pupils are specially conveyed to school. 

As a means of conveyance for reaching the schools a Chevrolet car 
was used. The roads in this division are good and the motor car offers 
the best means of covering the territory in the shortest time. It also 
gives opportunities of coming in touch with trustees and ratepayers 
and of reaching home frequently. In the early part of the year, before 
the snow goes, as many schools as possible are visited by rail. When 
the spring opens up and whilst the roads are still poor the nearest 
schools are visited. Gradually, as the roads improve, the work is 
extended to the farther districts. The schools near railways are often 
left to be visited a second time late in the year after the roads have 
broken up. 

During the year an exceptionally large number of difficulties and 
disagreements arose in districts and much time was spent in investi- 
gating and arranging these. Organising school fairs and a special field 
day at Calder, attending these, and meeting of trustees and ratepayers, 
correspondence work and making out reports took up the rest of the 
time not spent in inspection. Thirty-five departments were inspected 
twice and eighty once, making a total of 150 inspections. Every depart- 
ment in the inspectorate was inspected. When visiting schools an 
endeavour was made to come into touch with trustees and ratepayers 
and discuss matters in relation to the school. Very often much valuable 
and enlightening information was obtained in this way, which put an 
entirely new aspect on the affairs of the school. Heeded improvements 


Annual- Report, 1919 


255 


could often be more clearly and effectively impressed on trustees and 
ratepayers at such times. This was the case especially in the matter 
of yearly schools and of regular attendance. 

School fairs were held at various local centres and a union school 
fair at Saltcoats. All of these were marked by the large number of 
the exhibits and their excellent quality and by the interest and 
enthusiasm of the public. A very successful field day was held at 
Calder, at which it was estimated that 1,000 children of foreign 
parentage were present together with teachers, parents and ratepayers 
from all the surrounding districts. 

It is pleasing to learn that the Saltcoats inspectorate will contain 
the same territory in 1920 as in 1919. This will give the opportunity 
to fodow up the work of the previous year. It will also considerably 
facilitate the work of reaching the schools as the inspector is familiar 
with their location and the roads leading to them. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Jas. Robinson. 


East End, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to present my report of my duties as 
inspector and of the schools in the Vidora inspectorate during the 

year 1919. 

The Vidora inspectorate is peculiarly laid out. One part of the 
south-west corner of the province takes in local improvement districts 
20, 21, 22, 52, 50 and municipality 51. To the north-east of this 
Territory it takes in Arlington municipality Ho. 79 and local improve- 
ment district Ho. 80. To the north-east of Arlington municipality 
it takes in municipality 109 and to the north-east of this it takes in 
municipality 138. This territory has Govenlock at the extreme south- 
west and Webb at the south-east, a distance of about one hundred and 
fifty miles from one end of the inspectorate to the other. 

The main line of the C.P.R. crosses the municipality at the north- 
east of the inspectorate and the Shaunavon line passes through the 
south-west part. Ho use can be made of the line to the north-east and 
very little can be made of the Shaunavon line. The train leaves Shau- 
navon three days during the week and returns the following days. All 
letters are distributed from the Shaunavon Post Office. 

At the beginning of the year there were eighty-four school districts. 
Six more districts were organised during the summer. Webb school 
only had more than one department. In this school a fourth room is 
being opened in January. Kemp S.D. Ho. 2920, Blackball S.D. Ho. 
3361, Palisade S.D. Ho. 3763 and Snow Hill S.D. Ho. 4036 have 
not yet erected buildings. The reasons for this are the removal of many 
families and the scarcity of money on account of crop failures. Several 
schools closed early in the fall on account of not having enough money 


256 


Department of Education 


to pay expenses. Two schools, Staynor Hall S.D. Ho. 3682 and Border 
Line S.D. Ho. 3873 were not opened during the year. Ten Mile S.D. 
Ho. 587 has not been in use for some time on account of there being 
no pupils in the district. 

In the south-west portion of the inspectorate almost all the school 
districts are having difficulty in getting sufficient funds to pay deben- 
tures and current expenses. For three years people have had no crops 
and many are in a deplorable condition. The one and only hope is a 
good crop next year and if this fails it will mean financial ruin to 
the majority. Such a state of affairs cannot help but have a detrimental 
effect upon the people of the country. 

With regard to the attendance, it is approximately 79 per cent. 
As this is my first year inspecting I am not in a position to say how 
the attendance compares with that of other years, but I am. firmly 
convinced that if it were not for The School Attendance Act and^its 
being enforced the percentage of attendance in this inspectorate would 
be very much smaller than it is. In the majority of cases only the 
warning notice is necessary. When visiting one school I was very much 
surprised at the number of large boys and girls in grades five and six. 
On inquiry the principal informed me that many of these pupils never 
went to school until they were forced to do so by the law. 

Many school boards, I believe, would be willing to do a great deal 
more than they are doing for the schools if finances only permitted 
them. Few trustees are familiar with The School Act. Few know 
anything of the grants' and necessary qualifications of teachers. Some 
seem to think that as long as they have a teacher, qualified or not, they 
are complying with the regulations. At the present time there is very 
little tendency toward any longer school year. Doubtless this is due 
to hard times. Only in the villages and one or two schools near the 
villages do the schools keep open near the 200 days. Most of the 
schools are short-term schools. This makes it difficult to secure teachers 
for they naturally hesitate to engage in such schools. The term in 
these schools is too short as it is, and when perhaps at the beginning 
of the school term two or three months are lost before a teacher can be 
secured it leaves things in a very bad shape. Doubtless the school 
boards are to blame here for trying to get teachers at a low salary and 
as a consequence they are obliged, at the last moment, to take any 
person they can get. The majority of schools in this inspectorate start 
in April, take two weeks holidays in the summer and close in Decem- 
ber. This year one school closed in July, another closed in September, 
and a great many closed in October and Hovember. The reason in all 
cases was the inability to obtain money. 

With regard to the buildings most of them are of the cottage style. 
They are nearly all new buildings and the majority of them are heated 
and ventilated by the Waterbury system. In these newly built schools 
the light comes from the left and back of the rooms. I may say that 
even though the schools have this system of heating and ventilation 
some teachers have not enough foresight to see that the ventilation 
system is working. 

Generally the school grounds are of sufficient area but not half 
of the schools have their grounds fenced. Only one school has had any 


Annual Keport, 1919 


257 


success with trees planted. Several have their grounds in shape and 
have made application for trees for next spring. The school gardens 
have not been a success. There were only two schools which had any- 
thing but weeds grow this year. It is indeed discouraging but they 
are willing to try again. The people are to be congratulated on their 
hopefulness and determination to win out. It is evident that very little 
attention is paid to the improvement of the school grounds beyond 
what was done when the school was built. Doubtless the attention of 
the trustees has been called to this by the inspector each year but 
nothing is done. This is particularly the case with the newest schools. 
Perhaps this is excusable on account of the enormous increase in 
expense since the beginning of the war and also on account of having 
no crops. 

The majority of schools have the outside closet with the earth pit. 
Some of these are far from satisfactory but in most cases they are in 
fair condition. If the schools were yearly schools and open during the 
winter then the inside toilet would be necessary. Hone were screened 
to keep flies out. 

The water supply is one great source of trouble. Hot only is it 
a source of trouble to the school but also to the inhabitants of the 
country. Throughout the south-west part of the inspectorate there are 
schools where water cannot be obtained nearer than two or three miles. 
Farmers have to draw it in tanks and barrels for their own use. 
Children bring it to school in small pails. This is unsatisfactory 
because it is warm before they get to school. In some other schools 
some pupils who drive are paid by the board to bring a can each 
morning. This seems to be the best method. Another way which some 
trustees have taken is to place a cistern beside the school and have it 
filled once a month. This is quite satisfactory for washing purposes 
but not for drinking. 

With regard to drinking fountains most schools have been supplied 
with them but through the carelessness of the teacher, in a great many 
instances, they are allowed to become dirty and unfit for use. I may 
say that with respect to ventilation and the sanitary condition of the 
drinking water the teachers are more to blame than the trustees. Too 
often the teacher never gives a thought to either of these important 
things. 

Throughout the inspectorate there were 77 schools in operation 
during the year. Some of these schools changed teachers at the summer 
vacation. 92 teachers were inspected during the year by Mr. J. H. 
McKechnie and myself. Of these, 10.87 per cent, held First Class 
certificates, 42.39 per cent, held Second Class certificates, 28.37 per 
cent, held Third Class certificates, 4.34 per cent, held provisional 
certificates and 15.32 per cent, held no professional standing whatever. 

It is gratifying to see that so many teachers held professional 
certificates. The most of the teachers holding no certificates were 
engaged in the south-west portion of the inspectorate. As a rule the 
majority of qualified teachers endeavoured to do as good work as 
possible. Many were full of enthusiasm and ambition. Some, on the 
other hand, were disappointing. In different, schools teachers were 
found with Second and First Class certificates, who seemed to have 


258 


Department of Education 


forgotten all the methods they learned during their course at the 
Normal School. Many were trying to run their schools without time- 
tables. 

In this inspectorate the supply of teachers is inadequate. Only 
in a few schools did I find teachers who were in the same schools as 
they were last year. On account of the distance from the railroads 
and of the poor mail service school boards experience great difficulty 
m securing teachers. The result of this is that some schools are with- 
out teachers until late in the term. With regard to salaries it seems 
unfair that teachers without certificates frequently draw more money 
than those with Second and First Class certificates. This gives poor 
encouragement to teachers to better their standing. School boards in 
this part of Saskatchewan make application to the Department for 
teachers at low salaries. They fail to recognise that salaries have gone 
up and as a result there is time wasted and considerable trouble. Some 
seem to think that permit teachers and teachers with Third Class 
certificates are good enough for them, thinking that they can get them 
for less money. 

Under the present circumstances — that is the shortage of teachers 
and the inability to pay salaries equal to those paid in other parts of 
Saskatchewan it appears that for the time being we, in this inspectorate, 
cannot dispense entirely with the unqualified teacher. 

Most of the children here are English speaking. There are quite 
a few French in three schools near Dollard but only one of these has 
a French teacher and in this school alone is French taught to the pupils 
during their first year at school. In Zentner school No. 2976 the 
children are Russian. In the Aldag school there is a mixture of Ger- 
mans and Russians and in almost all other schools the children are 
of different nationalities — American predominating. 

In common subjects such as reading, arithmetic and writing the 
progress is fair. In most of the schools where qualified teachers are 
engaged physical training receives sufficient attention but in schools 
where teachers with provisional or Third Class certificates are engaged 
poor work is done. History, geography and composition are poorly 
taught in the majority of schools. Many teachers have no idea of 
teaching spelling. The words — sometimes words pupils will never hear 
in ordinary conversation — are assigned for a spelling lesson and then 
these are dictated and the pupils write them. In conversation with 
these teachers I find many of them have no other idea as to how spelling 
should be taught. Manual training and household science have 
received no attention. In one school the noon-day lunch is given. 
School gardening has been attempted in most of the schools but only 
in two schools throughout the inspectorate had they the slightest 
success. 

There are no large districts in this inspectorate. 

My work as an inspector began the first week in July. The con- 
veyance I used to cover my field was a Ford car. Although in some 
parts of the inspectorate the roads were almost unfit for a car I 
managed to use one but I did so with considerable damage to it. I 
shall have to provide myself with a horse for use during the spring 
months of 1920. 


Annual Report, 1919 


259 


Seventy-nine departments were in operation during the year. All 
these departments, except Palmers ville school, were inspected once, 38 
by Mr. McKechnie and the remaining 45 by myself. Palmersville 
school was closed early in July. I then inspected a second time 11 of 
those I had already inspected once, and 19 of those inspected by Mr 
McKechnie. Visits were made by myself to every district in the 
inspectorate with the exception of 14 of the schools inspected by Mr. 
McKechnie, and three districts just organised. On account of the early 
winter and the distance of these schools from East End, it was impos- 
sible for me to inspect them before the end of the year. Two special- 
visits were made to the Avon Heights S.D. Ho. 3610 in connection 
with trouble re the school site. A special visit was made to North 
Bench S.D. Ho. 4145 re the school site. Two visits were made to Fair- 
well Creek S.D. Ho. 4267 re the organisation of a school district. A 
special visit was made to Olive S.D. Ho. 3441 re the opening of school 
in September and also a visit to Vidora to interview the bank in con- 
nection with a loan to this district. A special visit was made to Line 
Coulee S.D. Ho. 217 re appointing an official trustee and also a trip 
to the bank at Vidora in connection with a loan to this district. A 
special visit was made to Border Line S.D. re investigation of financial 
circumstances. Two special visits were made to Luce S.D. No. 
2782 — the first, re the closing of the school and the second, re engaging 
a qualified teacher. 

Efforts were made to see one or more of the trustees on my visit 
to each school. A full report of the school was sent to the secretary 
after making an inspection. As soon as a list of the secretaries is 
provided me I shall write each one and help them in any way I can 
to secure teachers. 

On account of my coming to the inspectorate late in the year it 
was impossible for me to arrange any teachers’ meetings or school 
fairs but it is my intention to have at least two school fairs and a 
teachers’ convention during the coming summer. 

In conclusion I beg to state that on account of the peculiar shape 
of my inspectorate it is difficult to arrange a general teachers’ meeting 
that it is impossible for the teachers at the north to attend a meeting 
at the south-west and also as impossible for those at the south-west tD 
attend a meeting at the north-west. I hope that some time in the future 
it will be arranged that the inspectorate be made more compact an& 
that the teachers will have a centre where they may all meet together 
and discuss educational affairs. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Fred W. Rowan. 


260 


Department of Education 


Kincaid, January, 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report of the Kincaid inspectorate for that portion of the 
year 1919 dating from July 1. 

The inspectorate comprises that area lying west of the third 
meridian, ranges one to twelve inclusive and lying north of the inter- 
national border, townships one to nine inclusive with the exception of 
one municipality in the north-west corner. There are six municipal- 
ities and five local improvement districts in this area. The six muni- 
cipalities are well organised with good roads and little territory not 
formed into school districts. On the other hand the local improve- 
ment districts along the south are for the most part rough country 
mainly suitable for ranching purposes and here the schools are far 
apart. 

On July 1 there were 100 school districts in the inspectorate with 
109 departments. Since that date three new rural districts, Border- 
vale S.D. No. 4230, Hay Meadow S.D. No. 4241 and Stefan S.D. No. 
4259, have been added. Hazenmore S.D. No. 3225 has added one new 
department, thus making a total of 113 departments on December 31. 
The three new districts organised have not erected buildings owing 
to the early cold weather and unavoidable delays. Another district, 
organised earlier, has not made any progress toward erecting a build- 
ing. With the exception of these four, all districts have school build- 
ings completed or under construction. Two new buildings on the point 
of completion, in Vindictive S.D. No. 4193 and Pinto Creek S.D. No. 
4166, are really fine structures well planned and built, with full sized 
basements and furnace heating. 

I am looking for the time to come speedily when the plam not 
only for all schools but also for all stables and outbuildings will be 
more completely under the control of some department of the Govern- 
ment. 


. In those sections of the inspectorate which are more suitable for 
ranching than for farming the difficulties to be overcome in organising 
new districts are often very great. The men who are unselfishly giving 
of their time and ability in this important work are to be commended 
for their wholehearted interest. 

All districts in the inspectorate where a school was in operation, 
with the exception of one, were visited. The relation between enrol- 
ment and attendance is fairly indicated by the following table based 
on the enrolment and attendance on the day of inspection : 


C. HADES 



Total 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Jr. 

Sr. 






Form 

Form 

Enrolment 

2150 

74? 

280 

333 

354 

149 

138 

56 

76 

13 

3 

Attendance 

1646 

554 

231 

253 

263 

109 

113 

47 

63 

11 

2 


Percentage of attendance 76. 55 


Annual Report, 1919 


261 


I can make no comparison between the attendance now and that 
before the introduction of The School Attendance Act because the 
earlier figures are not available but in every case, where I have dis- 
cussed the matter with the teachers, they have expressed the opinion 
that the Act has had a beneficial effect in stimulating regularity. 

Again, on the subject of school administration, my short exper- 
ience as inspector might not entitle me to a worth-while opinion. In 
these days, when we are striving to decentralise authority the larger 
administrative area with one governing body for all the schools of that 
area, might not meet with the approval of the people. Our present 
system should foster pride in the home school, local patriotism and a 
healthy rivalry under the growing influence of the school fair, boys’ 
and girls’ clubs and rural education associations. Under conditions 
as they exist today there is no doubt that the larger administrative areas 
would lead to better and more uniform conditions in the great majority 
of schools, but that this will be true tomorrow, I am not so sure. 

There is a decided growing tendency toward keeping the school in 
operation for a longer period. At the present time there are two main 
objections advanced against yearly schools. The first of these is the 
added cost of maintenance and the second is the danger to the lives of 
the children. The first objection is the result of continued drought in 
this division, which in turn results in increasing difficulty of financing. 
Once the financial difficulty is removed, by fair crop returns, this 
objection should be eliminated although I am not sure it will be since 
some wealthy districts become parsimonious. The second objection is 
met with mainly in the southern part of the inspectorate where the 
settlement is more sparse. This objection, too, will gradually be over- 
come. 

This section of the province has been settled so recently that the 
schools are almost all of the newer approved type and therefore meet 
the requirements very well. In some cases where local contractors have 
done the work, what appeared to them as slight changes were made and 
thereby the proper seating and lighting arrangements were made impos- 
sible. This has occurred only where the school board was as ignorant 
of the requirements as the contractor. Two new schools in this inspec- 
torate have been improperly constructed because of the above reasons. 
Some method of strict control by the Department should be enforced. 
There are a few older buildings with windows on both right and left 
of the pupils and consequent cross lights. This is remedied in part by 
the use of dark shades on the windows. 

The equipment for work in the school is generally satisfactory. If 
the equipment is poor it is more often than not the fault of the teacher. 
In many cases where no fence has been built it is due to the lack of 
funds occasioned by the continued poor crops and to the difficulty of 
obtaining labour. The dry seasons have also had the effect of lessening 
improvement along the line of tree planting and school gardening. The 
Waterman-Waterbury furnace is much in evidence. In some schools 
the ordinary heater is to be found. Hot in all cases are these entirely 
unsatisfactory. 

Tn some of the newer districts the question of -an ample water 
supply is serious. In many cases each child brings his own supply. 


262 


Department op Education 


This, of course, cannot meet the needs for drinking and washing. Even 
as a drinking supply it is unsatisfactory during the hot weather. This 
difficulty is met, in some cases, by hiring one pupil to bring a supply 
each day. This, of course, is not entirely satisfactory hut seems to be 
the best plan for the present, in cases where water is difficult to obtain. 

Only three schools in the inspectorate were unable to secure teach- 
ers at any time during the year. Others were open for short periods 
only, but many were forced to accept teachers with provisional certifi- 
cates or permits. Some of these teachers did good work hut on the 
whole they were very unsatisfactory. The greatest disappointment I 
have experienced in the work has been the discovery that the methods, 
or lack of methods, employed in presenting the subject matter to the 
child, are about as varied as the teachers themselves. Teachers, 
especially the younger ones, who have received their training in the 
same Normal School, are groping along with no well defined plans. This 
is more often the case where the teacher has been in several inspector- 
ates. They are driven about by many winds of doctrine. Of the ninety- 
six teachers whose work was inspected, nine held .First Class certifi- 
cates, thirty-nine Second Class, thirty-six Third Class and twelve per- 
mits. From this it is seen that half the teachers in the inspectorate 
have Third Class or lower standing. To increase the salaries of teach- 
ers well qualified in every sense of the term is the only solution to this 
problem. 

Judging from the limited number of schools I was able to visit 
a second time, I would say fair progress is being maintained in the 
common subjects. Little is being done in special subjects. 

There are no large districts in this inspectorate, although there are 
several cases where consolidation would be a decided advantage to all 
concerned. 

Up to the present time I have used a single horse and buggy as a 
means of conveyance. A great disadvantage of this means, especially 
during the months of July and August, was the scarcity of feed. Very 
often, after driving all day, I had to turn the horse out on the prairie 
to feed on the dried grass. The greatest disadvantage was the fact that 
I was compelled to drive during the hottest period of the day, to reach 
a second school. With a car, I might have spent more time in both 
schools and less on the road. On the other hand, in the southern part 
of the inspectorate, which is rough and hilly, I was able to make many 
short cuts from school to school, which I could not have made with a 
car. In travelling with the slower conveyance I came into contact with 
a larger number of people although there is no good reason why this 
should be true. In summing up my experiences, I believe that nntil 
one is perfectly acquainted with the roads and general conditions in 
the sparsely settled rougher ranch country, the horse and buggy is the 
best means of travelling. 

In the northern half of the inspectorate no particular plan is 
necessary for covering the work successfully, but in the southern half 
I learned by experiences worth having that to reach the schools one 
must cover longer distances and travel on the north and south roads, 
branching off, as occasion requires, to the schools. The roads leading 
east and west are not much used. Practically all roads and trails lead 


Annual Report, ^919 


263 


to the towns along the C.P.R., 40 or 50 miles away. Many of the 
teachers are marooned in these far-away districts for the whole school 
term. They are real heroes and heroines. 

Seventy-one school districts were inspected once. Of these, six 
were town districts with a total of 13 departments and 65 were rural 
districts with one department each. Seventeen districts were inspected, 
of which one was a town district and 16 were rural districts. A total 
of 112 inspections was made. Seventeen visits were made where the 
schools were found closed, 10 for holidays — most of these were after- 
wards inspected, — three where no school was in operation, one where 
the teacher was ill and three where the school was closed early on 
account of cold weather. R"ine schools were visited without intention 
of inspecting. In most of these the districts were new and buildings 
not yet completed. Four districts were not visited at any time during 
the six months. Two of these had no school in operation and one has 
recently been formed. 

I was very desirous of visiting and inspecting every district in 
the inspectorate in the short time at my disposal and so did not keep as 
closely in touch with teachers, trustees and ratepayers as I desired. 

One rural education association was organised before I arrived 
in the inspectorate. This is a live, going organisation at the town of 
Woodrow. Under its auspices a most successful school fair was held 
on September 18. The success of this fair was largely due to the 
ability and fine working spirit of its officers and the teachers in and 
around the town. Stonehenge municipality in the north-east corner 
of this inspectorate, united with Lake of the Rivers municipality, 
adjoining it on the east and in another inspectorate, and held a school 
fair at Assiniboia on September 23. This has been the practice for a 
number of years. 

On September 19 a convention of teachers was held at Woodrow 
on the day following the school fair. A teachers’ association was form- 
ed and we are laying plans to reach all the teachers of the inspectorate. 
We hope to extend the school fair work to ensure at least five success- 
ful fairs in 1920. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


0 HAS. A. Soarrow. 


264 


Department of Education 


Biggar, • January 1 , 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir,- — I have the honour to submit to you the following report of 
my work in the Biggar inspectorate for the year 1919. 

The inspectorate consists of six municipalities, namely, Loganton 
Ho. 345, Perdue Ho. 346, Biggar Ho. 347, Park Ho. 375, Eagle Creek 
Ho. 376 and Glenside Ho. 377. These six municipalities lie west of 
Saskatoon between ranges 6 and 16 and township 33 and the north 
branch of the Horth Saskatchewan river. They contain approximately 
2,160 square miles. About two-thirds of this area is fairly level plain, 
consisting for the most part of good farming lands. The remaining 
third is considerably broken by the Eagle Hills. 

On January 1, 1919, there were 92 school districts in this terri- 
tory with a total of 107 departments. During the year there were 
three districts established and three departments added to existing 
districts, thus making the present number of school districts 95 and 
of departments 110. Two of the new districts have not as yet built 
schools. These are Olympic S.D. Ho. 4153 and Fairholme S.D. Ho. 
4225. The reason alleged in the former case is that owing to a range 
of hills running through the middle of the district east and west divid- 
ing the present population into two groups, one north and the other 
south, there could be no satisfactory agreement on the school site. In 
the latter case, owing to the districts being erected late in the year and 
also to the very poor crops, it was deemed advisable to delay the build- 
ing until 1920. 

The regularity of attendance at the schools since the enforcement 
of The School Attendance Act is very much improved. True, there are 
still a few parents who seem to make an effort to evade the law and 
there are still some who do not realise the importance of an education 
for their children, but I am pleased to say that so far as this inspector- 
ate is concerned these are “few and far between.” 

The local administration of schools is far from satisfactory. Where 
there is a hoard of trustees who have had the benefit of a good educa- 
tion themselves we find satisfactory conduct of school affairs, hut such 
a board is the exception rather than the rule. In too many cases there 
is a manifest lack of interest in the school and a lack of appreciation 
of the responsibilities placed upon them as trustees. Often the 
administration of the school is left largely in the hands of the secretary- 
treasurer. In some few cases this works out well enough and if the 
secretary is interested in school matters suggested improvements are 
readily secured, hut as a rule the recommendations of the inspector 
are slow in being carried out. 

Petty, personal quarrels between trustees and ratepayers also 
interfere to some extent with the best interests of the school and are 
often of such a nature as to cause the teacher to resign with a consequent 
loss of many school days before another teacher is secured, thus reduc- 
ing to a short-term school one that was intended to be in operation the 
full year. There is a growing desire on the part of the people generally 
for full term schools. Many of the schools in this inspectorate com- 
menced the year with the full purpose of operating for at least 200 days, 


Annual Report, 1919 


295 


but owing to the exceptionally early winter and the consequent falling 
off in attendance several schools closed a couple of months earlier than 
was intended. The problem of getting the young children to school in 
the winter months is a difficult one to solve. 

School buildings are for the most part satisfactory so far as heat- 
ing and ventilation are concerned. There are a great number of schools 
which have defective lighting and are built in such a way as to make 
it almost impossible to remedy the defect. But where it is possible 
there is a commendable desire on the part of trustees to remedy it. 

The equipment of schools is very satisfactory, except possibly in 
the matter of seating. Boards of trustees rarely refuse to supply any- 
thing that is shown to be essential. 

There is much to be desired yet in the matter of the improvement 
of school grounds. Very little has been done to beautify these and in 
the majority of cases where trees or shrubs have been planted there 
is a distressing lack of care with the result that a great many more 
trees have died than have lived and thrived. There is nothing so 
disheartening as to see on one’s approach to the school the tree belt or 
fireguard growing up a dense forest of weeds, sometimes as high as the 
fence and little or no effort being made by the teacher, pupils, trustees 
or anybody else to keep them down. As to the question of water supply 
it can be said that many boards of trustees have made splendid efforts 
to secure water on the school grounds. Many hundreds of dollars have 
been spent in some cases and the only reward has been water unfit for 
drinking purposes. Others had, to their great delight, secured good 
water but after a time for some reason or other the water became bad. 
Tn any case there has been considerable effort made to get water and 
large sums of money spent in the effort with rather discouraging 
results. Many boards have arranged for a fresh supply of water to be 
brought every day from the nearest farm house but in several places 
rhe children bring water or milk or tea from home. 

1 have recommended in some cases that eave-troughs be put on the 
school houses and a large tank provided for the catching of the rain 
water. It seems to me that by some arrangement of this kind sufficient 
water might be secured for washing purposes at least. 

The supply of properly qualified teachers is still short. All of 
the schools in this division were supplied but a number of provisional 
certificates were granted. The work of teachers generally was quite 
Ecood. Bor the most part they were earnest and conscientious and were 
making splendid efforts and getting good results, though frequently 
surrounded by many drawbacks and discouragements. Trustees and 
people, too, in our rural communities need a good deal of educating 
yet in order to make conditions as they ought to be for our rural 
teachers. Of the teachers whose work I inspected during the year 
there were 16 who held First Class certificates, 63 who held Second 
Class, 42 Third Class and four provisional. 

The salaries of teachers have improved considerably during the 
year. Particularly is this the case in the rural districts and this is as 
it ought to be. The work, as a rule, in the rural schools is much more 
difficult than in the average graded school and consequently the pay 
should be better. There is still room for improvement, however, and 


266 


Department of Education 


if the upward tendency continues there may be some inducement for 
our best teachers to seek the rural school, where they are needed most. 

As stated above, the general work of the teachers is very good. 
This is shown in the very noticeable progress made bv the pupils in 
the various subjects of the course. In the rural schools special subjects, 
such as manual training and household science, receive little or no 
attention. Agriculture and school gardening are receiving a fair share 
and there seems to be a growing interest in this phase of school work. 
Many schools laid out and planted gardens but owing to the very dry 
season not many of them turned out well. Where water was available 
there were good gardens. The best school garden in this inspectorate 
was at The Park Lake S.D. ISTo. 3511, (Miss Emma Currie, teacher). 
Physical training is given a prominent place in many schools, but there 
are many teachers who seem to be unable to handle this work satisfac- 
torily. Of the common subjects of the course reading and arithmetic 
are being well taught. History, grammar, geography, spelling and 
writing are very indifferently taught. This is due largely to lack of 
ability on the part of the teachers to discriminate between important 
and unimportant factors or lack of appreciation of the chief purpose 
or aim in teaching these subjects. A lack of preparation is also very 
frequently noticeable. The large number of classes in charge of one 
teacher makes it very difficult even for the best teachers to do justice 
to all the common subjects or to herself or the pupils. The people are 
becoming more and more aware of these conditions and are desiring 
to find a remedy. There are groups of people here and there who are 
strongly in favour of the consolidation of rural schools. As yet there 
are none of these districts in this inspectorate and until it can be 
clearly demonstrated that the greater outlay of money entailed in con- 
solidation is a better investment than in our present system, people will 
be backward in taking it up. 

I use a Eord car in the work of inspection. The chief advantage 
of the car is that much less time is spent on the road and greater dis- 
tances can be covered in a day. The chief disadvantages are the 
expense of upkeep and the quick depreciation in value of the car, also 
the fact that it cannot be used much in the winter. In order to cover 
the entire territory certain convenient centres are selected from which 
the schools surrounding may be reached. During the past year these 
centres have been the towns and villages in the inspectorate. I am of 
the opinion that if suitable rural centres can be secured where the 
inspector could make his headquarters for a week at a time there would 
be something to gain in getting better acquainted with school officials 
and the people in general. 

On work other than inspection I was ten days in Yorkton in 
connection with the practice teaching Avork at the close of the Normal 
school in March, 19 days assisting in connection with Grade VIII 
examination papers in Saskatoon in July, 15 days driving Miss Jean 
TTrquhart to the schools surrounding Biggar in connection with the 
inspection of hygienic conditions and health of the pupils, (in most 
schools thus visited it was inconvenient to conduct my inspection at 
the same time), and 12 days reading essays of teachers. During the 
year I was able to cover the whole inspectorate once and part of it 


Annual Report, 1919 


267 


twice. The early onset of winter upset my plans for covering the 
territory twice. In all I inspected 48 departments once, 60 twice and 
two not at all. In one case the school was not in operation at all dur- 
ing the year. In the other case the school did not open until July 
and I was unable to get to it after that date, having visited this district 
twice in the spring. 

This being my first year at inspection work my chief aim was to 
get acquainted with the schools of the inspectorate and consequently 
I did not meet as many of the trustees as X should have liked. When 
visiting rural schools I made it a point to see the secretary-treasurer 
of the district and sometimes I was able to meet the whole board. As 
yet I have no fixed policy for keeping in touch with trustees, ratepay- 
ers and teachers other than through the regular reports to schools on 
my inspection. Recently I had a printed circular letter sent out to 
all short-term schools to be read at their annual meeting. This circular 
dealt chiefly with the importance of keeping schools open the full 
year. It remains to he seen what effect this will have. 

During the months of September and October five successful 
school fairs were held in this inspectorate. These were held at Biggar, 
Perdue, Asquith, Sonningdale and Delisle. A very decided interest 
was shown in these fairs, not only by the pupils of the schools concerned 
hut by the public generally. In connection with these fairs there 
were several boys’ and girls’ clubs which made exhibits of colts, calves, 
pigs and poultry. If properly organised and carefully conducted these 
annual fairs should wonderfully quicken community interests and tend 
to social betterment. On the 18th and 19th of September a very en- 
thusiastic teachers’ convention was held in Biggar. About 60 teachers 
availed themselves of the opportunity of being present and judging 
from general comments and suggestions there was an unmistakable 
uplift. Miss Jean Browne, Director of School Hygiene, and Miss 
Isabel Shaw, Acting-Director of Household science, were both present 
and added much to make the convention enjoyable and profitable. 

From the middle of April until the 8th of October the weather 
was all that could be desired for travelling purposes. Only once during 
that time did I fail to reach my objective on account of bad roads. 
After the 8th of October I was able to use the car but very little and 
as a consequence a number of rural schools were not reached the second 
time. The possibility of making a second inspection in each year will, 
I am sure, make the work of inspection much more efficient, particular- 
ly in the matter of improving school buildings and grounds and 
becoming acquainted with school officials and people generally. There 
is throughout the country a very wholesome attitude toward educational 
matters and this attitude should be fostered and kept healthy by the 
inspector. There is a growing feeling that the best is none too good 
for the rising generation. This feeling should he aroused to action 
and find expression in better school buildings, more sanitary surround- 
ings, better equipment for all round development, better and larger 
play-grounds and better teachers. 

I have the honour to he, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


W. J. Small. 


268 


Department of Education 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 
Minister of Education. 


Morse, January 1 , 1920. 


Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report on the Morse inspectorate and my work therein for 
the year ending December 31, 1919. 

This inspectorate comprised rural municipalities Uos. 104, 105, 
134, 135, 164, 165, 195, except the north-east township thereof, and 
that part of 194 lying south of Thunder Creek. 

In this area at the beginning of the year there were 102 school 
districts with a total number of 113 departments. During the year 
there were three new districts organised and one old one was dis- 
organised making a net increase of two for the year. Three new 
departments were opened, one in the town of Morse, one in the village 
of Ernfold and one in the rural district of Stewart. In three districts 
no school has been built. One of these, Lawtonia S.D. ISTo. 3832, has 
been organised some three years but owing to the removal of several 
families there are very few children in the district and as the Glravel- 
bourg extension of the C.U.R. passes through the south-west corner 
of it and a new townsite is located in this part, I have not urged the 
building of a school as it will probably be necessary to have a school 
located in the new village in the near future, leading possibly to some 
alterations in the boundaries of the district. Erom the two other 
districts the children are conveyed to, and educated in, neighbouring 
schools. 

The school attendance was on the whole satisfactory. The average 
attendance upon the day of my visit in rural schools was 85.3 per cent, 
of the enrolment. While this is no doubt considerably higher than the 
actual average attendance for the year yet it indicates a marked 
improvement over the preceding years. This improvement is, I believe, 
due to two causes ; first, the operation of The School Attendance Act 
and second, an increased interest in educational affairs among the 
people generally. Unfortunately, it is still true that many children 
leave school at the age of fourteen years irrespective of the grade in 
which they may be. I am of the opinion that it would be wise to make 
compulsory half-time attendance for all children over fourteen years 
until such time as they have completed the eight grades of the public 
school course or reached the age of eighteen years. 

The present system of school administration by local school boards 
is not satisfactory. In many cases petty local jealousies and disputes, 
or the incompetency or indifference of the trustee boards, act most 
unfavourably upon the efficiency of the school. On the other hand 
there is a steadily increasing interest in educational affairs and many 
trustees are most capable and efficient. I believe that more schools 
have been in operation for the whole year than ever before and this 
in spite of serious crop failures during the past three years. It is very 
difficult in some of the newer regions to maintain winter sessions, 
especially in the hilly regions. These schools are frequently in lonely 
situations and with the winding unfenced trails it is actually dangerous 
for some pupils to attend during the stormy season. 


Annual Report, 1919 269 1 

The new schools built during the year are very satisfactory and 
are generally well equipped. One notable example is the new school 
in the village of Ernfold. This is, without doubt, one of the best two- 
roomed schools in the province and is splendidly equipped in every way. 
At the meeting held in March which was attended by Mr. R. F. Black- 
lock, Registrar of the Department of Education, and myself, the 
ratepayers expressed a united wish for the best two-roomed school that 
could be erected and the trustees have faithfully carried out their 
desire. This building is in every way a credit to the village and to 
the district. 

In many of the rural districts the toilet arrangements are unsatis- 
factory but the new schools and some of the older ones have installed 
sanitary closets. Very few schools have supplied adequate facilities 
for washing purposes. It has been much less difficult to secure qualified 
teachers during the present year than in 1918. During the first part 
of the year a number of schools were unable to secure teachers, but at 
the end of the Normal School sessions this difficulty was largely 
overcome. 

There has been a decided decrease in the number of teachers 
holding provisional certificates. In 1918, twenty-seven such certificates 
were issued for the schools in this inspectorate, while this year I found 
hut eight schools in charge of teachers having such standing. Two of 
these teachers were doing good, two fair and four poor work. ' Of the 
two classified as good, one was a graduate of the Saskatchewan Uni- 
versity and the other an American teacher with twelve years’ expe- 
rience. The quality of the teaching has varied very greatly, but has 
probably been about on an equality with that of former years. 

Teachers’ salaries in the rural schools vary very considerably hut 
generally from $1,080 to $1,200 per year in this inspectorate and 
there is no noticeable difference ma’de by the trustee boards in the 
salaries paid to the teachers holding different grades of certificates, 
a teacher with a provisional certificate frequently receiving as large 
a salary as one with a first class certificate. In two of the town schools-, 
the principals receive $1,800 and these are the highest salaries paid: 
in my inspectorate. While $1,200 is probably adequate remuneration 
for the second class teacher just entering the profession yet it is hope- 
less for us to expect to secure and retain many men of proper mental 
equipment and training until the higher city and town positions yield 
a financial remuneration more commensurate with that yielded by the; 
higher positions in the other professions. 

The common subjects are being taught very well. In many cases 
through faulty methods of instruction, especially in reading, pupils 
are kept too long a time in the primary grades. Arithmetic is fairly 
well taught but many teachers require work involving a great deal of 
mechanical labour and very little exercise of the pupils’ reasoning: 
powers. There is a marked improvement in the teaching of writing. 
History and geography are generally poorly taught, the majority of 
teachers having apparently little knowledge of the subjects beyond that 
found in the school text. Lessons in these subjects which should be 
amongst the most interesting in the day’s work frequently degenerate 
into mere exercises of the memory. Agriculture receives systematic* 


270 


Department of Education 


attention in very few schools, the majority of the teachers appearing 
-quite unqualified to handle this subject. With some most notable 
exceptions the school garden has been a failure. Very few teachers 
use the garden as a means of instruction but are quite satisfied to 
■have their pupils plant a few seeds and then trust nature to produce 
some flowers and vegetables. 

The work in domestic science shows some improvement. Needle- 
work is frequently taught in the rural and quite generally in the town 
and village schools. The hot noon lunch has become a regular institution 
in a number of rural schools and the town of Herbert instituted the 
hot lunch this year much to the gratification of the parents and pupils. 
The town of Morse has a small but well equipped room for the teaching 
-of domestic science. This town has also a manual training department, 
the only one in my inspectorate. Morse also added a kindergarten 
department to their school this year where most efficient work is being 
accomplished. 

The work in physical training is generally taught and in a fairly 
efficient maimer throughout the inspectorate. 

I have no large districts in my inspectorate although consolidation 
is being seriously considered in Morse and the adjoining rural districts. 

During the present year I was engaged in Normal School work 
in Regina until the end of April. I was also absent from my inspec- 
torate for over three weeks in June and July owing to the illness and 
death of a relative. This, with the early winter, naturally shortened 
the time that I was able to devote to the inspection of the schools in 
the rural part of my division. It is my custom to visit all schools that 
I can reach by rail during the latter part of the winter and the early 
spring and again in the months of November and December. This 
permits me to devote the more favourable part of the year to the rural 
schools. For this latter work I use as a conveyance an automobile. 
The car has the disadvantage of being unserviceable during the rainy 
weather, but permits me to readily visit the districts whenever the 
need may arise and also to attend trustee or ratepayers’ meetings, 
school fairs, etc., even if held at considerable distances from my centre, 
without undue loss of time and energy. 

There were 116 departments in operation in my inspectorate 
during the year, of which 97 were inspected once and 17 twice, while 
two were not inspected. One of those not inspected was a rural school 
that was not in operation during the second term and the other was 
the second department in the village of Ernfold that was in operation 
for a few weeks only at the end of the year. 

The Morse Rural Education Association was organised during the 
year, and a very successful school fair was held by the association on 
October 9th, followed by the teachers’ convention on the 10th. We 
received most acceptable and able assistance from Miss Jean Flatt, of 
the Department of Education, and Mr. J. Huff, of the Regina Normal 
School. This association covers three municipalities centering in the 
town of Morse. Tt is my hope to organise the more southerly of these 
municipalities. No. 135, in a separate association during the coming 
year, as a railway is under construction through it, with a new town- 
kite which should become the natural centrn of the districts in the 


Annual Report, 1919 


271 


south. A school fair was also held in Erinvale S.D. No. 3271 at which 
five rural schools were represented. A children’s fair was also held 
in Bothwell S.D. No. 2889. Steps have also been taken for the forma- 
tion of school fair associations at a number of other centres in .the 
inspectorate during the coming year. I have not found the larger or 
central school fair sufficiently effective to warrant the expenditure of 
money or energy required to conduct it. It has a tendency to become 
a teachers’ rather than a children’s fair, as it is impossible for the 
children from a distance to attend it, and in future I intend tx> 
encourage the formation of many smaller fairs in convenient centres. 

Through personal interviews with teachers, trustees and rate- 
payers, through correspondence and by attending, when possible, rate- 
payers meetings, school picnics and similar social events connected 
with school activities, I have endeavoured to keep in close touch with 
the division and believe that results have been achieved in an awaken- 
ing of public interest in educational affairs, in lengthened school terms 
and in an improvement in the buildings and equipment in a number 
of districts. 

T have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. W. Smith. 


Balcarres, January 1 J 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir— I n accordance with your instructions I beg to submit the 
following report of my work for the year 1919 . 

Extent of Inspectorate. — My inspectorate was situated north of 
the QuAppelle river between ranges 6 and 16 and between town- 
ships 18 and 28. It comprised seven rural municipalities, namelv 
185, 186, 215, 216, 217, 246 and 247. It contained 97 districts with 
schools of one department and nine districts with schools aggregating 
26 departments. ^ 

During the year one new district. Lake Mona, was organised and. 
two districts, Walkerville and Lunnville, were each divided into fwjo 
districts by a line running north and south. The western portions of 
each retained the old names and the east parts took the names of Bon 
Accord and Church Hill respectively. The districts of Abernethy and 
Balcarres each added one department to their schools. The following 
five schools were built and opened for the first time : Headlands, Sam- 
bov, Spondon, Tarnoville and Freeland. Schools have not yet been 
built in the districts of Deter Lake, Bon Accord and Lake Mona, but 
will be built early this year. In two districts, Touchwood and Shaw- 
land9, there have never been sufficient children to warrant opening a 
school and it would be advisable to have these districts disorganised. 


272 


Department of Education 


School Attendance . — The following schedule will show the enrol- 
ment. the actual attendance and the percentage of attendance of all 
rural and urban schools on the day of visit. 


’ Grade 

Rural 

Urban 

Total 


En- 

rolled 

Pres- 

ent 

Percent- 

age 

En- 

rolled 

Pres- 

ent 

Percent- 

age 

En- 

rolled 

Pres- 

ent 

Percent- 

age 

i. 

1,017 

346 

384 

302 

179 

93 

77 

32 

738 

266 

288 

212 

136 

62 

50 

24 

72. 56 
76.87 
75. 

70. 19 
75.97 
66.66 
64.93 
75. 

282 

131 

144 

95 

115 

71 

39 

61 

206 

117 

116 

86 

93 

57 

35 

51 

73.04 

89.31 

80.55 

90.52 

80.86 

80.28 

89.74 

83.6 

1.299 

477 

528 

397 

294 

164 

116 

93 

944 

383 

404 

298 

229 

119 

85 

75 

72.67 

80.29 

76.51 

75.31 

77.89 

71.95 

73.27 

80.64 

n 

hi 

IV 

v 

VI 

VII 

VIII 


2,430 

1,776 

73.08 

938 

761 

81.13 

3,368 

2,537 

75.32 


Junior Form. . 
Middle Form 

10 

1 

8 

1 

80. 

100. 

41 

11 

37 

11 

90.24 

100. 

51 

12 

45 

12 

88.21 

100. 

Totals 

11 

9 

81.81 

52 

48 

92. 30 

63 

57 

90. 47 

Grand totals . . 

2,441 

1,785 

73. 12 

990 

809 

81.71 

3,431 

2,594 

75.60 


The following schedule shows a comparison of percentages of 
attendance based on the total number of pupils enrolled on the day 
of inspection for the years 1917, 1918 and 1919. 


Comparative Percentage of Attendance 


Grade 

Rural 

Urban 

Total' § 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1917 

1918 

1919 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Junior Form 

Middle Form 

73.49 
72. 27 
77.04 

77.74 
75.52 
67.02 
70. 

78.72 

68.75 

78.33 
80. 75 
79.39 
76.76 
73.51 
79.44 
74.07 
71.43 
70. 

72.56 

76.87 

75. 

70.19 

75.97 

66.66 

64.93 

75. 

80. 

100. 

81.86 
81.72 
83.96 
83.87 
83.48 
84 50 
87.09 
93.22 
95.55 
100. 

82.72 

91.97 

82.75 

87.21 

94.82 

94. 

90.90 

88.63 

81. 13 

90. 

73.04 
89.31 
80.55 
90.52 
80. 86 
80.28 
89.74 
83.6 
90.24 
100. 

75.59 
75 17 

79.52 
78.22 
78.40 
74.54 
78.68 
86.79 

88.52 
100. 

79.46 
84.34 
80. 63 
80.00 
82.77 
84.07 
78.91 
81.81 
79.36 
90. 

72.67 

80. 27 
76.51 
75.31 
77.89 
71.95 

73.27 
80.64 
88.21 

100. 


73.39 

75.96 

75.71 

87.52 

88.41 

85.71 

77.14 

80.92 

79.67 


From the foregoing schedule it may be seen that the percentage 
of attendance in the year 1919 is lower than in either of the two 
preceding years. At first, view this looks unsatisfactory but it is not 


Annual Report, 1919 


273 


necessarily so, as it is largely accounted for by a change in the system 
of enrolment. For example, in 1917 a new enrolment was made each 
month and only those children who actually attended school during 
that month were enrolled. This, of course, gave a high percentage of 
attendance when as a matter of fact the attendance might have been 
poor. In 1918 a few schools, but not many, adopted the new system 
of enrolment whereby all the pupils who should be attending school 
were enrolled whether they were attending or not. This, of course, 
would lower the percentage of attendance even though the actual 
attendance might be better. In 1919 all schools adopted the new system 
hence we see a drop in the percentage. In spite of the tendency of the 
percentage to drop a little in 1918 and a great deal in 1919 this was 
not always the case, as may be seen from the following schedule which 
shows the average percentage of attendance for the first few months 
of the years 1917, 1918 and 1919 in the 20 schools in the Abernethy 
municipality. 


Schools in Abernethy Rural Municipality No. 186 


1917 

1918 

1919 


Year 


Average percentage of attendance 


81 . 35 
82.05 
85.70 


As this is a typical illustration of school attendance, one is safe 
in saying that the actual attendance in our schools has improved con- 
siderably since the inauguration of the compulsory educational legis- 
lation in May, 1917. 

Local School Administration . — Local school administration is by 
no means the best system of administration, but it is giving fairly good 
satisfaction and I doubt if the time is yet ripe to make any change. 
At present there is apparently no demand on the part of the trustees 
or the people for a municipal system and I do not think that either 
have ever seriously considered the advisability of a change. However, 
if a change were made there would probably be no objection to it. As 
the law improves with regard to the length of time schools must be 
kept in operation, the schools naturally respond and are being kept 
open for longer periods each year. In the majority of cases the 
trustees seem to be doing their best to comply with The School Act 
but they find it difficult to keep their schools in operation throughout 
the whole year for one or more of the following reasons : (1) They are 

unable to secure and keep a teacher owing to the scarcity of teachers 
or to the fact that there is no suitable boarding place or teacher’s resi- 
dence in the district; (2) the buildings are sometimes not sufficiently 
well built for winter use, and (3) the people are often careless about 
sending their children to school in cold weather. The children may 
be too young to walk to school and the parents disinclined to convey 
them. In a few cases where trustees have tried to evade the law, the 
appointment of an Official Trustee has had a very salutary effect. 


274 


Department of Education 


Buildings . — The buildings on the whole are good and the people 
take a pride in them. During the year five new schools were built in 
the following districts: Keliiher, Hubbard, Goodeve, Katepwe, 

Spondon, Sambov, Freeland, Headlands and Tarnoville. A few of the 
old schools are now too small and will have to be replaced by larger 
ones. Among this number the following might be included: Duck’s 
Point, Rosewood, Ulmer, Foster, Eskdale, Ituna, Birmingham and 
Weissenberg. Districts with unsatisfactory or insufficient equipment 
were as follows: 


( 3 ) Unsatisfactory school toilets 52 

(6) Insufficient or unsatisfactory blackboard 30 

(c) Insufficient or unsatisfactory seating 34 

( d ) Unsatisfactory water supply 46 

(e) Unsatisfactory heating 16 

(/} Unsatisfactory lighting 11 

( 3 ) No stable (rural and village) 15 


With reference to the foregoing tabulation I might say that there 
is great need for better sanitation in the school toilets as some of them 
were in a filthy condition and were a positive menace to the health and 
morals of the children. It is to be hoped that the teaching of hygiene 
will bring about a more satisfactory condition of affairs along this 
line. 

The school grounds are fairly satisfactory. Most of them are 
fenced and some are set out with trees and gardens, but on the whole not 
nearly enough attention is given to them. The following schools had 
good gardens and were awarded School Garden Certificates: Kenlis, 
Katepwe, St. Joseph de Dauphinais, Baber, Mariahilf, Millers- 
dale, Yola, Crescent Bluff, Eastward, Keliiher, Leross, Balrobie, 
Doverley, Eenwood, Gardiner and Kenningsberg. 

The playground equipment is meagre but it is steadily improving. 
About 75 per cent, of the schools have erected swings and a few have 
provided for various outdoor games such as baseball and football. It 
is to be hoped that the schools will go on with this good work until 
they have secured a complete equipment of play apparatus. 

On the whole, I find school boards fairly reasonable in following 
out my suggestions as regards the purchasing of equipment for their 
schools and in making them warm and comfortable, but they have not 
yet realised the great importance of good sanitation and good environ- 
ment. 

Teachers . — During the year the work of 140 different teachers 
was inspected. Of this number nineteen held First Class certificates, 
seventy-five Second Class, thirty-nine Third Class and seven provisional 
certificates. Of the qualified teachers, eighty had received their 
training in Saskatchewan, sixteen in Ontario, eight in Manitoba, 
seven in England, six in New Brunswick, six in Prince Edward 
Island, five in Nova Scotia, two in the United States, one in Wales, 
one in Scotland and one in Alberta. The number of married 
teachers was twenty-three — sixteen men and seven women. In 
nearly every case these teachers were doing exceedingly good work in 
their schools. The supply of teachers in the first few months of the 


Annual Report, 1919 


275 


year was not quite equal to the demand and the result was that a few 
schools were not able to open until late in the spring. Some of the 
schools in the non-English-speaking districts were unable to get quali- 
fied teachers and had to accept the services of unqualified ones. As 
the percentage of First and Second Class teachers was somewhat higher 
than in preceding years, the work was much better on the whole, for 
the higher the academic and professional standing of the teacher, the 
broader is his outlook. Notwithstanding this, however, and in spite of 
the fact that the teachers are doing faithful and conscientious work 
in the schools, several things militate against efficiency. (1) The short 
tenure of office. In this connection I might say that thirty- 
four rural schools out of ninety-four and eighteen depart- 
ments out of twenty-six in village schools changed their teach- 
ers during the year. This high percentage is rather alarming and 
is hard to account for but doubtless the spirit of unrest and the lack 
of real interest in school work are responsible for much of it. (2) 
The youthfulness of the teachers. Many of them are only boys and 
girls in their teens. (3) The teachers fail to appreciate the limitations 
and capabilities of their pupils owing to their lack of knowledge of 
psychology or their inability to apply its principles. To my mind teach- 
ing will not be placed on the highest pedestal until apprenticeship gives 
place to skilled labour and until teachers are willing to remain for 
several years in one school. 

In view of the fact that nearly all teachers improve with age and 
experience and to encourage them to remain longer in the profession, 
I would suggest that the Department grant them a bonus according 
to their length of service in the province and. in their own particular 
schools. I would also suggest that married teachers be granted an 
additional bonus in order to enable them to cope with the high cost 
of living which is felt more acutely by them than by those not married. 
This bonus should be graded the same as the other. 

The following schedule will give an idea of the salaries paid to 
the 140 teachers in my inspectorate during the year: 


Certificate held 

Salary per annum 

Total 

$900 

$1,000 

$1,100 

$1,200 

$1,300 

$1,400 

$l,50u 

$1,600 

First 

3 

1 

1 

8 

2 


2 

2 

19 

Second 

20 

22 

16 

15 


1 

1 


75 

Third 

9 

13 

5 

9 

i 

2 



39 

Provisional 

1 

3 

1 

1 

l 




7 


33 

39 

23 

33 

4 

3 

3 

2 

140 


Note. — 1 . Salaries occurring between two multiples of 100 have been placed in the 
column of the lower multiple. 

2. Some of the salaries quoted above were increased during the year. 


276 


Department of Education 


General Progress of Pupils in School WorJc . — The following sched- 
ule will show the general standing of the pupils in the 93 rural 
schools and the 28 village schools in my inspectorate on the day of 
inspection : 


Excellent 

Good 

. . . 

Fairly good 

Fair 

Poor 

Total 

0 

39 

46 

27 

9 

121 


The following schedule will show the progress that was being 
made in school work in the common and in the special subjects of the 
Course of Study: 


Common 

subjects 

Progress 

Remarks 

Reading 

Good 

Sometimes mechanical and lacking in expression. 
More eye and voice training needed. 

Writing 

Good 

Exercise books generally neat and well written. 
Tendency to give too much abstract work and to accept 
solutions that are too short. 

Arithmetic.. . . 

Good 

Spelling 

Good 

Usually heard — not taught. 

Literature .... 

Good 

Pupils often get the meaning but not the interpretation 
of the selection. 

Composition. . 

Fairly good. 

Not enough careful oral work and not enough direct 
teaching. 

Grammar 

Fairly good . 

Too formal — too much emphasis placed on parsing and 
too little on analysis. 

Geography. . . . 

Fair 

Too bookish — not enough objective and comparative 
work. Memory taxed at the expense of the other 
faculties. . - A 

Civics 

Fair 

Should inculcate the spirit of good citizenship. T" 

Not enough ground covered. Poor perspective. Know- 
ledge not properly assimilated. Not enough practice 
in the training of the moral judgment. 

History 

Poor 

Art 

Poor 

Too mechanical. Imagination not trained. 


Special 

subjects 

Progress 

Remarks 

Physical 
training .... 

Good 

Receiving good attention. 

Singing 

School 

gardening. . . 

Good 

Fairly good 

More attention should be given to the production of 
clear open notes. 

Ninety-seven schools attempted it with varying degrees 

Manual 

training .... 

Poor 

of success. Sixteen of these schools did successful 
work and were awarded diplomas. 

Not many schools attempting it. 

Household 
Science 

Fair 

About thirty per cent, of the schools have introduced 
this subject and in • about twelve schools noon 
lunches are served. 

Too theoretical and bookish. 

Agriculture . . . 

Fair 

Hygiene 

Fair 

Just getting started. Will look for better resu.ts in 1920. 


Large Districts . — There are no consolidated school districts ia 
this inspectorate. 


Annual Report, 1919 


277 


Work as Inspector . — During the months of January and Septem- 
ber I was in the east on account of illness in my family. In the month 
of February, March and April, I was in Regina assisting in the work 
of the Third and Second Class sessions of the Normal school. The 
rest of the year was spent in visiting and inspecting schools, arranging 
for school fairs and conventions and in doing other work of an educa- 
tional character. On May 29 and 30 I drove Mrs. Shaw, school nurse, 
out to several schools where she inspected the children. On June 3 

I attended a large union school picnic at Lake Katepwe, in which over 
25 schools participated. On October 3 I attended school fairs at 
Neudorf, Lemberg, Abernethy and Balcarres. On October 9, 10 and 

II I attended the general school fair and teachers’ convention at 
Balcarres. On December 22 I presented a Red Cross Diploma to the 
Hayward school for having raised the largest sum of money of any 
school in the inspectorate for The Schools’ Red Cross Fund during the 
year 1918. All the school fairs were quite successful in point of 
exhibits, attendance and interest. 

The teachers’ convention and school exhibition was also a great 
success. About 7 5 teachers were present at the different sessions. The 
general public turned out in large numbers to see the exhibits and hear 
the addresses given by the following educationists: Mr. A. IT. Ball, 

Deputy Minister of Education; Mr. A. S. Rose, of the Saskatoon 
Normal School; Miss Jean Hay, of the Regina Normal School; Miss 
Jean Browne, Director of School Hygiene, and Dr. R. A. Wilson, of 
the University of Saskatchewan. At the close of the convention hearty 
votes of thanks and appreciation were extended to the above for their 
interesting and inspiring addresses and for the valuable assistance 
which they gave to the teachers throughout the convention. The follow- 
ing resolutions were also passed: 1. “That the Government of Saskat- 
chewan be informed that the Balcarres Convention of 1919 expresses 
a desire to have The School Attendance Act so amended that com- 
pulsory attendance will apply to all scholars in grades lower than 
VIII, regardless of age, distance from school and other minor con- 
siderations.” 2. “That more medical attention be paid to the public 
school children and that the number of school nurses be increased and 
the system so amplified that the physical defects of our school children 
will meet with more attention.” 

During the year sixty-six schools of one department were 
inspected once, twenty-five twice and two three times. Of 
those of more than one department, eight departments were 
inspected once, eighteen twice and two three times. The 

total number of inspections was 172. Only one school in operation 
during the year was not inspected. This was the Tarnoville S.D. No. 
4101. At the time of my first visit it was being briilt and at the time 
of my second visit the trustees had not yet secured a teacher. 

In travelling about my inspectorate I used a Ford runabout. The 
ad vantages of a car are as follows: 

1. It is cheaper than a horse and rig. 

2. It enables one to travel longer distances in a day and to visit 
more trustees and ratepayers. 

3. One can return home oftener. 


278 


Department of Education 


4. One can select better stopping places. 

5. One has more time for correspondence. 

6. It is a more comfortable method of travelling and one is not 
so tired after a day’s work. 

The disadvantages are: 

1. It is not much use in the winter time. 

2. One is sometimes held up by stormy weather and bad roads in 
the spring and fall. 

3. One is sometimes tempted to hurry on to the next school instead 
of remaining longer in the district. 

4. One is sometimes put to considerable expense in hiring liveries 
when the car is out of commission or when the roads are bad. 

The system followed for covering the entire field is as follows : 

1. I visit and inspect all my town and village schools in April and 

May. 

2. I visit yearly country schools in June. 

3. I visit summer schools in July and August. 

4. I complete the rural schools and visit many of them a second 

time. 

5. I visit the town and village schools a second time. 

My policy for keeping in touch with trustees, ratepayers and 
teachers is as follows : 

1. Trustees. 

(a) When visiting a district I make it a point to meet as many of 
the trustees as I can and discuss school matters with them. 

(&) I send them a report of my visit to the school. 

(c) I often correspond with them about school matters. 

( d ) I meet them at school fairs and teachers’ conventions. 

(e) I sometimes attend their meetings. 

2. Ratepayers. 

(a) I visit as many of them in their homes as I can. 

(&) I meet them at school fairs, teachers’ conventions and union 
school picnics. 

3. Teachers. 

(a) By letters and circulars. 

(b) By visits to the schools. 

(c) By means of school fairs and conventions. 

I encourage yearly schools : 

1. By seeing the trustees personally. 

2. By corresponding with them. 

3. By encouraging them to build stables and teacher’s residences, 
and to make all their buildings warm and comfortable. 

4. By reporting obstinate boards to the Department and asking 
the latter to bring pressure to bear on them. 

5. In some cases by the recommendation of the appointment of 
an Official Trustee. 


279 


Annual Repoet, 1919 


1 encourage regular attendance : 

1. By encouraging teachers (i) to make their school work so 
interesting that pupils will not want to stay at home, (ii) to have 
plenty of play apparatus and to get the pupils interested in games 
(in) to visit the parents and enlist their sympathy and co-operation and 

aVv , t0 . be careful and punctual in making out their reports to the 
Chief Attendance Officer. 

. ?' giving addresses at public meetings, school concerts and 

picnics. 


3. By soliciting the co-operation of trustees. 

School gardens are encouraged : 

1. By recommending trustees to fence their property, prepare the 
grounds and provide equipment. 

2. By getting the teachers interested in the subject. 

3. By means of prizes at school fairs. 

4. By getting municipal councils to grant prizes for the best 
school gardens m their municipalities. 

5. By always carefully inspecting the garden. 

6. By issuing school garden diplomas to schools having successful 
gardens. 


Community enterprises are encouraged : 

1. By recommending teachers to hold public examinations once 
or twice a year. 

2. By recommending school picnics in summer and school concerts 
in winter. 

.3* By recommending the organisation of Mechanics’ and Literary 
Institutes, Literary and Debating Societies, night schools and clubs of 
various kinds. In this connection I might say that two or three night 
schools are being conducted in my inspectorate. 


General Comments on the Work of Inspection . — Inspectors would 
he able to do more efficient work: 

1- If they were granted two or three months each year for pro- 
fessional reading. 

2. Tf they were furnished with standard measurement tests in 
the various subjects. 

3. Tf they were relieved of some of their secretarial work. 

4. If pamphlets illustrating plans and methods of conducting type 
lessons in the various subjects were printed and placed in the hands 
of each teacher. 


Schools would be able to do more efficient work if: 

1. All schools were made yearly schools. 

2. Proper sanitation was compulsory. 

3. An adequate amount of play equipment for boys and girls 
was compulsory. 

4. School boards were financially assisted in the building of 
residences for their teachers. 

5. Bonuses were granted to teachers for length of service. 

0. Medical and dental inspection of children -were compulsory. 

7. T he age and standard at which a pupil could leave school were 
raised. 


280 


Department of Education 


8. The clauses relating to compulsory education were made more 
stringent so that parents would not hesitate a moment about sending 
their children to school. At present, I have in mind a number of 
parents, who deliberately keep their children out of school and who 
laugh at the smallness of the fine imposed on them for so doing. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. E. Stevenson. 


Oxbow, January 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report of the Oxbow inspectorate for the year 1919. 

Extent of Inspectorate. — There was no change in the boundaries 
of this inspectorate from those of 1918. The inspectorate includes 
eight municipalities in the extreme south-east corner of the province, 
bordering Manitoba on the east and the United States on the south. 

On January 1, 1919, there were 105 school districts in the inspec- 
torate, with 129 departments. Two new school districts were erected 
during the year, South Frobisher S.D. ISTo. 4167 and Souris Flats S.D. 
No. 4226. St. Thomas S.D. No. 865 closed one department owing to 
the operation of The Storthoaks P.S. S.D. No. 2 within the boundaries 
of the district. Carlyle H.S.D. No. 8 ceased operation as a high school 
and the two high school departments were operated by Carlyle S.D. 
No. 276. Three departments were therefore added to my list making 
a total of 132 departments. Both the new school districts awarded 
contracts for school buildings and endeavoured to have them erected 
during 1919 but various difficulties intervened and construction was 
delayed. The material, however, is on the ground and both schools 
should be in operation during the second term of 1920. 

School Attendance. — The following schedules show the enrolment 
and attendance in all schools in operation on the day of inspection : 


( A ) Rural and Village Schools op One Department 






Grades 




Jr. 

Form 

Mid. 

Form 

Total 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Enrolment 

494 

202 

234 

235 

187 

135 

80 

107 

3 


1,677 

Percentage of 
total enrolment 

29.46 

12. 05 

13.95 

14. 01 

11.15 

8.05 

4.78 

6.38 

. 17 


Number of 












schools 

92 

77 

78 

76 

69 

51 

38 

52 

2 


94 

Average 












enrolment .... 

5.37 

2.62 

3 

3.09 

2.71 

2.65 

2. 1 

2.06 

1.5 


17.5 

Number present . 

439 

177 

194 

199 

149 

104 

54 

83 

3 


1,402 

Percentage of en- 
rolment pres- 











ent 

88.88 

87.64 

82.91 

84. 68 

79.67 

77.04 

67.5 

77.57 

100 


83.66 


Annual Report 


281 


( B ) Village and Town Schools of Two oh More Departments 






Grades 




Jr. 

Form 

Mid. 

Form 



I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Total 

Enrolment 

231 

135 

112 

141 

101 

87 

39 

86 

105 

23 

1,060 

Percentage of 
total enrolment 

21.79 

12.74 

10.57 

13.3 

9.53 

8.21 

3.68 

8.11 

9.9 

.2.17 

Number of 
departments . . 

11 

11 

11 

12 

10 

11 

6 

11 

9 

5 

37 

Average 

enrolment .... 

21. 

12.27 

10. 18 

11.75 

10. 1 

7.9 

6.5 

7.82 

11.66 

4.6 

28.65 

Number present . 

187 

121 

95 

125 

85 

78 

37 

77 

91 

22 

916 

Percentage of en- 
rolment pres- 
ent 

80.95 

89.63 

84.82 

88.65 

84. 16 

87.36 

94.87 

89.53 

86.66 

95.65 

86.42 


(O All Schools 






Grades 




Jr. 

Form 

Mid. 

Form 

Total 


I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

Enrolment 

725 

337 

346 

376 

288 

222 

119 

193 

108 

23 

2,737 

Percentage of 







4.35 

7.04 

3.94 

.84 


total enrolment 

26.52 

12.31 

12.64 

13.73 

10.52 

8. 11 


Number of 
departments . . 
Average 

enrolment . . 

103 

88 

89 

88 

79 

62 

44 

63 

11 

5 

131 

7.04 

3.83 

3.88 

4.27 

3.65 

3.58 

2.7 

3.06 

9.82 

4.6 

20.89 

Number present . 

626 

298 

289 

324 

234 

180 

91 

160 

94 

22 

2,318 

Percentage of en- 
rolment pres- 












ent 

86.34 

88.43 

83.53 

86. 17 

81.25 

81.08 

76.47 

82.9 

87.04 

95.65 

84.69 


The percentage of attendance on the day of visit, as shown by 
the above figures, was good and shows a steady improvement since 
the enactment of The School Attendance Act. In the rural schools 
the percentage of enrolment present on the day of inspection in 1917 
was 80.42, in 1918, 82.2 and in 1919, 83.66. The improvement is 
especially noticeable in Grades V, VI and VIII. In the latter grade 
there has been an improvement of over ten per cent, in the attendance 
of the pupils taking this work. The total number of pupils taking the 
Grade VIII work also shows an increase from year to year, in rural 
as well as urban schools. Of the total enrolment, 28.96 per cent, were 
in Grades V, VI, VII and VIII in 1917 and 30.03 per cent, in 1919. 

Local School A dministration .- — Practically all the schools with an 
enrolment of ten or over are conducted as yearly schools. . A few of 
these schools had difficulty in securing teachers early in the year but 
opened as soon as teachers could be secured. All schools were in 
operation during the year, all but three opening not later than March. 
These three opened in May. There seems to be a general desire, in 
this inspectorate, to have the schools operated during as many school 
days ns possible. This portion of the province is fairly well settled, 


282 


Department of Education 


with good roads, and there seems to be no valid reason why practically 
all of the schools should not be operated as yearly schools. 

Considerable improvement has been effected in the school buildings 
and equipment. Twelve bitildings have been repaired or altered, 
thirty-three have had the interiors retinted, four have been 
repainted and five have had new heating and ventilating plants 
installed. The seating has been improved in twenty-seven schools, the 
blackboards improved, enlarged or renewed in twenty-five, adequate 
provision for drinking and washing provided in thirty, substantial 
additions to equipment made in twenty-six, translucent blinds installed 
in seventeen and additional playground equipment provided in 
seven schools. These results are encouraging and show that the trustees 
of these older districts are willing to provide adequate and suitable 
buildings and equipment when they are convinced that the improve- 
ments are needed. Much remains to be done, however, before these 
older schools reach, even approximately, the standard required by the 
Departmental regulations. 

Six districts have unsatisfactory school buildings. Two urban 
districts have been using unsuitable buildings as temporary annexes 
to provide accommodation until financial conditions permit the building 
of suitable additions to their schools. A new school building, erected 
in 1918 in the hamlet of Northgate, is already too small for the 
accommodation of the children of the district. Three old buildings in 
rural districts are in such condition that new buildings are urgently 
needed and the ratepayers and trustees are considering the erection 
of suitable modern buildings. 

Very few of the rural schools have outside toilets which comply 
fully with the regulations. Twenty-seven were in need of repairs, clean- 
ing, sweeping or scrubbing. The others were reported as in fair condition 
since they were obviously of the same type and as well kept as the 
outbuildings of the pupils’ homes. Only 14 of the rural schools have 
inside toilets. Even four of the town and village schools have failed 
to make this necessary provision for the comfort and health of the 
children and teachers. 

Forty-four schools were reported as having insufficient or unsatis- 
factory blackboard space. Thirty-seven of these schools had less than 100 
square feet of blackboard, the area running as low as 44 square feet 
and 72 to 80 square feet being fairly common, even in new buildings. 
At least 120 square feet is needed for effective work by teachers and 
pupils. The side blackboards, especially, are too high for use by the 
pupils in many of the schools. The Hyloplate in common use soon 
becomes shiny, chipped or marred, making writing and reading difficult 
and, when subject to the usual cross lights, entailing a serious strain 
on the pupils’ eyesight. Sandpapering and re-slating is recommended 
for such blackboards unless the condition is so bad that new blackboards 
are imperative. Although the initial cost of slate blackboards is approxi- 
mately twice that of the Hyloplate they are cheaper because of their 
permanency and are much more satisfactory for writing and reading. 

Provision for drinking and washing is generally satisfactory in 
the urban schools. The water supply was unsatisfactory, however, in 
the case of 26 rural schools where section 110, subsection (12), of The 


Annual Report, 1919 


283 


School Act was ignored by the trustees and the individual pupils were 
left to either bring small quantities of water from their own homes 
or go without. Only fourteen rural schools had wells supplying good 
water. Of five new school wells dug in 1919 only two gave a satis- 
factory supply of water. Thirty-seven schools had wells which had 
proven unsatisfactory. Water was carried from neighbouring homes 
for 22 schools and 32 school boards paid a pupil or a family for the pro- 
vision of an adequate daily supply for drinking and washing. Since 
but few of these school buildings have basements the conservation of 
rain water for drinking purposes is impracticable even if the success 
of this scheme, where tried, was unquestioned. Twenty-two schools 
had provided no container for drinking water. Of thirty-five drinking 
fountains twenty-six were giving good satisfaction. Simple repairs 
would have placed the others in working condition. Where an adequate 
daily supply of water is provided these fountains are sanitary and 
they obviate the danger of the common drinking cup or the 
nuisance of the individual cups. Thirty-five schools were pro- 
vided with covered water containers with taps and individual or 
family cups. Individual cups were being dipped into _ a common con- 
tainer in eleven schools. Individual towels were provided in seventy- 
one schools and family towels in ten. Only thirteen schools had failed 
to provide towels or were using the illegal common towel. The danger 
of infection from the common cake of soap, however, is not generally 
recognised as only eight rural schools have, as yet, provided the required 
liquid soap. 

As noted above, the seating has been improved in twenty-seven 
schools, either by providing new single, adjustable desks or by re-arrang- 
ing the seats for the better comfort and convenience of the pupils. 3sTew 
double or nonadjustable single desks were provided, contrary to regula- 
tions and recommendations, in ten schools, including one village school. 
Since the aim of the regulation is to have the unsuitable and obsolete 
double desks gradually replaced by desks which will aid rather than 
hinder the physical development of the children and which will tend 
towards better individual work and easier discipline, these boards were 
required to provide the legal type of desk, where such change was 
possible. In thirty-eight schools, however, the seating is still in need 
of improvement, the desks being either not adapted to the needs of 
the pupils now in attendance, inadequate, loose, poorly arranged or in 
poor repair. 

Satisfactory hot water or steam heating systems are in use in 
five of the graded schools in this inspectorate. The other six urban 
schools have basement hot air furnaces which give only fair satis- 
faction. Basement furnaces have been installed in nine rural schools, 
but in two cases at least they have failed to heat the school satisfactorily. 
The Waterbury heating and ventilation system is in use in thirty-seven 
rural schools and in only eight schools has it failed to give satisfaction. 
Four of these buildings are so old and in such poor repair that it is doubt- 
ful if any system could heat them satisfactorily. J acketed stoves, without 
any ventilating system, were in use. in three schools. The common 
stove, with its unequal and unsatisfactory distribution of heat and 


284 




Department of Education 

absence of any system of ventilation, is still employed in thirty-seven 
rural schools. 

Stables are provided for all but two of the rural schools. None 
of the village schools have provided stabling accommodation as this can 
be found in the livery or other stables in the village. 

The equipment in the schools is generally satisfactory. Needed 
additions in the form, of maps, globes, primary material, measures, 
dictionaries, thermometers, framed pictures, etc., were made during 
the year by twenty-six rural schools. The equipment of the town and 
village schools is, as a rule, complete and adequate. The trustees are 
generous in their provision for the needs of the children and teachers. 

While the new buildings generally conform to the Departmental 
regulations with regard to lighting, the buildings constructed before 
these regulations came into force do not and radical alterations in the 
lighting of these buildings is, in most cases, impracticable. It has been 
found, however, that where translucent blinds have been substituted 
for the opaque blinds in common use, the lighting has been improved 
and that where these translucent blinds have been of the automatic, 
folding type, which may be arranged to admit light from the upper 
portion of the windows, the cross glare on the blackboards has been 
largely overcome. The following schedule shows the lighting conditions 
in the schools of this inspectorate : 


Lighting. 




Direction 

g 

»«•« . 

Proportion 

Shades 

Schools 

From 

left 

only 

From 

left 

and 

rear 

From 

right 

and 

rear 

From 

right 

and 

left 

From 

both 

sides 

and 

rear 

1/4 

to 

1/7 

1/8 

to 

1/16 

Opaque 

Trans- 

lucent 

Rural . . 

7 

15 


68 

4 

45 

49 

69 

25 

Urban. . . . 

2 

28 

2 

4 

1 

24 

13 

26 

11 






Totals 

9 

43 

2 

72 

5 

69 

62 

95 

36 






Translucent blinds have been installed in seventeen of these thirty- 
six schools since 1918. The inadequate lighting has been mitigated in 
thirty-three of these schools by retinting the walls in a light shade, 
usually the light buff recommended by the Department. 

The grounds of seventy rural schools are fenced, four having new 
fences erected in 1919. Twenty-four rural school grounds are still with- 
out fences and are consequently unimproved. Trees have been planted 
and are growing in twenty rural school grounds. Five of the town and 
village schools have improved their grounds with trees and shrubbery, 
the schools at Oxbow, Gainsborough and Redvers now having especially 
beautiful surroundings. Among the rural schools, the grounds of The 
Yale S.D. No. 1034 and The Douglaston S.D. No. 568 show the 
attractive result of a judicious planting with trees and shrubbery 
several years ago. The Fertile Consolidated S.D. No. 235 improved 


Annual Report, 1919 


285 


their extensive grounds by planting five hundred trees this year and 
The Moose Mountain S.D. No. 162 and The Bellegarde R.C.P.S.D. 
No. 50 also planted several hundred trees. 

School gardens were attempted by thirty-seven rural schools and 
three urban schools this year but owing to drought, high winds and 
grasshoppers, the results were discouraging. Miss Mildred Stutt, teacher 
in the Fertile consolidated school, deserves special mention, therefore, 
for her success as her garden was not only extensive and well planned 
but, in spite of all discouragements, produced very satisfactory results. 
McAuley S.D. No. 2186 and Ingoldsby S.D. No. 3798 also had good 
gardens at the time of inspection. 

The value of play as an integral part of an educational system 
has been recognised by eighteen rural school boards and five urban 
school boards, who have provided equipment for baseball, football, 
basketball and volley-ball, also swings, teeters and other playground 
equipment. The boards of Oxbow S.D. No. 225, Kimberley S.D. No. 
176 and Elmore S.D. No. 148 have been especially generous in their 
provision for this branch of education. 

Teachers .— While some few schools experienced difficulty in secur- 
ing qualified teachers early in the year, every school was in charge of 
a qualified teacher soon after the Normal schools closed in March. Only 
one provisional certificate was granted during the second term and 
since that teacher had taken a partial Normal course in Nova Scotia 
in 1885 and had been teaching more or less continuously since that year, 
she too might be classified as a qualified teacher. Since a sufficient 
supply of qualified teachers was available, any efforts of students or 
trustees to secure “permits” were discouraged, in the interests of the 
schools as well as the teachers. Where, however, a Third Class teacher 
was doing satisfactory work in a rural school and the trustees wished 
to retain her services, extensions were recommended and granted by 
the Department. Since the class of certificate held by a teacher does 
not always represent the class of work she may be doing in the school- 
room and since there are many teachers holding only Third Class 
teachers’ certificates who are doing work superior to that being done 
by others holding Second or First Class certificates, there can be no 
valid objection to this policy, especially as these extensions are valid 
only in the school for which they are granted and a desirable perma- 
nency of tenure of a good teacher is thus assured. The following 
schedule shows the relation between the certificates and the quality 
of work of these teachers : 

Teachers 


Quality of work 

Graded schools 

Ungraded schools 

Total 

Class of 
certificate held 

Class of 
certificate held 

First 

Second 

Third 

First 

Second 

Third 

Good 

6 

11 

2 

4 

16 

17 

56 

Fair 

2 

10 

4 

4 

19 

27 

66 

Poor 


2 



2 

5 

9 

Totals 

8 

23 

6 

8 

37 

49 

131 


28 (i 


Department of Education 


Of these 131 teachers, eighty-eight were trained in Saskatchewan,, 
twenty-one in Manitoba, nine in Nova Scotia, four in Ontario, two in 
New Brunswick, two in Quebec, two in the United States, one in 
Alberta, one in British Columbia and one in Scotland. One hundred 
and one of these teachers had received their Normal training since 
1913 and thirty previous to that year. The average experience of all 
these teachers was four years. Seventeen of these teachers were men — • 
an increase of six over 1918. 

Where the average salary for a rural school teacher was $720- 
in 1917 it is now over $1,000. The average salary for an assistant 
teacher in a graded school is $900. The principals’ salaries vary from 
$1,200 to $1,800, according to the size of the school and the qualifica- 
tions of the principal. In the rural schools very little distinction in 
salary is made between the teacher of high qualifications and successful 
experience and the teacher of lower qualifications and little or no 
experience. As teachers are comparatively scarce, any teacher feels 
entitled to the prevailing salary, irrespective of qualifications and 
experience, and the trustees usually have little choice in the matter. 

Twenty-eight of the ninety-four rural teachers were teaching in 
the same school as in 1918, but only twelve of these had been in the 
same school for three years or more. The permanency of tenure i& 
slightly better in the graded schools. 

General Progress of Pupils . — A more general effort to follow 
the prescribed course of studies in the ungraded as well as the graded 
schools is now evident in this inspectorate. As one result the rural 
pupils are not so seriously handicapped when they move into the urban 
graded schools or from one rural school to another. As I have repeat- 
edly stated, the printed curriculum should have a much greater content 
than has been customary. Since the majority of our teachers are 
inadequately trained and have had little or no experience, either 
manuals adapted to or formulated for Saskatchewan schools should be 
provided or an enlarged syllabus should be formulated, giving an 
extended treatment of the subject matter in each grade, including 
suggestions as to methods and devices and making clear throughout 
the aims and principles involved. The syllabus should clearly indicate 
how, in the training of the pupils in the public school for civic 
efficiency, the other subjects may be correlated, including not only 
geography and history hut even arithmetic, so that all alike shall con- 
tribute their share in the civic education of the child. This for many 
years has been my ideal of a curriculum for our public schools and 
my work as an inspector has deepened my conviction that such an 
enlarged syllabus is needed. 

The present prescribed course in arithmetic for Grades I, II 
and III is well devised and, if followed, will give the pupils a solid 
foundation, because thorough, for the work of the succeeding grades. 
Accuracy in the simple rules will he the possession of pupils who, for 
the first three years of their school life, have been thoroughly trained 
in the combinations of our decimal system of number. Unfortunately, 
many of our teachers plunge their pupils into too formal and difficult 
work in the simple rules as early as Grade II with consequent dis- 
couragement, drudgery and inaccuracy on the part of the pupils. The- 


Annual Report, 1919 


287 


prescribed course, in such cases, is usually disregarded or violated be- 
-cause of lack of understanding of the few brief sentences which, in 
the present course, are supposed to define this work. The correlation 
of arithmetic with the other subjects of the curriculum, notably agri- 
culture and household science, should be illustrated in detail in the 
enlarged syllabus. 

Since the aim of the school is to train our children to become 
efficient members of society, more emphasis should be placed on hygiene, 
civics and history. Health education is receiving needed attention 
through the work of the School Hygiene Branch of the Department but 
the fixing of right health habits rests largely with the teacher in co-op- 
eration with the parents. Civics, as a means of familiarising the future 
citizens with their duties to the state, and history, as related to actual 
social conditions, problems and activities, should receive due emphasis 
in all our schools. The attention of the teachers has been directed 
to the importance of these subjects in the social education of the child 
and as a result these subjects are not neglected to the same extent as 
formerly. 

Spelling, unlike some other subjects of the curriculum, is inti- 
mately correlated with all. Since the only reason for learning to spell 
is that we may write correctly, the spelling is best judged in the schools 
from the general exercise books and the teacher is expected to pay 
special attention to the spelling in these books. The writing is judged 
in the same way and for the same reasons. As a direct result, a 
decided improvement has been observed in the written work of the 
schools. Since the Speller did not furnish either a minimum or a satis- 
factory list of words, it has been discarded and the teachers are urged 
to evolve a list of words symbolical of (i) the child’s experiences, (ii) 
words used bv the average adult, (iii) short perplexing words and (iv) 
words mis-spelled by individual pupils, using the texts in reading, 
literature, composition, etc., as well as the pupils’ surroundings and 
conversation. These words are expected to be taught, not merely 
assigned. 

Composition, especially in the junior grades where the oral work 
receives special attention, is as a rule well taught by the teachers. The 
teaching of primary reading is in rather a confused state at present, 
owin" to the divergent methods being practised by successive teachers, 
but the pupils are learning to read with fair fluency and understanding. 
Throughout the grades special attention is being paid to the develop- 
ment. of natural expression. 

Systematic and regular work in physical training is now the rule 
rather than the exception in the schools. The competitions in this sub- 
ject at the various school fairs have served to stimulate interest on the 
part of the public as well as the teachers and pupils in this branch of 
education. Miss Theresa Smith, teacher of Palestine S.D. Ho. 500, 
won the shield awarded by the Local Committee of the Stratheona 
Trust, at the Oxbow school fair, with the very creditable standing, as 
marked by two inspectors, of 99^ per cent. Organised and supervised 
play, as affording an opportunity for the exercise of needed initiative 
on the part of the pupils as well as f<jr pleasurable exercise, is 
emphasised as an essential part of this subject. 


288 


Department of Education 


A short course in household science was conducted in Oxbow, by 
Miss M. McColl, from December 1 to December 19. Classes in sewing 
were conducted in the various grades of the public school and classes 
in cooking for the students of Grade VIII and the High School. Two 
evening meetings were held for the mothers and others interested in 
the work and a meeting of the rural teachers was arranged to discuss 
the hot noonday lunch. As a result of this course it is hoped that an 
itinerant teacher in this subject may he engaged for Oxbow and neigh- 
bouring urban schools. At present this subject receives considerable 
attention in connection with the various school exhibitions. 

Large Districts . — There is only one consolidated district in this 
inspectorate — The Fertile S.D. Ho. 235. This district is twelve miles in 
length and is of an average width of four miles. It was formed by the 
consolidation of the old Council S.D. with a proposed new district to 
the north, a new school being erected in 1917 at Fertile in the centre 
of the consolidated district. This building is a modern two-roomed 
brick school with full basement and is utilised as a community centre 
as well as school. Only one teacher is employed at present but the enrol- 
ment has increased from twenty-five in 1918 to thirty-two in 1919 and 
a second department will be needed in the near future. Three vans are 
used to transport the pupils. The attendance for January was ninety- 
five per cent., February ninety-seven per cent., March ninety-eight 
per cent., April ninety-two per cent, and May (the month of inspec- 
tion) ninety-seven per cent, of the enrolment. No rural or urban 
school in the inspectorate can show a record for regularity of attendance 
approaching this. The punctuality was also excellent, no lates being 
recorded for these five months except twice when a van was late, death 
in a van-driver’s family being the reason in one case. The school 
grounds are extensive, comprising five acres, and have been improved 
by the planting of 500 trees and shrubs and the erection of a fence. 
The school garden, under the direction of Miss Mildred Stutt, teacher, 
was the most extensive and successful school garden in the inspectorate 
during 1919. This teacher was also instrumental in organising a rural 
education association including several neighbouring school districts 
and a very successful school exhibition was held under the auspices 
of this association. A thrift club was organised and 1,472 gopher tails 
collected through the inspiration of this aggressive and efficient teacher. 
Miss Stutt holds a Third Class certificate. The ratepayers and trustees 
of this district are justly proud of their school and are generous in its 
support. In conversation with ratepayers and trustees general satisfac- 
tion with the system was expressed. 

Consolidation is being discussed by the towns of Oxbow and 
Carlyle, both of which are faced with the need of more adequate school 
accommodation. Meetings to discuss the advantages and disadvantages 
of the system, especially from the viewpoint of the rural ratepayer, 
will be held in the near future. 


Work as Inspector . — The town and village schools of the inspec- 
torate, eleven in number with thirty-seven departments, are visited 
early in the spring and late in the fall by railroad, the territory being 
well served by the Souris apd the Areola lines of the Canadian Pacific 
Rnilwav. Purine: the intervening months the rural schools are visited 


Annual Report, 1919 


289 


by means of a Ford car. Oxbow, the largest town in the inspectorate, 
is the residence centre for inspectoral work, but owing to its situation in 
the south-west corner of the inspectorate, it is not the geographical 
centre for convenience in travelling. Inspection of the outlying parts 
of the inspectorate requires an absence from home from Monday to 
Saturday for several weeks during the season but gives a needed oppor- 
tunity for social and professional intercourse with ratepayers, trustees 
and teachers. Daily return trips from Oxbow are made to rural schools 
within a radius of thirty miles. The land is level, with good roads, 
especially during the dry seasons of the past three years. Even the 
valleys of the Souris river and its tributary streams have good 
approaches and bridges. During the fall months the regular inspec- 
tion work is considerably interrupted by attendance at school exhibi- 
tions and conventions but, as you have intimated in your memorandum, 
this broader work in the direction of educational and social organisation 
is worthy of increased attention. During 1919 all schools in operation 
were inspected. Ninety-four schools of one department were inspected 
once and thirty twice. Thirty-seven graded school departments were 
inspected once and thirty-one twice, making a total of 192, inspections. 
Twenty other visits, not resulting in inspection, were made to various 
districts, with reference to location of school sites, disputes between 
ratepayers and trustees, consultation or — in the case of seven districts 
— to schools which were closed without proper notification. Twenty-four 
days were spent in connection with conventions, school exhibitions or 
community gatherings. Eighteen days were spent reading teachers’ 
essays, examination papers and in preparing annual summaries and 
reports. Five days were spent in connection with the household science 
course and one day attending a meeting of the revision committee at 
Regina. Six days were spent in necessary travelling. From January 
■> to March 15, I assisted Inspector McLeod in the Estevan Normal 
school. Eighty days were needed for necessary correspondence and 
office work, maiidy on Saturdays and during July. No vacation was 
taken this year. As far as possible, trustees were visited in the course 
of the regular visits of inspection. The school fairs and conventions 
were a means of meeting many ratepayers and trustees as well as teach- 
ers. Saturdays and holidays, when I was at home in Oxbow, afforded 
opportunities of meeting many trustees and ratepayers in this portion 
of the inspectorate, while telephone calls from outlying parts of the 
inspectorate at such times were quite common. 

School Exhibitions . — Successful school exhibitions were held at 
Alameda, Oxbow, Glen Ewen, Carnduff, Carievale, Gainsborough, 
Fertile and Dalesboro under the direction of the local rural education 
associations. In each case the surrounding rural schools actively 
participated in the organisation and the exhibition. The exhibits repre- 
sented the best efforts of teachers and pupils in the various branches of 
the prescribed course of study. Contests in physical training, rapid 
arithmetic, written spelling, oral composition and chorus singing were 
features of most of these exhibitions. With a view to having the school 
exhibition represent more fully a sustained interest along the regular 
lines of study, an effort has been made to have the programmes for 1920 
prepared and in the schools early in the year. The prize-winning 


290 


Department op Education 


exhibits from the various local fairs were exhibited during the teachers’ 
convention at Carnduff and the best of these exhibits selected to be 
shown at the provincial convention. The following paragraph from the 
“Oxbow Herald” is a fair statement of the aims and benefits of this 
feature of our educational work: 

“The annual school fair has become so integral a part of school 
life in this community that it seems scarcely necessary to note the pur- 
pose served by the institution. We all admit the benefit derived in 
business from wholesome, honest competition. The spirit of competi- 
tion, as fostered among pupils and, on a larger scale, among schools has 
an equally beneficial effect on the work done in our schools. Then, too, 
the parents meet one another on Fair Day; they are able to compare 
and contrast the work accomplished in the various schools ; they see 
pupils and teachers in their customary environment, and they gain a 
more intelligent idea of the sort of work the schools of Saskatchewan 
are doing. The primary aim of the School Fair organisation and of 
all organisations of a similar character is to bring the school and com- 
munity into a closer and more sympathetic relation and to make the 
school serve better the need of the community, and this need is of 
course for more efficient, more intelligent, more zealous citizens.” 

Teachers’ Conventions . — Two successful and largely attended 
conventions of the teachers of the Oxbow inspectorate were held in 
October. The first annual convention of the Cannington Educational 
Association was held at Carlyle on the sixteenth and seventeenth and 
was attended by the teachers of the northern division of the inspector- 
ate. The second annual convention of the Souris Educational 
Association for the teachers along the Souris and Alida lines 
of the Canadian Pacific Pailway, was held in Carnduff on the 
twenty-third and twenty-fourth. One hundred and eighteen out 
of 131 teachers engaged in the inspectorate attended these 
two conventions, which would indicate a creditable interest in educa- 
tional and professional matters on the part of those teachers. The 
executives were fortunate in securing the presence and assistance of 
Capt. A. H. Ball, Deputy Minister of Education ; Col. T. E. Perrett, 
Principal of the Regina Normal school, and Mr. F. W. Bates, Director 
of School Fairs, for these conventions. The addresses of these speak- 
ers at the evening meetings were given careful and interested attention 
by large audiences of the general public as well as the teachers. The 
papers and addresses at the regular sessions showed careful and 
thoughtful preparation and inspired profitable discussion. A feature 
of the Carnduff convention which attracted considerable attention was, 
as mentioned above, the display of prize-winning exhibits from the 
various school fairs. 

In conclusion I may safely say that I have endeavoured, to the 
best of my ability, to carry into practice and effect, the suggestions 
contained in your memorandum. The effect of this broader work in 
the direction of educational and social organisation, in addition to the 
regular work of inspection is, I believe, indicated in this report. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


W. J. Stevenson. 


Annual Report, 1919 


291 


Prince Albert, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the fol- 
lowing report on the Prince Albert inspectorate for the year ending 
December 31, 1919. 

The Prince Albert inspectorate for 1919 was smaller than that 
for 1918 by rural municipality 460 and parts of the unorganised units 
525 and 555. It comprised rural municipalities 461, 490, 493 and 
494 and the unorganised units 520, 521, 523, 524, 553 and 554. There 
are no schools in units 520 and 553. 

Included in this territory on January 1, 1919, there were seventy- 
six districts, seventy-two of one department each and four having 
together thirty-four departments. Five new districts were organised 
during the year and five departments added in the city of Prince 
Albert. This made a total of 116 departments on my list December. 
31, 1919. 

The long term schools continue to increase in number. The revi- 
sion of section 187 of The School Act has had a beneficial effect in this 
regard. The regularity of attendance has also improved. At the time 
of my visit to rural schools I found 81.36 per cent, of the pupils 
enrolled present. This is a decided advance over 1918 and at least 
indicates that The School Attendance Act is operating effectively in 
this inspectorate. I found little to be gratified over in the number of 
pupils enrolled in the upper grades in rural schools. There appears 
to be little advance in this respect. The following comparative state- 
ment shows the classification of pupils by grades : 



Rural 

Village, town and city 

Grade 

Number 

of 

pupils 

Percentage 

of 

enrolment 

Number 

of 

pupils 

Percentage 

of 

enrolment 

I 

686 

42.11 

345 

28.77 

ir 

247 

15. 16 

142 

11.84 

ni 

236 

14.48 

148 

12. 34 

IV 

193 

11.84 

154 

12.84 

v 

120 

7.36 

10S 

9.01 

vT 

73 

4.48 

122 

10.17 

VII 

36 

2.21 

87 

7.25 

VIII 

23 

1.41 

88 

7.35 

Junior Form 

15 

.92 

5 

.41 




This includes public school pupils only. 


As in previous reports, I am unable to speak of the activities of 
the rural school trustees as progressive. The general interest evinced 
in maintaining progressive measures in the upkeep and improvement 
of the school plant is not encouraging. This is not due to their indif- 
ference to the value and need of education in their lives. The practical 
is very predominant in this north country. A great part of this inspec- 


292 


Department of Education 


torate is pioneer territory where with the great majority of the rate- 
payers the first question is how to secure the bare necessities of life. 
Very many of the homes are humble indeed. With these conditions we 
cannot reasonably expect that from forty to sixty individuals can be 
found in the average municipality who can give the time and thought 
necessary to keep themselves informed of the best material means to 
education or to administer the schools most progressively. A misconcep- 
tion of the main business of trustees seems to be general among the 
ratepayers, viz., to operate the school as cheaply as possible. Surely the 
primary duty of a school board is to provide the best for the children 
that the district can afford. 

The condition of the grounds in general is not satisfactory. In 
more than a fifth of the rural schools, the yards are entirely unim- 
proved. More than one-third are unfenced and over a quarter have 
unsatisfactory space for play. In not more than three or four schools 
has insistent effort been made to provide play equipment. More than 
■one-half of the schools have no stable, only four districts have teachers’ 
residences, and the lack of attention to sanitation is especially dis- 
couraging. Measured by the regulations of the Department the great 
majority of rural schools are unsatisfactory in this respect. About 
one-quarter of the buildings are unsatisfactory while more than half 
cannot be classed as good. Over two-thirds have cross lighting, ten 
still have a teacher’s platform, over seventy per cent, have the unjacket- 
ed stove and doors and windows as the only means of ventilation. 
Equipment is generally satisfactory except seating and blackboards. 
Seventy-five per cent, of the rural schools have double seats, seventeen 
per cent, single seats and eight per cent, single adjustable seats. About 
a quarter of the schools have unsatisfactory or insufficient blackboards. 
These statistics show that a great deal needs to be done. I am pleased 
to be able to report some progress. About ten per cent, of the rural 
schools made extensive improvements. Three new schools of approved 
type and pleasing design were erected. Seven districts fenced their 
grounds, six cleared their yards, two planted trees or shrubs, four built 
stables, five dug wells, seven redecorated or otherwise improved their 
school buildings, one installed a basement furnace, one jacketed the 
stove, one installed a Waterbury heater, two replaced their old desks 
with adjustable single desks and four put in additional blackboards. 

The work of 12.7 teachers came under inspection. Every school 
that had facilities operated for some period during the year. The 
inspectorate was better supplied with qualified teachers than in any 
previous year. The following comparative tables show the classifica- 
tion of teachers according to sex and certificates held. 


I. — Classification According to Sex. 



Total 

Male 

Percentage 

Female 

Percentage 

Rural . . . 

84 

16 

19.05 

68 

80. 95 

Village, town and city .... 

43 

4 

9.3 

39 

90.7 

Whole inspectorate 

127 

20 

15.75 

107 

84.25 


Annual Report, 1919 


293 


1 1 .-—Classification According to Certificate. 



First 

Percent- 

age 

Second 

Percent- 

age 

Third 

Percent- 

age 

Per- 

mit 

Percent- 

age 

Rural 

8 

9.52 

30 

35.71 

32 

38.09 

14 

16.67 

Village, town and 









city 

7 

16.27 

31 

72. .09 

5 

11.63 



Whole inspector- 









ate 

15 

11.81 

61 

48.03 

37 

29. 13_ 

14 

11.02 


The percentage of male teachers for the three preceding years was : 
1916, 31 per cent.; 1917, 25 per cent.; 1918, 17 per cent. 

The salaries for teachers of rural schools ranged from $780 to 
$1,200, with an average of $980 per annum. 

This territory continues to suffer keenly from the lack of perman- 
ency of the teaching body and the periodical migration of its members. 
In previous reports I have indicated what I believe are the causes of 
these conditions and have suggested measures for the removal of these 
causes. The following comparative statement of the classification of 
teachers according to experience shows the alarming nature of these 
conditions : 



Total number 
of teachers 

Number 

inexperienced 

Number in 
inspectorate 
before 1919 

Rural 

84 

12 (14.28%) 

44 (52.38%) 

Village, town or city 

43 

1 ( 1-23%) 

35 (81.99%) 

Whole inspectorate 

127 

13 (10.24%) 

79 (62.2 %) 


Length of Engagements in Present School. 



First year 

Second year 

Third year or over 

No. 

Percentage 

No. 

Percentage 

No. 

Percentage 

Rural 

67 

79.76 

16 

19.04 

1 

1.19 

Village, town or city 

11 

25.58 

20 

46.51 

12 

27.91 

Whole inspectorate 

78 

61.42 

36 

28.34 

13 

10.23 


Results in school work varied as in former years. There are few 
teachers who are not putting their best efforts into their work. There 
is no more intelligent, enthusiastic and earnest class of young people 
in any vocation, but they lack experience and training as teachers. We 
cannot hope for a much better type of work until the causes which 
make for temporariness of service in the profession are mitigated or 
removed. 

The common subjects were taught with fair success as in previous 
years. Seldom was a teacher found with a knowledge of history or 
geography broader than the text. The technical and superficial were 
usually emphasised in the teaching of literature and reading. Arith- 


294 


Department of Education 


metic was perhaps the most satisfactorily taught subject. Speed and 
accuracy in the fundamental processes were unsatisfactory. Music 
was generally neglected, but art received more attention. Considerable 
improvement was noted in the general neatness of written work. The 
school fair is doubtless responsible for these advances. 

Nature study and agriculture were usually formally or indiffer- 
ently taught. A good deal of interest was shown in the home and 
school gardens. Much better and more extensive work was done in 
manual training and household science. Play supervision was gener- 
ally not taken seriously as a duty by the teacher. Careful investiga- 
tion shows that, as a rule, children who play properly and energetically 
work alertly in school. 

I visited every district in the inspectorate, except one which was 
organised late in the year. Five rural schools did not operate at any 
time during the year, having no buildings. Of the 111 departments 
in operation I inspected all except two, which were closed at the time* 
of my visit. Thirty-eight were inspected once and seventy-one twice. I 
gave much more time this year to school fair work. In this work I found 
a splendid opportunity of coming in closer touch with the teachers, 
trustees and ratepayers, especially at the local fairs. There were twenty- 
one local fairs in the inspectorate — all successful — three schools compet- 
ing at each fair. Three municipal fairs were held. I gave an increased 
amount of time to holding conferences with trustees. A trustees’ 
association for the inspectorate was organised in October. A very 
successful teachers’ convention was held in Prince Albert on October 
2nd and 3rd. Dr. Snell, Mr. A. II. Ball, Deputy Minister of Education, 
Professor Ira McKay and Miss Rankin, of the Saskatoon Normal 
school staff, contributed largely to this success. 

Especially interesting features of the convention were the spelling 
and singing competitions. 

My territory for 1919 was less than half the area and had almost 
exactly half the number of departments of that for 1916 (my first year 
as inspector). This decrease in the size of the inspectorate has enabled 
the inspector to be of much greater service educationally in his territory. 
More thorough inspections, closer supervision and more intimate touch 
with teachers and trustees have been made possible. It is a source of 
satisfaction to the inspector to feel that he has a fairly intimate grasp 
of educational conditions in his inspectorate. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


J. T. Tomlinson. 


Annual Report, 1919 


295 


North Battreford, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration a report 
of the work done in the Lloydminster inspectorate during the year 
pnded December 31, 1919. 

The Lloydminster inspectorate having as its boundary on the 
north the northern branch of the Saskatchewan river, stretches south- 
ward along the Alberta boundary for a distance of eighty miles. It 
has a mean breadth of thirty-five miles and an area of about 2,800 
square miles. The inspectorate consists of the following municipali- 
ties: Nos. 140, 470, 471, 472, 502, 411, 442 and parts of 410 and 439. 

On January 1, 1919, there were seventy-two districts having in all 
eighty departments. Two districts had no school building, being 
organised to send the children to a neighbouring school. During the 
year eight new districts were erected and six new departments opened. 

Of the eighty school districts, consisting of ninety departments, 
seventy-six have school houses. Two, as mentioned above, are amalga- 
mated with other districts, while two others were organised too late in 
the year to build. These latter will probably erect buildings in the 
early spring. 

With regard to school attendance, there appears to be a desire 
in the great majority of districts to measure up to the standard set 
by the Department of Education. This does not actually take place 
for the following reasons: 

1. In the spring there was a difficulty attendant on an inadequate 
supply of teachers prior to the close of the Second Class Normal 
session. 2. In a few instances the school was so small that the severe 
weather of November prompted an early close. At the time of my 
first visit, of the 1,709 pupils enrolled, 1,444 or eighty-four per cent., 
were actually in attendance. On the second visit, out of an enrolment 
of 1,697, 1,404 or eighty-two per cent, were present. The record of 
attendance is as follows: 



First visit 

Second visit 

Grades 

Enrolled 

Percentage 
of total 
enrolment 

Present 

Enrolled 

Present 

I 

575 

33.25 

479 

561 

440 

II 

200 

11.75 

161 

201 

176 

HI 

240 

14. 

208 

236 

199 

iv . 

245 

14.5 

213 

233 

206 

V 

175 

10. 

147 

177 

146 

vi 

110 

6.5 

96 

106 

86 

VII 

77 

4.5 

63 

79 

61 

VIII 

60 

3.5 

51 

53 

45 

Junior Form 

27 

2. 

26 

48 

42 

Form 



3 

3 







Totals 

1,709 


1,444 

1,697 

1,404 




236 


Department of Education 


The School Attendance Act is, without a doubt, not only popular 
but is also an instrument of the highest importance in securing improved 
attendance. 

In corning in contact with school boards and ratepayers I have 
been impressed with the growing interest in school life and the desire 
that is prevalent to make the school facilities more adequate and the 
school house and premises more suitable as a home for the children. 
In spite of the fact that this part of the country has had crop failures 
two years in succession, no less than ten new schools have been built 
and several others renovated, ninety per cent, of the school districts 
undertook improvements, some of a very substantial nature. Another 
encouraging aspect of the case is the tendency of school boards to take 
advantage of the offer of the Department to supply free trees on 
request, provided the grounds are properly prepared. I look for a still 
greater awakening along the line of tree cultivation and in the beautify- 
ing of school premises in the near future. With regard to lighting, 
heating, water supply and the observance of the laws of sanitation, 
the following table will give some idea. 


Heating — 

No. of schools heated by stoves, some of very good type 42 

No. of schools heated by Waterbury Heaters 27 

No. of schools heated by furnaces 5 

l.ighiitig — 

No. of schools lighted according to regulation 37 

No. of schools with cross lighting 37 

Ventilation — 

No. of schools with satisfactory ventilation 32 

No. of schools with small systems more or less adequate 20 

No. of schools with no ventilation except bv doors and windows 22 

Water Supply — 

No. of schools with good wells 24 

No. of schools with discarded wells 12 

No. of schools with satisfactory carrying system 34 

No. of schools with insufficient water supply 16 

No. of schools with eaves troughs installed 13 

Toilets — 

No. of schools with inside sanitary toilets 8 

No. of schools with outside sanitary toilets 3 

No. of schools with toilets not of sanitary type but in fairly good 

condition 36 

No. of schools with toilets in fair condition 14 

No. of schools with toilets in poor condition 13 


The above statistics lead to the following conclusions: 

1. That nearly sixty per cent, of the schools are still heated by 
stoves. Many of these, however, are of a good type and quite satis- 
factory if accompanied, as is sometimes the case, by an adequate 
system of ventilation. 

2. That fifty per cent, of the schools of this inspectorate (all the 
new ones) arc- satisfactory as to their lighting while fifty per cent, have 
cross lights. The better buildings of the latter class are being gradually 
remodelled. 


Annual Report, 1919 


297 


3. That the ventilation of the school houses in general is not yet 
entirely satisfactory. Small systems are not as adequate as the laws 
of sanitation call for. The windows in the majority of instances are 
still used for ventilation. 

4. That in about twenty-five per cent, of the districts there are 
good wells supplying plenty of drinking water of a good quality and 
about fifteen per cent, of the districts have wells which have proved a 
complete failure. In thirty-four districts a supply of water is secured 
from neighbouring wells by carrying. In this way, when the fountain 
is properly used, a good fresh supply is always on hand. 

5. That a supply of soft water is on hand in thirteen districts and 
that the installation of eaves troughs and a tank is becoming more 
common. 

G. That the condition of the toilets is much improved and a 
strong desire to replace the outside with the inside closet is manifest. 
The Sanitary Caustic Closet is likely to lend an impetus to this 
movement. 

During the year it was my duty to inspect the work of 100 
teachers. It is with great satisfaction that I am able to report a much 
better class of teachers than in 1918. Of these, nearly seventy per cent, 
held Second or First Class certificates and only five teachers were 
without training. 

In the case of the Third Class teachers the chief reasons for 
condemnation arise from their inability to assume responsibility and 
to realise the seriousness of their work. 

Some splendid work is being done by teachers of the higher 
classes. The 100 teachers inspected were classified as follows: 


First Class 
(also graduates) 

First Class 
(Non-graduates) 

Second Class 

Third Class 

Provisional 

3 

6 

58 

29 

5 


The supply of teachers was sufficient to meet the demand but 
did not allow of as much freedom of choice as would tend to the 
highest efficiency. The boards of trustees seemed quite willing to pay 
a good salary for a good teacher. The chief complaints came from 
those tlyit engaged leachers of inferior rank who were unable to rise 
to a -. rise of their responsibility and looked for good pay while giving 
little in return. A sufficiently large supply of good teachers who are 
willing to look upon the instruction of children as a position of great 
trust will do much to solve the salary question. If we refer again to 
the table of attendance we can find some room for encouragement. 
Tt is to be observed that about ten per cent, of the total enrolment of 
this division, approximating 150 pupils, is now found above Grade VI. 
While this number is not yet sufficiently large to call for congratula- 
tions it seems to indicate an upward step in the progress of education 
and will sooner or later compel those in charge to consider ways and 
means to take care of the education of pupils above Grade VI who 
do not as a rule, get the attention they require in a rural school. 


298 


Department of Education 


As a result of the Departmental examinations forty-two pupils passed 
successfully from the rural Grade VIII to the High School. One of 
the questions for the future is the proper education of these advanced 
pupils. 

The progress of the pupils of the public school in the ordinary 
school work, while not all we could wish, is fairly satisfactory. The 
elementary subjects in the primary grades are taken up much better 
than formerly and the children are fairly efficient. Children do not 
as a rule read with sufficient expression nor is composition really 
taught in an intelligent way. In this latter subject the pupils are left 
too much to themselves at the critical stage and written reproduction 
comes before there has been orderly oral reproduction. Pupils are 
asked to write stories that they are unable to tell well. Teachers are 
not careful enough to actually plan the work. Geography, history and 
nature study are not always taught in such a manner as to arouse 
interest. The subject matter is, frequently, not really assimilated. 

The school garden and physical training receive a fair degree of 
attention but household science and manual training have as yet 
hardly obtained a foothold. 

The only consolidated area in this inspectorate has its centre in 
the village of Paynton. While no suitable and commodious building 
has been erected here as yet and while the conditions in this respect 
are the worst possible, such good progress has been made in the school 
that a large majority of the ratepayers still favour the plan. The 
continuance of this district in its present state is still a matter of 
doubt as the taxes are extremely high, being equal to $60 a quarter 
section in many cases. To build a new school that will involve increased 
obligations might constitute a burden greater than the district can 
bear. There is no apparent dissatisfaction among the parents of the 
children with regard to hardships on the road. In fact, it is considered 
by them more satisfactory to have the van carry the children five miles 
or so than to be forced to convey them a mile or two themselves or 
send the little children off alone. The cost of the vans is, however, 
enormous and good dependable drivers are not always at hand. Aside 
from the great cost the advantage lies with the larger school area. _In 
fact, if large consolidated schools prove too expensive to maintain, 
the only remedy left seems the municipal High School. If our educa- 
tional policy is to be one of advancement the pupils in the schools 
must be better taken care of when they reach Grade VI. 

As part of the Turtleford inspectorate in 1918 was situated well 
to the north and many districts were remote from the railroad, I deemed 
it advisable to use a horse and buggy as a conveyance. In that particular 
part of the country I found it had some advantages especially since 
some of the districts were difficult of access. It also had its .disadvant- 
ages as I was compelled either to remain over night with some settler 
or pass the night in the school house. In outlying districts the appear- 
ance of the inspector was a matter for concern, as in many cases there 
was not sufficient accommodation in the houses, which consisted some- 
times of one and seldom of more than two rooms. In this year, 1919. 
a car has been used and I have found that it possesses many advantages 
over the horse and buggy. There was not the same difficulty experienced 


Annual Report, 1919 


299 


in getting to a second school in the afternoon and except in rare 
instances I was able to reach the railway for the night. I believe the 
car is much more satisfactory in every way. Any time lost through 
bad roads can be more than made up by rapid travel at other times. 

In covering the territory systematically, several matters must be 
taken into consideration : 

1. The schools on the railway must be finished before the roads 
to the rural schools are in good condition. 

2. Schools at a distance from the centre must be x taken as early 
as possible in order that they may be visited again in the early fall. 

3. Care must be exercised in selecting a particular part of the 
inspectorate at a particular time lest several schools in that area might 
not be in session at the time. (Note: — There is still considerable care- 
lessness on the part of teachers and secretaries in the matter of inform- 
ing the inspector as to the exact time when the school was opened. 
Inconvenience is also caused by indefiniteness with regard to the vaca- 
tion and changes therein without notice being sent to the inspector. 
Local picnics in the summer are generally unannounced and the teacher 
with a good part of the school is generally in attendance.) 

There should, however, be no great difficulty experienced in 
covering the territory except under the most abnormal conditions. 

I find on consulting the diary that all the schools on the railway 
were inspected before the end of April when the inspection of the 
rural schools was started. This continued until the severe weather 
when the village schools were again taken up. The work continued 
until the end of November. 

Outside of inspection work, considerable time was spent in the 
reading of essays, Normal School work, organisation along the line of 
school fairs and teachers’ conventions, correspondence relative to the 
placing of teachers in order to push this work forward and professional 
reading. With regard to professional reading, one does not get too 
much time for this important work. Helpful books are on every side 
and there is so much one does not know, that it seems good to spend 
considerable time in this way. 

There were seventy-four schools consisting of eighty-four 
departments in operation in this inspectorate during the year. Of 
these, eighty-three departments were visited once and sixty-five 
twice. Rosebriar S.D. No. 4103 was visited when the school 
was in course of construction. It opened in July and closed 
just before I arrived to inspect that particular area. This was the 
only school not inspected but a record of attendance was sent in by 
the secretary and included in the general report. According to agree- 
ment with Alberta, the school at Lloydminster is supposed to be 
inspected by Mr. Parker of Alberta in the fall and by myself in the 
spring. This was done but is not satisfactory as it does not give either 
an opporttmity to really grasp the situation in a convincing manner. 
Mr. Parker and myself, with the consent of the Department, will 
inspect twice a year, probably at the same time. Several schools that 
were opened for the first time in July were inspected once only. 

In passing from district to district, I have been very fortunate 
in meeting numbers of secretaries, trustees and ratepayers. This has 


300 


Department of Education 


been, done in several ways, visiting at the homes, meeting with them 
at the school, at fairs or in the villages. Some of the more remote 
districts have not yet received this attention but so much valuable 
information is obtained by intimate intercourse that it will be my 
policy to continue in a course so essential to a full knowledge of the 
situation. 

A great many of the schools which, heretofore, had been short 
term schools have manifested a desire to become, as nearly as possible, 
yearly schools. Under normal conditions I feel that this will material- 
ise in the case of a majority of the schools. A few districts in which 
there are small children living a considerable distance from the school 
house will, for the present, have a shorter term. The scarcity of 
teachers in the early part of the year and the unseasonable weather of 
the fall were responsible in some degree for a shorter school year. 

More than fifty per cent, of the schools had school gardens in 
spite of the discouraging drought of the two past summers. The results 
were not what they would have been under normal conditions but the 
idea of a garden is so firmly rooted that I expect a large increase in 
interest as soon as all the grounds are fenced and a few old-fashioned 
unenthusiastic teachers are replaced. 

Throughout this district the grain growers have established social 
centres. A few additional societies, either under the auspices of the 
boys’ and girls’ clubs or some other branch of the Rural Education 
Association undertake entertainments or social programmes of some 
nature. Maidstone, Paynton and Middleton have been centres for 
several social events in which teachers, children and sometimes parents 
take part. School fairs were held at Lloydminster, Marshall, Maid- 
stone and Senlac. That at Marshall was developed along the line of 
sports but new lines embracing more of the work of the school will 
be followed in the future. The Lloydminster fair was held under 
the auspices of the main agricultural society which, in my opinion, was 
detrimental to its best interests. The Maidstone fair was a startling 
success and but for bad weather conditions towards the end would have 
been all that could have been expected. The presence of the Minister 
of Education was no small factor in making it an event. Good success 
accompanied the Senlac fair also. In every case the ratepayers turned 
out in large numbers. Early in November a central executive for the 
inspectorate met at Lashburn to organise for a central fair at that point 
and to consider ways and means of encouraging fairs at Manitou Lake, 
Carruthers and Paynton or Bresaylor. At the same time arrangements 
were made for holding the teachers’ convention at Lloydminster in 
the fall of 1920. We hope to have the ground pretty well covered next 
year. The school fair has been a great factor in rousing interest in 
education generally. The Northwestern Trustees’ and Teachers’ 
Association convention met at North Battleford on November 13 and 
14. Many teachers and a few trustees were present. The convention 
was full of inspiration. Splendid addresses were given by Prof. Ira 
McKay, Dr. J. T. M. Anderson, Mr. J. S. Huff, Miss Jean Browne 
and others. The attendance of teachers was as good as could be expected 
considering the extent of territory (The Battlefords, Turtleford and 
Lloydminster inspectorates) and the difficulties of travel. In order 


Annual Report 1919 


301 


that a larger percentage of teachers may be reached, the executive of 
the Lloydminster inspectorate have decided to sever connection with 
the larger body and hold a convention at Lloydminster in the tall ot 

1920. . f 

In closing I might mention several matters that seem to me o 

outstanding importance and that would seem to claim a great deal of 

attention. . , 

1. The taxation of all lands whether in organised or unorganised 
territory whose value is affected by the proximity of any school or near 
which reside children who require education. 

2. The encouraging of salaries sufficiently large to induce young 
men and women of ability not only to enter but to remain m the teach- 
ing profession in order that there may be created a supply sufficient 
to make it possible .for trustees to choose those teachers who will more 
than compensate them for the increased remuneration. 

3. The encouraging of those schools which are able and willing 
to undertake the education of pupils above Grade VI by grants so that 
school boards will be able to build schools large enough to accommodate 
pupils from any part of the municipality who have reached that gia e 

or beyond. . 

4. The further encouraging of tree and shrub planting and ot the 
beautification of grounds by methods similar to those now in force. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

W. M. Veazey. 


Yorkton, January 1, 1920. 


Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration the 
following report of my work in the Yorkton inspectorate for the year 
1919. ' 

The inspectorate consisted of five rural municipalities In os. 214, 
243, 244, 245 and 275, including six village and three town districts, 
one of the latter being a R. C. Separate District, the total number 
of districts being 80, number of departments 114. Six departments 
were added during the year, making the total on December 31, districts 

80, departments 120. _ „ e rwi 

The boards in St, Henry’s R. C. Separate S.D. No. 5, Otthon 
SI) No. 3922, and New Tnsinger S.D. No. 4104-, were using rented 
buildings, having during the year no buildings of their own. St. 
Henrv’s had, I understand, sold their building, reserving the right to 
rent a portion of it, and the other two districts had never erected 
buildings owing to financial reasons. New Insinger has now a build- 
ing under construction and about ready for occupation _ while Otthon 
is holding back, pending negotiations with surrounding districts toward 
the formation of a “large district.” 


302 


Department op Education 


School Attendance : — In the 113 departments inspected during 
the year the number of pupils enrolled and present on the day of 
inspection were as follows: 


Grade 

Enrolled 

Present 

Percentage 

I 

1,496 

1 178 

78 7' 

II 

462 

358 

77. 5 

Ill 

612 

496 

81 

IV 

419 

342 

81 6 

V 

295 

228 

77. 3 

VI 

190 

159 

83. 7 

VII 

138 

116 

84. 1 

VIII 

73 

58 

79.5 

Junior 

31 

26 

83.9 

Middle 

13 

11 

84.6 

Total 

3,729 

2,972 

79.7 


The enforcement orf the School Attendance Act has unquestionably 
improved the attendance of pupils. Your inspector is endeavouring 
to secure further improvements through inducing rural hoards to take 
a six or seven weeks’ summer holiday, so timed as to cover the harvest. 
Steps are being taken to acquaint the parents particularly in the non- 
English districts, with the provisions and purpose of the Attendance 
Act. 

School administration has been in the hands of local boards with 
few exceptions. Two districts were being administered by an official 
trustee on January 1, 1919, and it became necessary to change two 
others during the year. In at least two districts the matter of remov- 
ing the local board was under consideration at the close of the year. 
The official trustee is an efficient means of demonstrating to a rebellious 
or careless hoard the fact that The School Act is to be carried out. 
Your inspector has found, however, that generally speaking, a firm 
stand on his part has resulted in securing from the school board that 
action which he considered to be in the best interest of the pupils in 
the district. I believe the idea of the yearly school i3 growing. There 
are still a number of districts where objections are urged — some of 
them perhaps valid — against maintaining school through January and 
February. The great difficulty consists in buildings inadequately 
heated. This is being overcome by a campaign for supplying proper 
heating and ventilating systems in all the schools. 

A number of districts have outgrown their buildings and are either 
remodelling, enlarging or rebuilding. Hew buildings completed during 
the year were Rosemount S.D. Ho. 181, in June; Theodore S.D. Ho. 
253, in Hovember and Hew Insinger S.D. Ho. 4164, in December. The 
building in Theodore is a four-roomed brick structure, well equipped, 
and a credit to the village. The village of Springside S.D. Ho. 1148 
has under construction a fine four-roomed brick building, which will 
be ready for occupancy in May, 1920. Other new buildings provided 
for are in Anemone S.D. Ho. 541, Creekside S.D. Ho. 997, Melville 
View S.D. Ho. 2421, and Freeman S.D. Ho. 634. In seven districts 


Annual Report, 1919 


303 


plans are well under way for the erection of new buildings, and in 
eight districts arrangements are virtually completed for remodelling 
or enlarging. 

The boards have generally responded to requests for improved 
equipment, but have not been so ready to improve the school grounds. 
There are still a number of grounds of less than two acres extent. . 

The boards generally have tried to carry out the regulations 
regarding lighting, heating, sanitation and water supply. In some 
cases the location of the school has made the supply of drinking water 
impossible, except through bringing it from a distance. In a few 
schools the old single cup and water pail are still in use, but these are 
being replaced by sanitary drinking fountains or by individual cups. 

The teachers are classified as follows: First Class 2,6, Second 

Class 74, Third Class 43, Provisional Certificates 7, making a total of 
3 50. The salaries ranged as follows : 

Rural, per annum $840 to $1,340 

Village, per annum $840 to $1,500 

Town, per annum $750 to $1,900 

The supply was such that in very few cases were the schools pre- 
vented from opening at the wish of the board. Much praise is due 
these teachers for the splendid way in which they responded to the 
demands upon their time and energy in superintending school gardens, 
organising sports, school fairs and encouraging the life of the com- 
munity through concerts, literary societies and other forms of enter- 
tainment. 

The household science supervisor, Miss Hiltz, visited over sixty 
departments and secured efficient co-operation in conducting sewing 
classes and hot lunches. The principal and staff of Freeman S.D. No. 
634 carried out a splendid system of organised play, which was dupli- 
cated by many other districts. The manual training exhibits at the 
annual school fair held in Yorkton showed that at least a number of 
schools were encouraging this branch, although under some handicap, 
while the splendid samples of vegetables, and the keenly contested com- 
petition in physical drill showed that school gardens and the Strath- 
cona drill were receiving due attention. Football matches, baseball 
matches and races of various sorts showed that the general physical 
development of the pupils was receiving adequate attention. 

The school nurse, Miss Russell, did splendid work in her exami- 
nation of sixty-nine departments, and through her tact secured the co- 
operation of the parents, so that at the date of writing, the following 
resTilts were reported: 


No. of pupils eyes treated 31 

No. of pupils adenoids removed 27 

No. of pupils tonsils removed 27 

No. of pupils who had dental treatment 167 

No. of pupils defective hearing improved 2 

No. of pupils vaccinated 187 


These treatments are increasing daily, and cannot but result in 
■ntold benefit to the pupils. 

There are no large districts in the inspectorate. 


304 


Department of Education 


In carrying on the inspectoral duties your inspector travelled 
5,800 miles by automobile, 1,320 miles by railway and about 75 miles 
on foot. In this inspectorate an automobile furnishes the most advan- 
tageous means of travel, for the roads are generally good. The rail- 
ways were used when roads were impassable for car, in the spring or 
late fall. The general plan of covering the territory by municipalities 
was interfered with owing to frequent calls to districts lying in widely 
separated parts of the inspectorate. Considerable time was lost through 
bad weather and consequent impassable roads. Teaching Third Class 
Normal took sixty days, visits to the Department of Education five 
days, investigations eleven days, correspondence and official work 
forty days, marking papers four days, holidays, including trip to 
Eastern Canada thirty-four days, conventions ten days, bad roads and 
repairs five days, sports, school fairs and organisation nineteen days, 
ratepayers’ and board meeting five days, visiting schools, not inspecting, 
nineteen days. 


The number of departments inspected once 70 

The number of departments inspected twice 43 

The number of departments not inspected 7 

Total 120 


The failure to inspect these seven departments was due to an early 
winter, and the roads being blocked by snow. Six of these were inspect- 
ed by Inspector Hjalmarson of Wynyard, and one by Inspector Steven- 
son of Balcarres, so that all departments were inspected during the year- 
Your inspector has endeavoured to keep in touch, with trustees, rate- 
payers and teachers, through correspondence, telephone messages, visits 
where possible while in the district, attending picnics, sports, meetings 
and by encouraging their calling at his office in Yorkton on Saturdays 
and other holidays. He has kept before them the advantages of a yearly 
school, the practical value of a school garden and the benefits to be 
derived from frequently meeting together in school entertainments, 
sports, picnics, etc. 

The work of an inspector means a great deal more than merely 
inspecting the work in the schools. To be effective he must secure 
the confidence and co-operation of the school boards and parents 
throughout his inspectorate. This can be best done by getting 
acquainted with the people at large and showing them that he has 
their interests truly at heart. Where the inspectorate is too large the 
inspector’s work cannot be sufficiently intensive to secure the best 
results. Erequent visits of a few minutes’ duration at the schools, and 
personal contact with the parents requires time. Just as the teacher 
must know each pupil as to temperament, home conditions, etc., in 
order to best develop the latent powers of the child, so, the inspector, 
to do his most effective work, must know the temperament and environ- 
ment of his school boards, and the parents. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


B. W. Wallace. 


Annual Report, 1919 


305 


Kebrobert, January 1, 1920. 

Hon. W. M. Martin, K.C., 

Minister of Education. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report on the 
inspection of schools in the rural municipalities Hos. 382, 381, 352, 
351, 350, 322, 321 and 320. 

On January 1 , 1919, there were 91 school districts containing 101 
departments. The increase for the year was two school districts and 
one department. There are six districts in whidh no school is built. 
They are as follows: Ackerman S.D. Ho. 4229 — a newly organised 
district; Somme S.D. Ho. 4127, pupils attend school in Superb S.D. Ho. 
2505; Greenvale S.D. Ho. 4180, pupils attend school in Luseland. S.D. 
Ho. 240; Luseview S.D. Ho. 3338, pupils attend school in Luseland 
S.D. Ho. 240; West Luseland S.D. Ho. 32.96, pupils attend school in 
Luseland S.D. Ho. 240; Hartsburg S.D. Ho. 2670, pupils attend school 
in Kerrobert S.D. Ho. 2795. 

There has been a marked improvement in the attendance of pupils 
sinee the enactment of The School Attendance Act. 

The trustees of a number of districts which had good wells on 
i he school grounds, finding that there was so little water used that it 
was unfit to drink, overcame this difficulty by having a small gasoline 
engine installed. This not only supplied good drinking water but 
gave an ample supply for the school garden. 

In scarcely any of the schools are there any decorations in the 
form of good pictures. 

In not more than one school in eight did I find a teacher who 
had been in the school for more than one year. This I felt was in 
many ways the biggest drawback to the progress of the pupils. Closely 
allied with the question of the continual changing of teachers is that 
of the difficulty of obtaining a good permanent hoarding place. This 
condition could be improved by erecting dwellings for teachers, say 
one house for four districts. This would also tend to counteract the 
monotony of the lives of many of the teachers. 

In spite of the many difficulties in the way, the best solution of 
our rural school problem seems to be consolidated schools, with certain 
changes in management, as, for example, keeping the junior rooms 
open throughout the summer while the senior rooms would be open 
during the regular school year. This would allow the little tots to miss 
the severity of the winter and leave the older pupils free to render the 
much needed help on the farm in the summer time while in the leisure 
of the winter they would be able to attend school. 

The number of schools inspected during the year was seventy-eight 
consisting of eig'hty-eight departments. These were each inspected once. 

There were five schools not inspected as when visited four of them 
were closed for holidays and one was closed on account of typhoid 
fever. 

T have the honour to be. Sir. 

Your obedient servant, 


R. Weir. 





THE LIBRARY OF THE • 
MAR 24 1932 

■ J- ; UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 

, r 

. .j • •' ■ — 

. - *‘ v - 
\ « -• • 


4 


i 










3 0112 1 05495243